What Is Science Of Living In Value Education?

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What Is Science Of Living In Value Education
Science of Living – Science of Living (Jeevan Vigyan; Jeevan = Life and Vigyan = Science) is a detailed program that complements the current educational approach with spiritual and value-based learning. While both mental and physical development is needed for a student’s growth, Jeevan Vigyan adds a third pillar – that of emotional intelligence and morality (or values) – to education in schools and colleges.

  1. A combination of theory and practice, Jeevan Vigyan draws on the findings of various life sciences as well as nutritional sciences.
  2. Our parasympathetic nervous system and endocrinal system are known to be the drivers of our emotions and our behaviour.
  3. These biological centres can be influenced the Science of Living through a system of yogic exercises, breathing exercises, meditation and contemplation.

Science of Living’s source of inspiration is Jain Acharya Ganadhipati Shri Tulsi (1914–1997). His thoughts were further developed and expanded by Acharya Shri Mahapragya (1920–2010). Currently, Muni Shri Kishan Lal Ji, under the leadership of Acharya Shri Mahashraman, is the Principal of SOL.
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What is the value of science education?

Sauna and alcohol kill the coronavirus! This was such a splendid piece of news at the beginning of the first wave of the coronavirus. As Finns, we were, of course, already familiar with these aids. The news item was not incorrect as such, but its interpretations might go badly wrong.

  • We are living in a world where information keeps bursting out from various media channels.
  • Even at present, these media keep providing news on the Covid-19 pandemic and some elements of this information flow are dangerously incorrect.
  • Science and technology are present in our daily life.
  • In addition, we have recently seen how political decision-making draws on science.

Indeed, it is important to understand how scientific knowledge is constructed, and distinguish between scientific and everyday knowledge, and especially tell it apart from fake news and disinformation. Science education aims to increase people’s understanding of science and the construction of knowledge as well as to promote scientific literacy and responsible citizenship.

We can use science communication to increase science-related knowledge among adults, in particular. Popularised non-fiction books, exhibitions, science events, and science blogs are excellent ways to improve adults’ scientific knowledge. Children and youth receive science education at school, but in addition to this, there are, for instance, various workshops, camps and lectures available to them.

Along with these, children and adolescents can learn, among other things, cognitive skills and problem-solving while better understanding the construction of knowledge and the scientific process. These skills help them manage better in our present society.

  1. Science education can also generate an interest in university studies, and increase positive attitudes towards science in society.
  2. According to the aims proposed by a Ministry of Education and Culture committee for 2020, Finland was to be ranked as a top country in science education.
  3. In this respect, science museums and science centres have strong traditions, but universities have also noted the importance of science education.

At the University of Jyväskylä, Researchers’ Night events have opened research to the public, which has shown great interest in it. The Jyväskylä University Museum of the Open Science Centre, JYU Summer University, the LUMA Centre, and numerous projects of individual researchers and research teams annually provide science education for thousands of children and youth.

The JYUnior activities coordinated by the Summer University and Jyväskylä University Museum involve several faculties and departments. The Open Science Centre will be located in in the Library Building, which is currently undergoing renovation. The new facilities will help convey topical information through exhibitions, panel discussions and other science events.

At the University of Jyväskylä, science education is seen as part of societal interaction, which is one of the universities’ basic missions.
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What are the values of science?

It is commonplace to observe that science has lost its primacy among some people as the public knowledge that society uses for decision-making. The rigorous application of science and technology is accepted as socially useful as long as it is applied to marketable products, innovation, and elaboration of safe ideas.

  1. However, the application of more fundamental principles of science, even those that make these applications possible, are suspect to many people of faith or convictions, even though they value the fruits.
  2. The result is not a complete rejection of science but rather an adoption of a contingent way of thinking.

For these people, the thought process starts from a place different from where the idea came: The genome is separated from evolutionary biology, the fossil record is experienced as a test of faith, and climate change is redefined as weather instability.

Deductive thought process is cut off from premises. Causes are not examined too closely. Explanatory science is reduced to phenomenology. Science literacy, by itself, will not change this form of contingent thinking, because the fundamental problem is not ignorance. Contingent thinking about science arises from a moral crisis.

Our society pits wisdom received from trusted sources, carrying the certainty of moral authority, against difficult, uncertain, tentative, dense, arcane, interpretations of the material world offered by science. Liberal democracies place responsibility on the citizen for deciding what is true, at least for the purpose of the decision.

Scientific knowledge about everything that matters is beyond the capacity of any individual and in science is necessarily a collective undertaking. Faith and moral teaching, on the other hand, are available to all and do not even require comprehension, if one simply believes. Criticism of values-based thinking will not advance the scientific enterprise.

The fastest way to harden an adversary and the surest way to wander into hypocrisy is to attack an adversary’s beliefs. After all, science exercises its own form of contingent thinking: No theory is final, and every explanation is subject to falsification and elaboration.

  • Science also rests on a form of authority, derived from consensus among the informed scientific community.
  • Science education will not solve the root problem, which involves particular values.
  • In values, however, there may be room for reconciliation.
  • Faith and moral purpose have many values.
  • Science has but one: the primacy of demonstrable truth.

This value constitutes a moral compass within science, a secular lodestone that binds every scientist in the same mission. Science and technology empower values by guiding action on things about which we can agree matter, such as health, decent living conditions, and the proper use of power.
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What is the main point of values education?

Values Education Values Education is an essential element of whole-person education which aims at fostering students’ positive values and attitudes through the learning and teaching of various Key Learning Areas/subjects and the provision of relevant learning experiences.

  1. On this ground, it is to develop students’ ability to identify the values embedded, analyse objectively and make reasonable judgement in different issues they may encounter at different developmental stages so that they could take proper action to deal with the challenges in their future life.
  2. Schools could promote Values Education through nurturing in their students the ten priority values and attitudes: “Perseverance”, “Respect for Others”, “Responsibility”, “National Identity”, “Commitment”, “Integrity”, “Care for Others”, “Law-abidingness”, “Empathy” and “Diligence”(Newly added in November 2021).

Taking cultivation of positive values and attitudes as the direction, schools should make use of everyday life events to strengthen the coordination of learning activities, and enhance the connection, among various cross-curricular domains in values education, including moral education, civic education, national education (including Constitution, Basic Law and national security education), anti-drug education, life education, sex education, media and information literacy education, education for sustainable development, human rights education under the legal framework, etc.
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What is the meaning of science in education?

Science education may be defined as the study of the inter- relationship between science as a discipline and the application of educational principles to its understanding, teaching and learning.
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What is the importance and value of science?

