What Is The Value Of Education In Our Life?

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What Is The Value Of Education In Our Life
1. Provides Stability – Education provides stability in life, and it’s something that no one can ever take away from you. By being well-educated and holding a college degree, you increase your chances for better career opportunities and open up new doors for yourself.
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Why education is very important in our life?

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes education as a legal right of every child. Yet education remains a privilege to many. UNESCO data shows that 258 million children and youth were out of school for the school year ending in 2018.

  • Of that total, more than 129 million were girls and 58 million were of primary school age.
  • Among those fortunate to have access to education, on the other hand, more than 617 million children and adolescents do not have minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics.1.
  • What is education? Education is the process where an individual acquires or imparts basic knowledge to another.

It is also where a person:

develops skills essential to daily living, learns social norms, develops judgment and reasoning, and learns how to discern right from wrong.

The ultimate goal of education is to help an individual navigate life and contribute to society once they become older. There are various types of education but typically, traditional schooling dictates the way one’s education success is measured. People who attended school and attained a higher level of education are considered more employable and likely to earn more.

In developing, low-income countries, for example, there is a projected 10 per cent increase in a person’s future income for every additional year of education. Education helps eradicate poverty and hunger, giving people the chance at better lives. This is one of the biggest reasons why parents strive to make their kids attend school as long as possible.

It is also why nations work toward promoting easier access to education for both children and adults. Household food insecurity is a common problem in Somalia and is identified as a reason for student absenteeism. Many families are pastoralists, moving around where the food source is, especially during periods of drought. It becomes difficult for their children to attend school regularly.

Education helps a person hone their communication skills by learning how to read, write, speak and listen. Education develops critical thinking, This is vital in teaching a person how to use logic when making decisions and interacting with people (e.g., boosting creativity, enhancing time management). Education helps an individual meet basic job qualifications and makes them more likely to secure better jobs. Education promotes gender equality and helps empower girls and women. A World Bank report found that an extra year of schooling for girls reduces teen pregnancy rates by six per cent and gave women more control over how many children they have. Education reduces child mortality. According to UNESCO, a child born to a mother who can read is 50 per cent more likely to survive past the age of five.

A student from a primary school in Rwanda tries using a tablet computer in class. Many World Vision programs introduce technology into classrooms and youth training centres. Photo: Charity Beza Uwase 3. What are the different types of education? Education is typically divided into three categories: formal education, informal education, and non-formal education.

  • Formal education Formal education is the type that is typically conducted in a classroom setting in an academic institution.
  • This is where students are taught basic skills such as reading and writing, as well as more advanced academic lessons.
  • Also known as ‘formal learning’, it usually begins in elementary school and culminates in post-secondary education.

It is provided by qualified teachers or professors and follows a curriculum. Informal education Informal education, on the other hand, is the type that is done outside the premises of an academic institution. Often, this is when a person learns skills or acquires knowledge from home, when visiting libraries, or browsing educational websites through a device.

Learning from the elders in one’s community can also be an important form of informal education. Such education is often not planned or deliberate, nor does it follow a regimented timetable or a specific curriculum. It is spontaneous and may also be described as a natural form of education. Non-formal education Non-formal education has qualities similar to both formal and informal education.

It follows a timetable and is systemically implemented but not necessarily conducted within a school system. It is flexible in terms of time and curriculum and normally does not have an age limit. The most common examples of non-formal education include community-based courses, vocational training or short programs that are not facilitated by professional instructors. A female student in Lebanon learns carpentry, a skill often associated with men. Education of all kinds empower girls and women in their communities. Photo: Maria Bou Chaaya 4. What are the benefits of education? If all students in low-income countries acquired basic reading skills before leaving school, entire societies could change dramatically.

According to UNESCO, 171 million people could be lifted out of poverty. But education isn’t just about living above the poverty line. It’s about quality of life, choices at work, and many other benefits, as listed below. Developing problem-solving skills The schooling system teaches a person how to make their own decisions by developing critical and logical thinking skills.

This prepares children for adulthood when both big and small decisions become a constant part of their daily lives. For example: coming up with solutions to challenges in the community or planning how to provide for a family. Self-reliance and empowerment Knowing how to read, write and do arithmetic is empowering.