Science is the greatest collective endeavor. It contributes to ensuring a longer and healthier life, monitors our health, provides medicine to cure our diseases, alleviates aches and pains, helps us to provide water for our basic needs – including our food, provides energy and makes life more fun, including sports, music, entertainment and the latest communication technology.

Last but not least, it nourishes our spirit. Science generates solutions for everyday life and helps us to answer the great mysteries of the universe. In other words, science is one of the most important channels of knowledge. It has a specific role, as well as a variety of functions for the benefit of our society: creating new knowledge, improving education, and increasing the quality of our lives.

Science must respond to societal needs and global challenges. Public understanding and engagement with science, and citizen participation including through the popularization of science are essential to equip citizens to make informed personal and professional choices.

  1. Governments need to make decisions based on quality scientific information on issues such as health and agriculture, and parliaments need to legislate on societal issues which necessitate the latest scientific knowledge.
  2. National governments need to understand the science behind major global challenges such as climate change, ocean health, biodiversity loss and freshwater security.

To face sustainable development challenges, governments and citizens alike must understand the language of science and must become scientifically literate. On the other hand, scientists must understand the problems policy-makers face and endeavor to make the results of their research relevant and comprehensible to society.
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What is the main importance of science?

The most important application of science Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve living standards. Finding a cure for cancer and a clean form of energy are just two topical examples.

Similarly, science is often justified to the public as driving economic growth, which is seen as a return-on-investment for public funding. During the past few decades, however, another goal of science has emerged: to find a way to rationally use natural resources to guarantee their continuity and the continuity of humanity itself; an endeavour that is currently referred to as “sustainability”.

Scientists often justify their work using these and similar arguments—currently linked to personal health and longer life expectancies, technological advancement, economic profits, and/or sustainability—in order to secure funding and gain social acceptance.

They point out that most of the tools, technologies and medicines we use today are products or by-products of research, from pens to rockets and from aspirin to organ transplantation. This progressive application of scientific knowledge is captured in Isaac Asimov’s book, Chronology of science and discovery, which beautifully describes how science has shaped the world, from the discovery of fire until the 20 th century.

However, there is another application of science that has been largely ignored, but that has enormous potential to address the challenges facing humanity in the present day education. It is time to seriously consider how science and research can contribute to education at all levels of society; not just to engage more people in research and teach them about scientific knowledge, but crucially to provide them with a basic understanding of how science has shaped the world and human civilisation.

  • Education could become the most important application of science in the next decades.
  • It is time to seriously consider how science and research can contribute to education at all levels of society” More and better education of citizens would also enable informed debate and decision-making about the fair and sustainable application of new technologies, which would help to address problems such as social inequality and the misuse of scientific discoveries.

For example, an individual might perceive an increase in welfare and life expectancy as a positive goal and would not consider the current problems of inequality relating to food supply and health resources. However, taking the view that science education should address how we apply scientific knowledge to improve the human condition raises the question of whether science research should be entirely at the service of human needs, or whether scientists should retain the freedom to pursue knowledge for its own sake—albeit with a view to eventual application.

  • This question has been hotly debated since the publication of British physicist John D.
  • Bernal’s book, The Social Function of Science, in 1939.
  • Bernal argued that science should contribute to satisfy the material needs of ordinary human life and that it should be centrally controlled by the state to maximise its utility—he was heavily influenced by Marxist thought.

The zoologist John R. Baker criticised this “Bernalistic” view, defending a “liberal” conception of science according to which “the advancement of knowledge by scientific research has a value as an end in itself”. This approach has been called the “free-science” approach.

The modern, utilitarian approach has attempted to coerce an explicit socio-political and economic manifestation of science. Perhaps the most recent and striking example of this is the shift in European research policy under the so-called Horizon 2020 or H2020 funding framework. This medium-term programme (2014-2020) is defined as a “financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness” ().

This is a common view of science and technology in the so-called developed world, but what is notable in the case of the H2020 programme is that economic arguments are placed explicitly ahead of all other reasons. Europe could be in danger of taking a step backwards in its compulsion to become an economic world leader at any cost.

“Europe could be in danger of taking a step backwards in its compulsion to become an economic world leader at any cost.” For comparison, the US National Science Foundation declares that its mission is to “promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity and welfare; to secure the national defence; and for other purposes” ().

The Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) states that it “promotes creation of intellect, sharing of intellect with society, and establishment of its infrastructure in an integrated manner and supports generation of innovation” (). In his President’s Message, Michiharu Nakamura stated that, “Japan seeks to create new value based on innovative science and technology and to contribute to the sustained development of human society ensuring Japan’s competitiveness”,

The difference between these declarations and the European H2020 programme is that the H2020 programme explicitly prioritises economic competitiveness and economic growth, while the NIH and JST put their devotion to knowledge, intellect, and the improvement of society up front. Curiously, the H2020 programme’s concept of science as a capitalist tool is analogous to the “Bernalistic” approach and contradicts the “liberal” view that “science can only flourish and therefore can only confer the maximum cultural and practical benefits on society when research is conducted in an atmosphere of freedom”,

By way of example, the discovery of laser emissions in 1960 was a strictly scientific venture to demonstrate a physical principle predicted by Einstein in 1917. The laser was considered useless at that time as an “invention in the search for a job”. ” we need to educate the educators, and consequently to adopt adequate science curricula at university education departments.” The mercantilisation of research is, explicitly or not, based on the simplistic idea that economic growth leads to increased quality of life.

However, some leading economists think that using general economic indicators, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), to measure social well-being and happiness is flawed. For example, Robert Costanza, of the Australian National University, and several collaborators published a paper in Nature recently in which they announce the “dethroning of GDP” and its replacement by more appropriate indicators that consider both economic growth and “a high quality of life that is equitably shared and sustainable”,

If the utilitarian view of science as an economic tool prevails, basic research will suffer. Dismantling the current science research infrastructure, which has taken centuries to build and is based on free enquiry, would have catastrophic consequences for humanity.

The research community needs to convince political and scientific managers of the danger of this course. Given that a recent Eurobarometer survey found significant support among the European public for scientists to be “free to carry out the research they wish, provided they respect ethical standards” (73% of respondents agreed with this statement; ), it seems that a campaign to support the current free-science system, funded with public budgets, would likely be popular.

The US NSF declaration contains a word that is rarely mentioned when dealing with scientific applications: education. Indeed, a glance at the textbooks used by children is enough to show how far scientific knowledge has advanced in a few generations, and how these advances have been transferred to education.