When a person can read, they can access endless learning and information. When they can calculate expenses and make a budget, they can start a small business. Paired with the ability to form opinions, literacy makes a person become more self-reliant, and gives them confidence. Promoting equality among individuals In an ideal world, there is no room for discrimination due to race, gender, religion, social class, or level of literacy.

This is where the value of education comes to play. Through education, one can develop strong, well-considered opinions – and learn to respect the views of others. Many experts agree that education is a significant contributor to peace in societies. Stability and financial security A person’s income is often linked to his or her educational attainment.

  1. Around the world, there are more employment opportunities for those who complete high school, earn a degree, diploma or certificate, or go on to post-graduate studies.
  2. These can also mean higher salaries.
  3. Economic growth (as a nation) An educated population is important in building a nation’s economy.

According to studies, countries with the highest literacy rates are more likely to make progress in human and economic development. National economic growth begins with individual economic growth, which is often linked back to education. In Canada, 70 per cent of jobs have a college-level reading skill requirement. Elementary students from Papua New Guinea now have toy kits for recreation time at school. Play helps children solve problems, develop creativity and work as a team. Photo: Nelson Kairi Kurukuru 5. What does World Vision do to make education more accessible for girls and boys? One of World Vision’s objectives is to make education accessible for girls and boys around the world.

  1. We see it as an effective tool to promote sustainable growth for children, their families and the communities that we support.
  2. In 2020, donors sponsored 377,888 children across 44 countries through World Vision Canada alone,
  3. Many of these children are now benefitting from formal education.
  4. At least 12,270 children attend after-school literacy activities, while 51,585 adults were educated on child protection.

World Vision has several programs which make education of children and youth a priority. These include Child Sponsorship, the Raw Hope initiative and the World Vision Gift Catalogue, Through these projects, anyone interested in helping fund the education of vulnerable children can participate. Rosemiah, a young teacher in the Philippines, helps children improve their reading skills through a program called the Culture of Reading. Photo: Ramon Lucas Jimenez 6. How can I contribute toward making education accessible? Children in Canada have access to free education all the way through high school – but it’s not true everywhere.

Below are some of the ways you can help make education accessible for girls and boys around the world. Child Sponsorship World Vision is known for our Child Sponsorship program. It is an initiative where we pool together funds from donors, partners and the Canadian government to provide access to necessities such as nutritious food, clean water, health care and education among others.

The program benefits children across 44 countries, emphasizing access to education. Raw Hope Raw Hope is another program where we strive to make learning possible, even in the world’s most dangerous places. We do more than provide access to life-saving essentials.

  • Raw Hope also includes the creation of safe spaces where girls and boys can play and continue their learning, even when life is in chaos.
  • Gift Catalogue World Vision’s online Gift Catalogue invites donors to choose from many kinds of life-changing gifts–including several focusing on education.
  • You can help by: donating textbooks for children, distributing school essentials, donating tech for a community, and helping send girls to school,

Volunteer While monetary donations are a great way to help, it is not the only option. You can also try volunteering your time by joining groups in your city or neighbourhood. Look for associations accepting volunteer teachers and share your knowledge with children of all ages. A boy in Rwanda solves a math equation. Arithmetic can help children learn to save money, create budgets, secure better jobs when they are older and even start small businesses. Photo: Charity Beza Uwase 7. Quick facts about education in Canada and the world Different countries and regions have different approaches to education, for children and adults.

Education in Canada is generally overseen and funded by governments (provincial, territorial and federal). Kindergarten in Canada is mandatory in most provinces and optional in a few. Starting in Grade 1, education is mandatory until a child is at least 16. The only exceptions are when families adhere to certain requirements for home schooling. Canada offers a Kindergarten to Grade 12 educational system, along with some other countries, such as the United States, Australia, Germany, Japan, Singapore and the Philippines. Canada once had a highly controversial residential school system. More than 150,000 First Nations, Métis and Inuit children were forced to attend church-run, government-funded schools between the 1870s and 1997. In 2016, some 750 million adults in the world still lacked basic reading and writing skills. Two-thirds of them were women.

Central Asia, Europe and North America have the highest literacy rates for youth aged 15-24 at nearly 100 per cent. The sub-Saharan region of Africa has the lowest, at 75 per cent. The criteria for assessing literacy vary between countries.
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What is education and why it is important?

What Is The Value Of Education In Our Life Education is a process of expediting learning, acquiring knowledge, values, and virtue. It contributes to the development of better people around the globe. It is more of an enduring method in which people gain information, skills, and ethics. There is a narrow line that runs between learning and education.

We learn from everything we come across, from birth to death. On the contrary, we get educated at a certain point in our life with imparted knowledge. Our learning evolves with personal experience, which bears no rules, whereas schools or universities impart education based on particular standards. The standards are clear and measurable goals drew on skills and knowledge that children must obtain.

These skills prepare the children for the future, work, and life.
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What is education in life?

What is Education for Life? What is Education for Life? by J. Donald Walters (author of the book ) with videos by cofounder Nitai Deranja sharing examples of real-life applications What do I mean when I say “Education for Life?” I can present the problem and the solution.

The problem is that people in traditional forms of education usually approach it from the standpoint of just preparing a person for a job. But one’s job isn’t the definition of one’s life—it’s only that which enables you to have enough money to meet your needs. Our lives encompass a much broader arena than one’s capacity to earn money.

Any educational system that teaches only job skills or offers only intellectual information is neglecting the essential needs of human beings. The solution is a form of education that trains us in that which is most relevant to us—how to find lasting happiness in life.

  • We deeply need proper training in “how-to-live” skills such as how to find the right mate, how to raise our children, how to be a good employee, how to get along with our neighbors, and how to concentrate our minds so that we can draw success into all our endeavors.
  • There are many such skills that are essential to prepare a child for adulthood, and in traditional education many of them are completely ignored.

Education for Life is a system that prepares the child to face the challenges of living as a human being, and helps him to achieve balance and harmony in all he does. What we’re really talking about is preparing everyone, not just children, for true maturity.

This is a much bigger concept than just coming of age. As defined it in the book, Education for Life, maturity is the ability to relate appropriately to other realities than one’s own. You’ll find that even people of advanced years are often childish and immature with regard to this definition, yet this ability to relate to others’ realities is what education should accomplish.

You can see this ability to relate to other’s realities reflected in people’s conversation. Many times someone will try to discuss a topic from different points of view, but all they’re really doing is hammering on their own position. When a person has achieved the kind of maturity we’re talking about, he is able to listen to others, to absorb when they’re saying, and to relate it to what he already understands in order to come up with new insights.

  1. In this way, a discussion can build new understandings for everyone involved.
  2. The Education for Life system tries to point the way to maturity.
  3. It doesn’t presume to give maturity, but creates a mind-set that will endure for the whole of life.
  4. It provides a direction of growth that people can take all the way into old age and still keep growing so that they find things to marvel at in the world around them.

We find that basically we have four tools that enable us to relate to life. First, we have to recognize that since we live in physical bodies, we can see our bodies as tools for helping us to grow. If we don’t properly take care of our bodies, we may find them becoming our foes instead of our friends.

  • Second, we find that we respond to the world with our emotions.
  • If our emotions are always agitated because of intense likes and dislikes, we will respond emotionally to what others say and not really hear them.
  • We may hear our own idea of what they are saying, but if we have an emotional prejudice, we won’t hear them objectively.

Third, if we don’t know how to use our will power to overcome faults in ourselves, or to set goals and accomplish them, then we will never know fulfillment in life. Finally, if we don’t develop our intellect, then we cannot understand things clearly, and our life’s experiences will come through our minds in a dull way.

So we have these four basic tools that enable us to grow toward ever-greater maturity: the body, the emotions or feelings, the will power, and the intellect. I’ve observed that the first six years of a child’s life tend to be the period when they have to learn how to get their bodies under control. You’ll see a child of four running down an aisle and knocking over a chair, or falling over something because he didn’t look down.

It takes a lot of energy to somehow learn how to get this body working well for us. During this period from one to six years, it’s important to teach children how to use their bodies to grow in other ways of understanding. For example, drama and dance movements, especially in the first six years, can be extremely important because children learn with their bodies at this stage.