  • A classic example is molecular biology; a discipline that was virtually absent from school textbooks a couple of generations ago.
  • The deliberate and consistent addition of new scientific knowledge to enhance education might seem an obvious application of science, but it is often ignored.
  • This piecemeal approach is disastrous for science education, so the application of science in education should be emphasised and resourced properly for two reasons: first, because education has been unequivocally recognised as a human right, and second, because the medical, technological and environmental applications of science require qualified professionals who acquire their skills through formal education.

Therefore, education is a paramount scientific application. “The deliberate and consistent addition of new scientific knowledge to enhance education might seem an obvious application of science, but it is often ignored.” In a more general sense, education serves to maintain the identity of human culture, which is based on our accumulated knowledge, and to improve the general cultural level of society.

According to Stuart Jordan, a retired senior staff scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and currently president of the Institute for Science and Human Values, widespread ignorance and superstition remain “major obstacles to progress to a more humanistic world” in which prosperity, security, justice, good health and access to culture are equally accessible to all humans.

He argues that the proliferation of the undesirable consequences of scientific knowledge—such as overpopulation, social inequality, nuclear arms and global climate change—resulted from the abandonment of the key principle of the Enlightenment: the use of reason under a humanistic framework.

When discussing education, we should therefore consider not only those who have no access to basic education, but also a considerable fraction of the populations of developed countries who have no recent science education. The Eurobarometer survey mentioned provides a striking argument: On average, only the half of the surveyed Europeans knew that electrons are smaller than atoms; almost a third believed that the Sun goes around the Earth, and nearly a quarter of them affirmed that earliest humans coexisted with dinosaurs ().

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Another type of passive ignorance that is on the increase among the public of industrialised countries, especially among young people, is an indifference to socio-political affairs beyond their own individual and immediate well-being. Ignorance may have a relevant influence on politics in democracies because ignorant people are more easily manipulated, or because their votes may depend on irrelevant details, such as a candidate’s physical appearance or performance in public debates.

  • A democracy should be based on an informed society.
  • Education sensu lato —including both formal learning and cultural education—is therefore crucial for developing personal freedom of thought and free will, which will lead to adequate representation and better government,
  • To improve the cultural level of human societies is a long-term venture in which science will need to play a critical role.

We first need to accept that scientific reasoning is intimately linked to human nature: Humanity did not explicitly adopt science as the preferred tool for acquiring knowledge after choosing among a set of possibilities; we simply used our own mental functioning to explain the world.

If reason is a universal human feature, any knowledge can be transmitted and understood by everyone without the need for alien constraints, not unlike art or music. Moreover, science has demonstrated that it is a supreme mechanism to explain the world, to solve problems and to fulfil human needs. A fundamental condition of science is its dynamic nature: the constant revision and re-evaluation of the existing knowledge.

Every scientific theory is always under scrutiny and questioned whenever new evidence seems to challenge its validity. No other knowledge system has demonstrated this capacity, and even, the defenders of faith-based systems are common users of medical services and technological facilities that have emerged from scientific knowledge.

For these reasons, formal education from primary school to high school should therefore place a much larger emphasis on teaching young people how science has shaped and advanced human culture and well-being, but also that science flourishes best when scientists are left free to apply human reason to understand the world.

This also means that we need to educate the educators and consequently to adopt adequate science curricula at university education departments. Scientists themselves must get more involved both in schools and universities. “Dismantling the current science research infrastructure, which has taken centuries to build and is based on free enquiry, would have catastrophic consequences for humanity.” But scientists will also have to get more engaged with society in general.

The improvement of human culture and society relies on more diffuse structural and functional patterns. In the case of science, its diffusion to the general public is commonly called the popularisation of science and can involve scientists themselves, rather than journalists and other communicators. In this endeavour, scientists should be actively and massively involved.

Scientists—especially those working in public institutions—should make a greater effort to communicate to society what science is and what is not; how is it done; what are its main results; and what are they useful for. This would be the best way of demystifying science and scientists and upgrading society’s scientific literacy.

  • In summary, putting a stronger emphasis on formal science education and on raising the general cultural level of society should lead to a more enlightened knowledge-based society—as opposed to the H2020 vision of a knowledge-based economy—that is less susceptible to dogmatic moral systems.
  • Scientists should still use the other arguments—technological progress, improved health and well-being and economic gains—to justify their work, but better education would provide the additional support needed to convince citizens about the usefulness of science beyond its economic value.

Science is not only necessary for humanity to thrive socially, environmentally and economically in both the short and the long term, but it is also the best tool available to satisfy the fundamental human thirst for knowledge, as well as to maintain and enhance the human cultural heritage, which is knowledge-based by definition.

Japan Science and Technology Agency.2013. Overview of JST program and organisation 2013–2014 ). Last accessed: March 20, 2014. McGucken W. On freedom and planning in science: the Society for Freedom in Science, 1940–46. Minerva.1978; 16 :42–72. Costanza R, Kubiszewski I, Giovannini E, Lovins H, McGlade J, Pickett KE. Time to leave GDP behind. Nature.2014; 505 :283–285. Jordan S. The Enlightenment Vision. Science, Reason and the Promise of a Better Future. Amherst: Promethous Books; 2012. Rull V. Conservation, human values and democracy. EMBO Rep.2014; 15 :17–20.

: The most important application of science
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What is science in value and ethics?

The Impact of Moral Values on the Promotion of Science Hassan Zohoor Science is viewed as a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws. It may also be defined to include systematic knowledge of the physical or material world; systematized knowledge in general; knowledge of facts and principles; and knowledge gained by systematic study.

  1. In the ethics of science nothing is expected to be believed with more conviction than the evidence warrants.
  2. Ethics itself deals with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the right and wrong of certain actions and to the good and bad of the motives and ends of such actions.
  3. Although rightness embraces correctness or accuracy and propriety or fitness, it also implies moral integrity that demands soundness of and adherence to moral principle and character.

Similarly, goodness may be described as the state or quality of being good, kindly feeling, kindness, generosity, excellence of quality, virtue, and moral excellence. Promotion of science along with the growth of moral values is necessary for human development.

Ethics demands reporting authentic results rather than withholding relevant information. That is to say that scientists are expected to be honest. Another ethical requirement on the part of scientists is the proper treatment of living subjects, both humans and animals. This calls for checking and balancing mechanisms to ensure that the health and security of such subjects are endangered neither in research laboratories nor in their natural environment.

Lusting after fame or recognition, egoism, greed, prejudice, snobbishness, racism, and political considerations have frequently resulted in immorality in the domain of science. Research findings indicate that if science considers ethical values, then the lives of humans and other creatures are not endangered by destructive agents like atomic bombs and chemical weapons.

Measures should be taken to avoid using science against humans. This can be achieved by promotion of scientists’ moral values. A great number of scientists have been at the service of mankind mainly because of their belief in ethical values. Such scientists have saved the lives of countless people, animals, and plants.

They have devised ingenious methods for the protection of the environment. In contrast, certain scientific findings have brought about the destruction of millions of people and animals, and the environment. Science can be productive or counterproductive.

  • Hence, all nations are required to devise appropriate codes and control mechanisms to direct the scientific activities in their ethical path.
  • Scientific achievement portrays the dignity of the human being and his unique role in the world.
  • In the distant past, critical scientific discoveries that had profound impact on the development of human societies occurred occasionally.

Now, such discoveries are made more frequently. In the last few decades, humans have made more major advances in understanding physical reality than had been made during the whole prior history of the earth. Obviously, the development of science never ceases.

It is wonderful to consider man’s present knowledge of the building blocks of physical reality. Although almost all the mountains and rivers have been named, the ocean floors mapped to the deepest trenches, and the atmosphere transected and chemically analyzed, we should not think that the world has been completely explored.

Even though some 1.4 million species of organisms have been discovered and identified, the total number alive on Earth is estimated somewhere between 10 million and 100 million. No one can say with confidence which of these figures is the closer. Although scientists have given thousands of the species scientific names, fewer than ten percent have been studied at a level deeper than gross anatomy.

The revolution in molecular biology and medicine was achieved with a still smaller fraction of discoveries. The emergence of new technologies and the generous funding of medical research have assisted biologists to probe deeply along a narrow sector of the front. It is now the time to be conscious about the study of biodiversity since species are disappearing at an ever-increasing rate through human action.

It is estimated that one fifth or more of the species of plants and animals could vanish or be doomed to early extinction by the year 2020 unless better efforts are made to save them. Most scientists believe that one basic characteristic of science is that it deals with facts, not values.

  1. Science is objective, while values are not.
  2. Certain scientists see themselves as working in the privileged domain of certain knowledge.
  3. Such views of science are also closely allied in the public sphere with the authority of scientists.
  4. Recently, however, some scholars have challenged the notion of science as value-free, and thereby have raised questions about the authority of science and its methods.

However, it is a wrong approach to consider science as being value-free or objective. In practice, science incorporates cultural values. Values, in turn, can be objective when they are based on generally accepted principles. Scientists strongly abhor fraud, error, and pseudoscience, while they value reliability, testability, accuracy, precision, generality, and simplicity of concepts.

The pursuit of science as an activity is itself an implicit endorsement of the value of developing knowledge of the material world. Whenever science is publicly funded, the values of scientific knowledge may well be considered in the context of the values of other social projects. Among the things valued that promote the ultimate goal of knowledge are the methods of evaluating knowledge claims.

These include controlled observation, confirmation of predictions, repeatability, and statistical analysis. Such values are generally derived from our experience in research. People tend to devalue the results of any drug that is not based on an experimental design.

  • Today, methods of evaluation and institutional forms are essential to teaching science as a process.
  • Unfortunately, social values or research ethics are not always followed in science, but they remain important.
  • Ideally, science is about “is” and ethics is about “ought.” Yet, the disparity between the ideal and the actual merely poses challenges for creating a way to achieve these valued goals through a system of checks and balances.

The codes for reviewing research proposals on human subjects, for monitoring the use and care of laboratory animals, or for investigating and punishing fraud represent efforts to protect wider social values in science. The topics and use of results of research and the methods or practice of science are also the province of ethical concern and social values.

In weapons research, in research into better agricultural methods aimed at alleviating hunger, or in low-cost forms of harnessing solar or wind energy in poor rural areas, the researchers are ethical agents responsible for the consequences of their actions. Individuals express the values of their cultures and particular lives when they engage in scientific activity.

That is why in countries where women or minorities, for instance, are largely excluded from professional activity, they are generally excluded from science as well. Where they have participated in science, they have often been omitted from later histories.

  1. It is also a well-known fact that the conclusions of science in many occasions have been strongly biased, reflecting the values of its practitioners.
  2. For example, late nineteenth-century notions of the evolution of humans developed by Europeans claimed that the skulls and posture of European races were more developed than those of “Negroes.” Scientists need to integrate scientific values with other ethical and social values.

Obviously, science can help identify unforeseen consequences or causal relationships where ethical values or principles are relevant. In addition, individuals need reliable knowledge for making informed decisions. Scientists can articulate where, how, and to what degree a risk exists.

  1. But other values are required to assess whether the risk is acceptable or not.
  2. Communicating the nature of the risk to non-experts who participate in making decisions can thus become a significant element of science.
  3. Where one expects scientists or panels of technical experts to solve the problem of the acceptability of risk, science is accorded value beyond its proper scope.

Scientific knowledge and new technologies, however, can give rise to new ethical or social problems, based on pre-existing values. Science can bring about novel situations that require us to apply old values in significantly new ways. A case in point is awareness that scientific research is parallel with new concerns about ethics and values in decisions to couple the human genome initiative with funding of research on the humanistic implications of the project.

  1. Thus, science and technology can introduce new problems about values that they cannot solve.
  2. Yet these consequences are a part of a complete consideration of science and its context in society.
  3. There are certain moral values, such as concern for people, empathy, and kindness that are important in setting research priorities in science and in determining the uses of science.

There is a need to incorporate these humanitarian values into the science and technology spheres, while maintaining and reinforcing the intrinsic values of science. In the quest for scientific and technological development, ethical values should not be neglected.

The humanitarian values found in moral education can complement the intrinsic values found in science, such as objectivity, rationality, practicality, honesty, and accuracy. The problem of ethics and morality is the concern of all mankind. While mankind might agree on the general moral principles found in religions and moral education, differences may arise when we deal with specific issues and problems because of differences in the structures of our moral systems and in the priorities and specific needs of our respective cultures.

I would like to express my special thanks to Mr. Mahmoud Alimohammadi who has contributed to the development of the content and style of this article.1 Wilson, Edward O. “Building an Ethic.” Defenders Magazine, Spring 1993.2 Values and Ethics and the Science and Technology Curriculum: A Source book,

  1. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Principle Regional Office in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok: 1991.3 Gould, S.J.
  2. The Mismeasure of Man.W.W.
  3. Norton, New York: 1981.4 Crossing the Divide, Dialogue among Civilizations.
  4. United National Conference.
  5. School of International Relations, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ: 2001.

: The Impact of Moral Values on the Promotion of Science
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What is true value in science?

OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms – True value Definition

Definition:
The actual population value that would be obtained with perfect measuring instruments and without committing any error of any type, both in collecting the primary data and in carrying out mathematical operations.