  1. If through drama they can act out positive attitudes, or through dance they can be taught movements that help them express expansiveness, then they’re learning in a way that’s appropriate to that level of development.
  2. They can be shown those kinds of physical gestures that come with selfishness, for example and those that come with being generous and kind.

This can be done in an amusing way so that it’s a game, and they can learn by imitation. Often we can observe that if a person is unhappy, he’ll tend to look down, to slump forward, or to lean on a table. But conversely, our physical bearing can also influence our thoughts and feelings.

If you’re feeling happy but slump forward with your head in your hands, you’re more likely to become open to the thoughts and feelings of depression. If on the other hand, you can sit up straight and look up, you find that this posture helps your emotions and will power. It’s hard to feel that you have a strong will if you sit slumped over.

But if you sit straight with your chest up, it’s much easier to affirm that you’re strong and able to combat this difficulty or overcome that obstacle. As the child matures and the intellect is brought into play, it’s very important to understand the effect of physical posture on our mental functions.

  • The seat of the intellect is located at the point between the eyebrows, or the frontal lobe of the brain.
  • Physiologists say that anatomically this is the most advanced part of the brain and it’s from here that we reason.
  • If we can learn to bring our energy upward to this part of the brain, we find that we can think more clearly.

If, however, we allow our energy to sink downward, it’s much more difficult to think deeply. The next tool of maturity is the feelings, and these come into play during the next six-year period from six to twelve. At this time, it’s easiest to instruct children through their feelings, and to inspire them through stories of heroism and courage.

It’s essential to give them fitting role models to follow—to talk about people throughout history who have done inspiring, great and beautiful deeds. There are so many such stories, but in our day and age it seems to be a practice to show that these heroes weren’t all that great after all. It seems to be the cynical philosophy of our time to bring people down to the lowest common denominator.

I think that there are great things that man is capable of accomplishing, and we should explore that potential during these “feeling years.” Then we have years from twelve to eighteen—the terrible teens! This is the time when children want to express their own individuality.

In theory, at least, it could be a beautiful time, but in our culture in America, it’s a period of rejecting the family, tradition, and authority on most levels. Yet it is also has a positive side—affirming strength of will and independence. If we can then encourage the development of will in wholesome ways through offering challenges and encouraging service to others, we can help those children develop self-control and discipline.

This will help them from falling into the bad habits that weaken their will that many acquire during their teens. If you affirm your ego and your own desires with the attitude of “what I want is all that’s important,” you become contractive and in the long run weaken your will.
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Why education is important in our life essay?

Education certainly determines the quality of an individual’s life. Education improves one’s knowledge, skills and develops the personality and attitude. Most noteworthy, Education affects the chances of employment for people. A highly educated individual is probably very likely to get a good job.
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How can education improve your life?

Health Behaviors – Knowledge and skills: In addition to being prepared for better jobs, people with more education are more likely to learn about healthy behaviors. Educated patients may be more able to understand their health needs, follow instructions, advocate for themselves and their families, and communicate effectively with health providers.21 People with more education are more likely to learn about health and health risks, improving their literacy and comprehension of what can be complex issues critical to their wellbeing.

  • People who are more educated are more receptive to health education campaigns.
  • Education can also lead to more accurate health beliefs and knowledge, and thus to better lifestyle choices, but also to better skills and greater self-advocacy.
  • Education improves skills such as literacy, develops effective habits, and may improve cognitive ability.

The skills acquired through education can affect health indirectly (through better jobs and earnings) or directly (through ability to follow health care regimens and manage diseases), and they can affect the ability of patients to navigate the health system, such as knowing how to get reimbursed by a health plan.

  1. Thus, more highly educated individuals may be more able to understand health care issues and follow treatment guidelines.21–23 The quality of doctor-patient communication is also poorer for patients of low socioeconomic status.
  2. A review of the effects of health literacy on health found that people with lower health literacy are more likely to use emergency services and be hospitalized and are less likely to use preventive services such as mammography or take medications and interpret labels correctly.

Among the elderly, poor health literacy has been linked to poorer health status and higher death rates.24
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Is education the key to life?