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Context:
An idealized concept of a quantity which is to be measured; in some cases it can be achieved, but in others there is disagreement as to the definition of the quantity. Illustrations are the number of persons who are “unemployed,” and the dollar value of farm sales. In most surveys an approximation to the “true” value is used, defined in such a way that one would expect to be able to measure it provided there were sufficient time, money, knowledge of techniques, etc., and no errors in the reporting, collection, and processing of the data. (Statistical Policy Working Paper 4 – Glossary of Nonsampling Error Terms: An Illustration of a Semantic Problem in Statistics, United States Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, 1978).

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Source Publication: Eurostat, Assessment of Quality in Statistics: Glossary, Working Group, Luxembourg, October 2003.

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Cross References:

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Hyperlink:

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Statistical Theme: Methodological information (metadata)

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Glossary Output Segments: SDMX

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Created on Friday, July 26, 2002

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Last updated on Tuesday, January 3, 2006

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OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms – True value Definition
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What are the 2 approaches to values education?

Values are defined in literature as everything from eternal ideas to behavioral actions. As used here values refer to criteria for determining levels of goodness, worth or beauty. Values are affectively-laden thoughts about objects, ideas, behavior, etc.

  • That guide behavior, but do not necessarily require it (Rokeach, 1973).
  • The act of valuing is considered an act of making value judgments, an expression of feeling, or the acquisition of and adherence to a set of principles.
  • We are covering values as part of the affective system.
  • However, once they are developed they provide an important filter for selecting input and connecting thoughts and feelings to action and thus could also be included in a discussion of the regulatory system.

Some of the values designated by the SCANS report (Whetzel, 1992) as important for workers in the information age are responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, integrity, and honesty. Huitt (1997) suggests an additional set of important values that are either implied in the SCANS report or are suggested by the writings of futurists or behavioral scientists as important for life success: autonomy, benevolence, compassion, courage, courtesy, honesty, integrity, responsibility, trustworthiness, and truthfulness.

Other lists of core values have been developed. For example, a group of educators, character education experts, and leaders of youth organizations meeting under the sponsorship of The Josephson Institute of Ethics developed the following list: respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, caring, justice and fairness, and civic virtue and citizenship ( The Character Education Partnership, Inc,, 1996).

The Council for Global Education (1997) asserts the following set of values are either stated or implied in the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights: compassion, courtesy, critical inquiry, due process, equality of opportunity, freedom of thought and action, human worth and dignity, integrity, justice, knowledge, loyalty, objectivity, order, patriotism, rational consent, reasoned argument, respect for other’s rights, responsibility, responsible citizenship, rule of law, tolerance, and truth.

Despite the debate over exactly what are the core values that ought to be taught in schools, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1996) suggests it is possible for communities to reach consensus on a set of values that would be appropriate for inclusion in the school curriculum.

Once a community has done so, the next issue is how should one go about the process of teaching values. As a beginning effort in this direction, I have developed a ” Survey of Desired Values, Virtues, and Attributes “. A preliminary study shows considerable overlap in beliefs among preservice and practicing educators ( Huitt, 2003 ).

  1. Values Education Values education is an explicit attempt to teach about values and/or valuing.
  2. Superka, Ahrens, & Hedstrom (1976) state there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification, and action learning,
  3. This text was used as the major source for the organization of the following presentation.

Inculcation Most educators viewing values education from the perspective of inculcation see values as socially or culturally accepted standards or rules of behavior. Valuing is therefore considered a process of the student identifying with and accepting the standards or norms of the important individuals and institutions within his society.

The student “incorporates” these values into his or her own value system. These educators take a view of human nature in which the individual is treated, during the inculcation process, as a reactor rather than as an initiator. Extreme advocates such as Talcott Parsons (1951) believe that the needs and goals of society should transcend and even define the needs and goals of the individuals.

However, advocates who consider an individual to be a free, self-fulfilling participant in society tend to inculcate values as well, especially values such as freedom to learn, human dignity, justice, and self-exploration. Both the social- and individualistic-oriented advocates would argue the notion that certain values are universal and absolute.

  1. The source of these values is open to debate.
  2. On the one hand some advocates argue they derive from the natural order of the universe; others believe that values originate in an omnipotent Creator.
  3. In addition to Parsons (1951), the theoretical work of Sears and his colleagues (1957, 1976) and Whiting (1961) provide support for this position.

More contemporary researchers include Wynne and Ryan (1989, 1992). The materials developed by the Georgia Department of Education (1997), the work of William Bennett (e.g., 1993) and The Character Education Institute (CEI) also promote the inculcation viewpoint.

Moral Development Educators adopting a moral development perspective believe that moral thinking develops in stages through a specific sequence. This approach is based primarily on the work of Lawrence Kohlberg (1969, 1984) as presented in his 6 stages and 25 “basic moral concepts.” This approach focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity; other types of values (social, personal, and aesthetic) are usually not considered.

It is assumed that students invariantly progress developmentally in their thinking about moral issues. They can comprehend one stage above their current primary stage and exposure to the next higher level is essential for enhancing moral development. Educators attempt to stimulate students to develop more complex moral reasoning patterns through the sequential stages. Kohlberg’s view of human nature is similar to that presented in the ideas of other developmental psychologists such as Piaget (1932, 1962), Erikson (1950), and Loevinger et al. (1970). This perspective views the person as an active initiator and a reactor within the context of his or her environment; the individual cannot fully change the environment, but neither can the environment fully mold the individual.

A person’s actions are the result of his or her feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and experiences. Although the environment can determine the content of one’s experiences, it cannot determine its form. Genetic structures already inside the person are primarily responsible for the way in which a person internalizes the content, and organizes and transforms it into personally meaningful data.

The moral development technique most often used is to present a hypothetical or factual value dilemma story which is then discussed in small groups. Students are presented with alternative viewpoints within these discussions which is in hypothesized to lead to higher, more developed moral thinking.

  1. The story must present “a real conflict for the central character”, include “a number of moral issues for consideration”, and “generate differences of opinion among students about the appropriate response to the situation.”
  2. A leader who can help to focus the discussion on moral reasoning.
  3. A classroom climate that encourages students to express their moral reasoning freely (Gailbraith & Jones, 1975, p.18).

There is an assumption that values are based on cognitive moral beliefs or concepts. This view would agree with the inculcation assumption that there are universal moral principles, but would contend that values are considered relative to a particular environment or situation and are applied according to the cognitive development of the individual.

Gilligan (1977, 1982) critiqued Kohlberg’s work based on his exclusive use of males in his original theoretical work. Based on her study of girls and women, she proposed that females make moral decisions based on the development of the principle of care rather than on justice as Kohlberg had proposed.