1. It helps you gain personal control of your life – You might not have been born into the life you want to live forever. And that’s where education can help. By getting an education, you give yourself the chance to change your life for the better. You might graduate and become a manager instead of an entry-level employee.

You might become a CEO or shareholder and take home profits at the end of the month instead of just a salary. Over time, your whole world can open up and new, exciting personal and career opportunities can develop. University of the People offers lots of options to get educated at a university level,

The Importance Of Education – What’s The Real Purpose Of Education?

And as UoPeople is tuition-free, coming from a family that can’t sponsor your studies is not a barrier to getting started.
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What are 5 values of education?

Values are defined in literature as everything from eternal ideas to behavioral actions. As used here values refer to criteria for determining levels of goodness, worth or beauty. Values are affectively-laden thoughts about objects, ideas, behavior, etc.

  1. That guide behavior, but do not necessarily require it (Rokeach, 1973).
  2. The act of valuing is considered an act of making value judgments, an expression of feeling, or the acquisition of and adherence to a set of principles.
  3. We are covering values as part of the affective system.
  4. However, once they are developed they provide an important filter for selecting input and connecting thoughts and feelings to action and thus could also be included in a discussion of the regulatory system.
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Some of the values designated by the SCANS report (Whetzel, 1992) as important for workers in the information age are responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, integrity, and honesty. Huitt (1997) suggests an additional set of important values that are either implied in the SCANS report or are suggested by the writings of futurists or behavioral scientists as important for life success: autonomy, benevolence, compassion, courage, courtesy, honesty, integrity, responsibility, trustworthiness, and truthfulness.

  1. Other lists of core values have been developed.
  2. For example, a group of educators, character education experts, and leaders of youth organizations meeting under the sponsorship of The Josephson Institute of Ethics developed the following list: respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, caring, justice and fairness, and civic virtue and citizenship ( The Character Education Partnership, Inc,, 1996).

The Council for Global Education (1997) asserts the following set of values are either stated or implied in the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights: compassion, courtesy, critical inquiry, due process, equality of opportunity, freedom of thought and action, human worth and dignity, integrity, justice, knowledge, loyalty, objectivity, order, patriotism, rational consent, reasoned argument, respect for other’s rights, responsibility, responsible citizenship, rule of law, tolerance, and truth.

Despite the debate over exactly what are the core values that ought to be taught in schools, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1996) suggests it is possible for communities to reach consensus on a set of values that would be appropriate for inclusion in the school curriculum.

Once a community has done so, the next issue is how should one go about the process of teaching values. As a beginning effort in this direction, I have developed a ” Survey of Desired Values, Virtues, and Attributes “. A preliminary study shows considerable overlap in beliefs among preservice and practicing educators ( Huitt, 2003 ).

  • Values Education Values education is an explicit attempt to teach about values and/or valuing.
  • Superka, Ahrens, & Hedstrom (1976) state there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification, and action learning,
  • This text was used as the major source for the organization of the following presentation.

Inculcation Most educators viewing values education from the perspective of inculcation see values as socially or culturally accepted standards or rules of behavior. Valuing is therefore considered a process of the student identifying with and accepting the standards or norms of the important individuals and institutions within his society.

The student “incorporates” these values into his or her own value system. These educators take a view of human nature in which the individual is treated, during the inculcation process, as a reactor rather than as an initiator. Extreme advocates such as Talcott Parsons (1951) believe that the needs and goals of society should transcend and even define the needs and goals of the individuals.

However, advocates who consider an individual to be a free, self-fulfilling participant in society tend to inculcate values as well, especially values such as freedom to learn, human dignity, justice, and self-exploration. Both the social- and individualistic-oriented advocates would argue the notion that certain values are universal and absolute.

The source of these values is open to debate. On the one hand some advocates argue they derive from the natural order of the universe; others believe that values originate in an omnipotent Creator. In addition to Parsons (1951), the theoretical work of Sears and his colleagues (1957, 1976) and Whiting (1961) provide support for this position.

More contemporary researchers include Wynne and Ryan (1989, 1992). The materials developed by the Georgia Department of Education (1997), the work of William Bennett (e.g., 1993) and The Character Education Institute (CEI) also promote the inculcation viewpoint.

  1. Moral Development Educators adopting a moral development perspective believe that moral thinking develops in stages through a specific sequence.
  2. This approach is based primarily on the work of Lawrence Kohlberg (1969, 1984) as presented in his 6 stages and 25 “basic moral concepts.” This approach focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity; other types of values (social, personal, and aesthetic) are usually not considered.

It is assumed that students invariantly progress developmentally in their thinking about moral issues. They can comprehend one stage above their current primary stage and exposure to the next higher level is essential for enhancing moral development. Educators attempt to stimulate students to develop more complex moral reasoning patterns through the sequential stages. Kohlberg’s view of human nature is similar to that presented in the ideas of other developmental psychologists such as Piaget (1932, 1962), Erikson (1950), and Loevinger et al. (1970). This perspective views the person as an active initiator and a reactor within the context of his or her environment; the individual cannot fully change the environment, but neither can the environment fully mold the individual.

  • A person’s actions are the result of his or her feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and experiences.
  • Although the environment can determine the content of one’s experiences, it cannot determine its form.
  • Genetic structures already inside the person are primarily responsible for the way in which a person internalizes the content, and organizes and transforms it into personally meaningful data.

The moral development technique most often used is to present a hypothetical or factual value dilemma story which is then discussed in small groups. Students are presented with alternative viewpoints within these discussions which is in hypothesized to lead to higher, more developed moral thinking.

  1. The story must present “a real conflict for the central character”, include “a number of moral issues for consideration”, and “generate differences of opinion among students about the appropriate response to the situation.”
  2. A leader who can help to focus the discussion on moral reasoning.
  3. A classroom climate that encourages students to express their moral reasoning freely (Gailbraith & Jones, 1975, p.18).

There is an assumption that values are based on cognitive moral beliefs or concepts. This view would agree with the inculcation assumption that there are universal moral principles, but would contend that values are considered relative to a particular environment or situation and are applied according to the cognitive development of the individual.

Gilligan (1977, 1982) critiqued Kohlberg’s work based on his exclusive use of males in his original theoretical work. Based on her study of girls and women, she proposed that females make moral decisions based on the development of the principle of care rather than on justice as Kohlberg had proposed.

Whereas Kohlberg identified autonomous decision making related to abstract principles as the highest form of moral thinking, Gilligan proposed that girls and women are more likely to view relationships as central with a win-win approach to resolving moral conflicts as the highest stage. In addition to the researchers cited above, Sullivan and his colleagues (1953, 1957) also provide support for this view include. Larry Nucci (1989), Director of the Office for Studies in Moral Development and Character Formation at the University of Illinois at Chicago has developed The Moral Development and Education Homepage to promote this approach.

Analysis The analysis approach to values education was developed mainly by social science educators. The approach emphasizes rational thinking and reasoning. The purpose of the analysis approach is to help students use logical thinking and the procedures of scientific investigation in dealing with values issues.

Students are urged to provide verifiable facts about the correctness or value of the topics or issues under investigation. A major assumption is that valuing is the cognitive process of determining and justifying facts and beliefs derived from those facts.

  1. This approach concentrates primarily on social values rather than on the personal moral dilemmas presented in the moral development approach.
  2. The rationalist (based on reasoning) and empiricist (based on experience) views of human nature seem to provide the philosophical basis for this approach.
  3. Its advocates state that the process of valuing can and should be conducted under the ‘total authority of facts and reason’ (Scriven, 1966, p.232) and ‘guided not by the dictates of the heart and conscience, but by the rules and procedures of logic’ (Bond, 1970, p.81).

The teaching methods used by this approach generally center around individual and group study of social value problems and issues, library and field research, and rational class discussions. These are techniques widely used in social studies instruction.

  1. stating the issues;
  2. questioning and substantiating in the relevance of statements;
  3. applying analogous cases to qualify and refine value positions;
  4. pointing out logical and empirical inconsistencies in arguments;
  5. weighing counter arguments; and
  6. seeking and testing evidence.