Whereas Kohlberg identified autonomous decision making related to abstract principles as the highest form of moral thinking, Gilligan proposed that girls and women are more likely to view relationships as central with a win-win approach to resolving moral conflicts as the highest stage. In addition to the researchers cited above, Sullivan and his colleagues (1953, 1957) also provide support for this view include. Larry Nucci (1989), Director of the Office for Studies in Moral Development and Character Formation at the University of Illinois at Chicago has developed The Moral Development and Education Homepage to promote this approach.

Analysis The analysis approach to values education was developed mainly by social science educators. The approach emphasizes rational thinking and reasoning. The purpose of the analysis approach is to help students use logical thinking and the procedures of scientific investigation in dealing with values issues.

Students are urged to provide verifiable facts about the correctness or value of the topics or issues under investigation. A major assumption is that valuing is the cognitive process of determining and justifying facts and beliefs derived from those facts.

  1. This approach concentrates primarily on social values rather than on the personal moral dilemmas presented in the moral development approach.
  2. The rationalist (based on reasoning) and empiricist (based on experience) views of human nature seem to provide the philosophical basis for this approach.
  3. Its advocates state that the process of valuing can and should be conducted under the ‘total authority of facts and reason’ (Scriven, 1966, p.232) and ‘guided not by the dictates of the heart and conscience, but by the rules and procedures of logic’ (Bond, 1970, p.81).

The teaching methods used by this approach generally center around individual and group study of social value problems and issues, library and field research, and rational class discussions. These are techniques widely used in social studies instruction.

  1. stating the issues;
  2. questioning and substantiating in the relevance of statements;
  3. applying analogous cases to qualify and refine value positions;
  4. pointing out logical and empirical inconsistencies in arguments;
  5. weighing counter arguments; and
  6. seeking and testing evidence.

A representative instructional model is presented by Metcalf (1971, pp.29-55):

  1. identify and clarify the value question;
  2. assemble purported facts;
  3. assess the truth of purported facts;
  4. clarify the relevance of facts;
  5. arrive at a tentative value decision; and
  6. test the value principle implied in the decision.

Additional support for this approach is provided by Ellis (1962), Kelly (1955), and Pepper (1947). The thinking techniques demonstrated by MindTools is an excellent example of strategies used in this approach. Values Clarification The values clarification approach arose primarily from humanistic psychology and the humanistic education movement as it attempted to implement the ideas and theories of Gordon Allport (1955), Abraham Maslow (1970), Carl Rogers (1969), and others.

The central focus is on helping students use both rational thinking and emotional awareness to examine personal behavior patterns and to clarify and actualize their values. It is believed that valuing is a process of self-actualization, involving the subprocesses of choosing freely from among alternatives, reflecting carefully on the consequences of those alternatives, and prizing, affirming, and acting upon one’s choices.

Values clarification is based predominately on the work of Raths, Harmin & Simon (1978), Simon & Kirschenbaum (1973), and Simon, Howe & Kirschenbaum (1972). Whereas the inculcation approach relies generally on outside standards and the moral development and analysis approaches rely on logical and empirical processes, the values clarification approach relies on an internal cognitive and affective decision making process to decide which values are positive and which are negative.

  1. It is therefore an individualistic rather than a social process of values education.
  2. From this perspective, the individual, if he or she is allowed the opportunity of being free to be his or her true self, makes choices and decisions affected by the internal processes of willing, feeling, thinking, and intending.

It is assumed that through self-awareness, the person enters situations already pointed or set in certain directions. As the individual develops, the making of choices will more often be based on conscious, self-determined thought and feeling. It is advocated that the making of choices, as a free being, which can be confirmed or denied in experience, is a preliminary step in the creation of values (Moustakas, 1966).

Within the clarification framework a person is seen as an initiator of interaction with society and environment. The educator should assist the individual to develop his or her internal processes, thereby allowing them, rather than external factors, to be the prime determinants of human behavior; the individual should be free to change the environment to meet his or her needs.

Methods used in the values clarification approach include large- and small-group discussion; individual and group work; hypothetical, contrived, and real dilemmas; rank orders and forced choices; sensitivity and listening techniques; songs and artwork; games and simulations; and personal journals and interviews; self-analysis worksheet.

A vital component is a leader who does not attempt to influence the selection of values. Like the moral development approach, values clarification assumes that the valuing process is internal and relative, but unlike the inculcation and developmental approaches it does not posit any universal set of appropriate values.

A sevenfold process describing the guidelines of the values clarification approach was formulated by Simon et al. (1972);

  1. choosing from alternatives;
  2. choosing freely;
  3. prizing one’s choice;
  4. affirming one’s choice;
  5. acting upon one’s choice; and
  6. acting repeatedly, over time.

Additional theorists providing support for the values clarification approach include Asch (1952) and G. Murphy (1958). Action Learning The action learning approach is derived from a perspective that valuing includes a process of implementation as well as development.

That is, it is important to move beyond thinking and feeling to acting. The approach is related to the efforts of some social studies educators to emphasize community-based rather than classroom-based learning experiences. In some ways it is the least developed of the five approaches. However, a variety of recent programs have demonstrated the effectiveness of the techniques advocated by this approach (e.g., Cottom, 1996; Gauld, 1993; Solomon et al., 1992).

Advocates of the action learning approach stress the need to provide specific opportunities for learners to act on their values. They see valuing primarily as a process of self-actualization in which individuals consider alternatives; choose freely from among those alternatives; and prize, affirm, and act on their choices.

They place more emphasis on action-taking inside and outside the classroom than is reflected in the moral development, analysis, and values clarification processes. Values are seen to have their source neither in society nor in the individual but in the interaction between the person and the society; the individual cannot be described outside of his or her context.

The process of self-actualization, so important to the founders of the values clarification approach, is viewed as being tempered by social factors and group pressures. In this way it is more related to Maslow’s (1971) level of transcendence which he discussed towards the end of his career.

  • Input Phase -a problem is perceived and an attempt is made to understand the situation or problem 1. Identify the problem(s) and state it (them) clearly and concisely 2. State the criteria that will be used to evaluate possible alternatives to the problem as well as the effectiveness of selected solutions; state any identified boundaries of acceptable alternatives, important values or feelings to be considered, or results that should be avoided 3. Gather information or facts relevant to solving the problem or making a decision
  • Processing Phase -alternatives are generated and evaluated and a solution is selected 4. Develop alternatives or possible solutions 5. Evaluate the generated alternatives vis-a-vis the stated criteria 6. Develop a solution that will successfully solve the problem (diagnose possible problems with the solution and implications of these problems; consider the worst that can happen if the solution is implemented; evaluate in terms of overall “feelings” and “values”
  • Output Phase -includes planning for and implementing the solution 7. Develop plan for implementation (sufficiently detailed to allow for successful implementation) 8. Establish methods and criteria for evaluation of implementation and success 9. Implement the solution
  • Review Phase -the solution is evaluated and modifications are made, if necessary 10. Evaluating implementation of the solution (an ongoing process) 11. Evaluating the effectiveness of the solution 12. Modifying the solution in ways suggested by the evaluation process

Many of the teaching methods of similar to those used in analysis and values clarification, In fact, the first two phases of Huitt’s model are almost identical to the steps used in analysis. In some ways the skill practice in group organization and interpersonal relations and action projects is similar to that of Kohlberg’s “Just School” program that provides opportunities to engage in individual and group action in school and community (Power, Higgins & Kohlberg, 1989).