A representative instructional model is presented by Metcalf (1971, pp.29-55):

  1. identify and clarify the value question;
  2. assemble purported facts;
  3. assess the truth of purported facts;
  4. clarify the relevance of facts;
  5. arrive at a tentative value decision; and
  6. test the value principle implied in the decision.

Additional support for this approach is provided by Ellis (1962), Kelly (1955), and Pepper (1947). The thinking techniques demonstrated by MindTools is an excellent example of strategies used in this approach. Values Clarification The values clarification approach arose primarily from humanistic psychology and the humanistic education movement as it attempted to implement the ideas and theories of Gordon Allport (1955), Abraham Maslow (1970), Carl Rogers (1969), and others.

The central focus is on helping students use both rational thinking and emotional awareness to examine personal behavior patterns and to clarify and actualize their values. It is believed that valuing is a process of self-actualization, involving the subprocesses of choosing freely from among alternatives, reflecting carefully on the consequences of those alternatives, and prizing, affirming, and acting upon one’s choices.

Values clarification is based predominately on the work of Raths, Harmin & Simon (1978), Simon & Kirschenbaum (1973), and Simon, Howe & Kirschenbaum (1972). Whereas the inculcation approach relies generally on outside standards and the moral development and analysis approaches rely on logical and empirical processes, the values clarification approach relies on an internal cognitive and affective decision making process to decide which values are positive and which are negative.

It is therefore an individualistic rather than a social process of values education. From this perspective, the individual, if he or she is allowed the opportunity of being free to be his or her true self, makes choices and decisions affected by the internal processes of willing, feeling, thinking, and intending.

It is assumed that through self-awareness, the person enters situations already pointed or set in certain directions. As the individual develops, the making of choices will more often be based on conscious, self-determined thought and feeling. It is advocated that the making of choices, as a free being, which can be confirmed or denied in experience, is a preliminary step in the creation of values (Moustakas, 1966).

  • Within the clarification framework a person is seen as an initiator of interaction with society and environment.
  • The educator should assist the individual to develop his or her internal processes, thereby allowing them, rather than external factors, to be the prime determinants of human behavior; the individual should be free to change the environment to meet his or her needs.

Methods used in the values clarification approach include large- and small-group discussion; individual and group work; hypothetical, contrived, and real dilemmas; rank orders and forced choices; sensitivity and listening techniques; songs and artwork; games and simulations; and personal journals and interviews; self-analysis worksheet.

A vital component is a leader who does not attempt to influence the selection of values. Like the moral development approach, values clarification assumes that the valuing process is internal and relative, but unlike the inculcation and developmental approaches it does not posit any universal set of appropriate values.

A sevenfold process describing the guidelines of the values clarification approach was formulated by Simon et al. (1972);

  1. choosing from alternatives;
  2. choosing freely;
  3. prizing one’s choice;
  4. affirming one’s choice;
  5. acting upon one’s choice; and
  6. acting repeatedly, over time.

Additional theorists providing support for the values clarification approach include Asch (1952) and G. Murphy (1958). Action Learning The action learning approach is derived from a perspective that valuing includes a process of implementation as well as development.

That is, it is important to move beyond thinking and feeling to acting. The approach is related to the efforts of some social studies educators to emphasize community-based rather than classroom-based learning experiences. In some ways it is the least developed of the five approaches. However, a variety of recent programs have demonstrated the effectiveness of the techniques advocated by this approach (e.g., Cottom, 1996; Gauld, 1993; Solomon et al., 1992).

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Advocates of the action learning approach stress the need to provide specific opportunities for learners to act on their values. They see valuing primarily as a process of self-actualization in which individuals consider alternatives; choose freely from among those alternatives; and prize, affirm, and act on their choices.

They place more emphasis on action-taking inside and outside the classroom than is reflected in the moral development, analysis, and values clarification processes. Values are seen to have their source neither in society nor in the individual but in the interaction between the person and the society; the individual cannot be described outside of his or her context.

The process of self-actualization, so important to the founders of the values clarification approach, is viewed as being tempered by social factors and group pressures. In this way it is more related to Maslow’s (1971) level of transcendence which he discussed towards the end of his career.