A major difference is that the action learning approach does not start from a preconceived notion of moral development. Schools of thought providing support for the action learning approach include: Adler, 1924; Bigge, 1971; Blumer, 1969; Dewey, 1939; Horney, 1950; Lewin, 1935; and Sullivan, 1953. The Values in Action and the Giraffe projects exemplify this approach.

Summary In summary, each of the approaches to values education has a view of human nature, as well as purposes, processes and methods used in the approach. For example, the inculcation approach has a basic view of human nature as a reactive organism. The analysis and values clarification approaches, on the other hand, view the human being as primarily active.

Overview of Typology of Values Education Approaches
Approach Purpose Methods
Inculcation
  • To instill or internalize certain values in students;
  • To change the values of students so they more nearly reflect certain desired values
  • Modeling;
  • Positive and negative reinforcement;
  • Manipulating alternatives;
  • Games and simulations;
  • Role playing
Moral Development
  • To help students develop more complex moral reasoning patterns based on a higher set of values;
  • To urge students to discuss the reasons for their value choices and positions, not merely to share with others, but to foster change in the stages of reasoning of students
  • Moral dilemma episodes with small-group discussion;
  • Relatively structured and argumentative without necessarily coming to a “right” answer
Analysis
  • To help students use logical thinking and scientific investigation to decide value issues and questions
  • To help students use rational, analytical processes in interrelating and conceptualizing their values
  • Structured rational discussion that demands application of reasons as well as evidence;
  • Testing principles;
  • Analyzing analogous cases;
  • Research and debate
Values Clarification
  • To help students become aware of and identify their own values and those of others;
  • To help students communicate openly and honestly with others about their values;
  • To help students use both rational thinking and emotional awareness to examine their personal feelings, values, and behavior patterns
  • Role-playing games;
  • Simulations;
  • Contrived or real value-laden situations;
  • In-depth self-analysis exercises;
  • Sensitivity activities;
  • Out-of-class activities;
  • Small group discussions
Action Learning
  • Those purposes listed for analysis and values clarification;
  • To provide students with opportunities for personal and social action based on their values;
  • To encourage students to view themselves as personal-social interactive beings, not fully autonomous, but members of a community or social system
  • Methods listed for analysis and values clarification;
  • Projects within school and community practice;
  • Skill practice in group organizing and interpersonal relations

References

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What is the conclusion of value education?

According to the author Value Based education cannot be taught without Spiritual Knowledge or Spiritual Consciousness. In conclusion, mere desire or aspiration to progress in life is not enough; success should be based on values. And for that value-based education must be imparted in today’s institutions.
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What is the role of value education for the students?

Value education also helps the students to become more and more responsible and sensible. It helps them to understand the perspective of life in a better way and lead a successful life as a responsible citizen. It also helps students to develop a strong relationship with family and friends.
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What is the impact of science in education?

1. Knowledge – Science education gives students the opportunity to gain a better knowledge of how and why things function. Science can teach children about the world that surrounds them. Everything from human anatomy to techniques of transportation, science can reveal the mechanisms and the reasons for complicated systems.
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What is the 3 main goal of science education?

Examples of Science Goals for Students The purpose of science education is for students to understand and interpret the natural systems of the world around them. Science is driven by curiosity and reasoning and is much more than the memorization of scientists, theories, and formulas.

  1. Use and interpret science to explain the world around them
  2. Evaluate and understand scientific theories and evidence
  3. Investigate and generate scientific explanations
  4. Participate in scientific debates, ask questions, and adopt a critical stance
  5. Acquire Knowledge and evidence to promote creative solutions

I’ve broken up this article to examine the different branches of science that are part of many to give you an idea of how you can write up and measure science goals for your students. In life science (also known as biological science) children learn about the different types of living organisms, such as microorganisms, plants, animals and humans.

  • By the end of the year, given a diagram of a plant (or animal), my child will be able to identify internal and external structures that are involved in growth (or survival, behavior, reproduction) with _% accuracy.
  • By end of quarter, my child will understand and be able to explain in his/her own words the structure and processes of molecules with _% of accuracy.
  • By the end of the semester, my child will be able to articulate the anatomy of plants with _% of accuracy.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to do a presentation on his/her own about our local ecological system.
  • By the end of the quarter, my child will be able to accurately classify the different types of animals with _% accuracy.

Each goal can be crafted to meet the specific life science branch your child has been studying in their specific grade level. In earth and space science, children will explore the interconnections between Earth and everything in it and the wider universe.

  • By the end of the year, given objects representing the sun, moon, and Earth (or stars or planets), my child will be able to demonstrate the orbits of each of the individual objects.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to investigate and develop a model of Earth’s cycles.
  • By the end of the year, and given the appropriate materials, my child will be able to model the solar system and its satellites and give a basic explanation of the composition of each planet.
  • By the end of the semester, my child will be able to draw on a chart and explain the formation of canyons on Earth.

Think about how field trips may be able to help with goals in this domain! In contrast to life science, in physical science, children will learn about the non-living systems. These systems include sound, speed, gravity, motion, and mass among others. It’s such an important branch because children will understand how these things impact or influence our daily lives.

  • By the end of the year, given the Periodic Table of Elements, my child will be able to draw a diagram of the substructures of an atom for (a particular element(s)), showing the correct charges for all substructures.
  • By the end of the quarter, given the appropriate materials, my child will be able to perform the magnificent egg drop experiment and explain the different air pressures at work.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to organize, analyze, and interpret information using the scientific method to make inferences.

Remember to seek out resources for those areas where you have less expertise. Most importantly, strive to maximize your child’s appreciation for science. As Albert Einstein once said, the goal of education is “to produce independently thinking and acting individuals”. PreK – 8th $ 24,95

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: Examples of Science Goals for Students
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What are the 4 meaning of science?

Science is defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena.
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What are 3 reasons why science is important?