  • Input Phase -a problem is perceived and an attempt is made to understand the situation or problem 1. Identify the problem(s) and state it (them) clearly and concisely 2. State the criteria that will be used to evaluate possible alternatives to the problem as well as the effectiveness of selected solutions; state any identified boundaries of acceptable alternatives, important values or feelings to be considered, or results that should be avoided 3. Gather information or facts relevant to solving the problem or making a decision
  • Processing Phase -alternatives are generated and evaluated and a solution is selected 4. Develop alternatives or possible solutions 5. Evaluate the generated alternatives vis-a-vis the stated criteria 6. Develop a solution that will successfully solve the problem (diagnose possible problems with the solution and implications of these problems; consider the worst that can happen if the solution is implemented; evaluate in terms of overall “feelings” and “values”
  • Output Phase -includes planning for and implementing the solution 7. Develop plan for implementation (sufficiently detailed to allow for successful implementation) 8. Establish methods and criteria for evaluation of implementation and success 9. Implement the solution
  • Review Phase -the solution is evaluated and modifications are made, if necessary 10. Evaluating implementation of the solution (an ongoing process) 11. Evaluating the effectiveness of the solution 12. Modifying the solution in ways suggested by the evaluation process

Many of the teaching methods of similar to those used in analysis and values clarification, In fact, the first two phases of Huitt’s model are almost identical to the steps used in analysis. In some ways the skill practice in group organization and interpersonal relations and action projects is similar to that of Kohlberg’s “Just School” program that provides opportunities to engage in individual and group action in school and community (Power, Higgins & Kohlberg, 1989).

  • A major difference is that the action learning approach does not start from a preconceived notion of moral development.
  • Schools of thought providing support for the action learning approach include: Adler, 1924; Bigge, 1971; Blumer, 1969; Dewey, 1939; Horney, 1950; Lewin, 1935; and Sullivan, 1953.
  • The Values in Action and the Giraffe projects exemplify this approach.

Summary In summary, each of the approaches to values education has a view of human nature, as well as purposes, processes and methods used in the approach. For example, the inculcation approach has a basic view of human nature as a reactive organism. The analysis and values clarification approaches, on the other hand, view the human being as primarily active.

Overview of Typology of Values Education Approaches
Approach Purpose Methods
Inculcation
  • To instill or internalize certain values in students;
  • To change the values of students so they more nearly reflect certain desired values
  • Modeling;
  • Positive and negative reinforcement;
  • Manipulating alternatives;
  • Games and simulations;
  • Role playing
Moral Development
  • To help students develop more complex moral reasoning patterns based on a higher set of values;
  • To urge students to discuss the reasons for their value choices and positions, not merely to share with others, but to foster change in the stages of reasoning of students
  • Moral dilemma episodes with small-group discussion;
  • Relatively structured and argumentative without necessarily coming to a “right” answer
Analysis
  • To help students use logical thinking and scientific investigation to decide value issues and questions
  • To help students use rational, analytical processes in interrelating and conceptualizing their values
  • Structured rational discussion that demands application of reasons as well as evidence;
  • Testing principles;
  • Analyzing analogous cases;
  • Research and debate
Values Clarification
  • To help students become aware of and identify their own values and those of others;
  • To help students communicate openly and honestly with others about their values;
  • To help students use both rational thinking and emotional awareness to examine their personal feelings, values, and behavior patterns
  • Role-playing games;
  • Simulations;
  • Contrived or real value-laden situations;
  • In-depth self-analysis exercises;
  • Sensitivity activities;
  • Out-of-class activities;
  • Small group discussions
Action Learning
  • Those purposes listed for analysis and values clarification;
  • To provide students with opportunities for personal and social action based on their values;
  • To encourage students to view themselves as personal-social interactive beings, not fully autonomous, but members of a community or social system
  • Methods listed for analysis and values clarification;
  • Projects within school and community practice;
  • Skill practice in group organizing and interpersonal relations

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Why education is more important than ever?

Critical Thinking Skills – With the world changing rapidly, it is more important than ever to be able to think critically. Schools provide a place for students to learn how to analyze information and come up with their own conclusions. In addition, schools also offer a place for students to develop their problem-solving skills.
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