Science is important for a variety of reasons including: Increases our fundamental knowledge. Creates new technology. Dreams up new applications. A pathway to share ideas.
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What are the benefits of science?

Scientific findings frequently benefit society through technological and other innovations. Technological innovations may lead to new scientific breakthroughs. Some scientists are motivated by potential applications of their research.

The process of science is a way of building knowledge about the universe — constructing new ideas that illuminate the world around us. Those ideas are inherently tentative, but as they cycle through the process of science again and again and are tested and retested in different ways, we become increasingly confident in them.

  1. Furthermore, through this same iterative process, ideas are modified, expanded, and combined into more powerful explanations.
  2. For example, a few observations about inheritance patterns in garden peas can — over many years and through the work of many different scientists — be built into the broad understanding of genetics offered by science today.

So although the process of science is iterative, ideas do not churn through it repetitively. Instead, the cycle actively serves to construct and integrate scientific knowledge. And that knowledge is useful for all sorts of things: designing bridges, slowing climate change, and prompting frequent hand washing during flu season. Scientific knowledge allows us to develop new technologies, solve practical problems, and make informed decisions — both individually and collectively.

New scientific knowledge may lead to new applications. For example, the discovery of the structure of DNA was a fundamental breakthrough in biology. It formed the underpinnings of research that would ultimately lead to a wide variety of practical applications, including DNA fingerprinting, genetically engineered crops, and tests for genetic diseases.

New technological advances may lead to new scientific discoveries. For example, developing DNA copying and sequencing technologies has led to important breakthroughs in many areas of biology, especially in the reconstruction of the evolutionary relationships among organisms.

Potential applications may motivate scientific investigations. For example, the possibility of engineering microorganisms to cheaply produce drugs for diseases like malaria motivates many researchers in the field to continue their studies of microbe genetics.

View complete answer

How important is the goal of science education?

Examples of Science Goals for Students The purpose of science education is for students to understand and interpret the natural systems of the world around them. Science is driven by curiosity and reasoning and is much more than the memorization of scientists, theories, and formulas.

  1. Use and interpret science to explain the world around them
  2. Evaluate and understand scientific theories and evidence
  3. Investigate and generate scientific explanations
  4. Participate in scientific debates, ask questions, and adopt a critical stance
  5. Acquire Knowledge and evidence to promote creative solutions

I’ve broken up this article to examine the different branches of science that are part of many to give you an idea of how you can write up and measure science goals for your students. In life science (also known as biological science) children learn about the different types of living organisms, such as microorganisms, plants, animals and humans.

  • By the end of the year, given a diagram of a plant (or animal), my child will be able to identify internal and external structures that are involved in growth (or survival, behavior, reproduction) with _% accuracy.
  • By end of quarter, my child will understand and be able to explain in his/her own words the structure and processes of molecules with _% of accuracy.
  • By the end of the semester, my child will be able to articulate the anatomy of plants with _% of accuracy.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to do a presentation on his/her own about our local ecological system.
  • By the end of the quarter, my child will be able to accurately classify the different types of animals with _% accuracy.

Each goal can be crafted to meet the specific life science branch your child has been studying in their specific grade level. In earth and space science, children will explore the interconnections between Earth and everything in it and the wider universe.

  • By the end of the year, given objects representing the sun, moon, and Earth (or stars or planets), my child will be able to demonstrate the orbits of each of the individual objects.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to investigate and develop a model of Earth’s cycles.
  • By the end of the year, and given the appropriate materials, my child will be able to model the solar system and its satellites and give a basic explanation of the composition of each planet.
  • By the end of the semester, my child will be able to draw on a chart and explain the formation of canyons on Earth.

Think about how field trips may be able to help with goals in this domain! In contrast to life science, in physical science, children will learn about the non-living systems. These systems include sound, speed, gravity, motion, and mass among others. It’s such an important branch because children will understand how these things impact or influence our daily lives.

  • By the end of the year, given the Periodic Table of Elements, my child will be able to draw a diagram of the substructures of an atom for (a particular element(s)), showing the correct charges for all substructures.
  • By the end of the quarter, given the appropriate materials, my child will be able to perform the magnificent egg drop experiment and explain the different air pressures at work.
  • By the end of the year, my child will be able to organize, analyze, and interpret information using the scientific method to make inferences.

Remember to seek out resources for those areas where you have less expertise. Most importantly, strive to maximize your child’s appreciation for science. As Albert Einstein once said, the goal of education is “to produce independently thinking and acting individuals”. PreK – 8th $ 24,95

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  • ($14.95/mo for each additional PreK-8th student)

9th – 12th $ 34,95

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: Examples of Science Goals for Students
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What is the 3 main goal of science education?

Strands of Scientific Proficiency – Understanding science is multifaceted. Research has often treated aspects of scientific proficiency as discrete. However, current research indicates that proficiency in one aspect of science is closely related to proficiency in others (e.g., analytic reasoning skills are greater when one is reasoning about familiar domains).

Like strands of a rope, the strands of scientific proficiency are intertwined. However, for purposes of being clear about learning and learning outcomes, the committee discusses these four strands separately (see Box 2-1 for a summary). The strands of scientific proficiency lay out broad learning goals for students.

They address the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must eventually acquire to be considered fully proficient in science. They are also a means to that end: they are practices that students need to participate in and become fluent with in order to develop proficiency.

know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

The strands are not independent or separable in the practice of science, nor in the teaching and learning of science. Rather, the strands of scientific proficiency are interwoven and, taken together, are viewed as science as Suggested Citation: “2 Goals for Science Education.” National Research Council.2007.

Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625. × BOX 2-1 Strands of Scientific Proficiency Strand 1: Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world. This strand includes acquiring facts and the conceptual structures that incorporate those facts and using these ideas productively to understand many phenomena in the natural world.

This includes using those ideas to construct and refine explanations, arguments, or models of particular phenomena. Strand 2: Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations. This strand encompasses the knowledge and skills needed to build and refine models based on evidence.

This includes designing and analyzing empirical investigations and using empirical evidence to construct and defend arguments. Strand 3: Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge. This strand focuses on students’ understanding of science as a way of knowing. Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, and uncertainties.

Students who understand scientific knowledge recognize that predictions or explanations can be revised on the basis of seeing new evidence or developing a new model. Strand 4: Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. This strand includes students’ understanding of the norms of participating in science as well as their motivation and attitudes toward science.

  • Students who see science as valuable and interesting tend to be good learners and participants in science.
  • They believe that steady effort in understanding science pays off—not that some people understand science and other people never will.
  • To engage productively in science, however, students need to understand how to participate in scientific debates, adopt a critical stance, and be willing to ask questions.

These strands of scientific proficiency represent learning goals for students as well as providing a broad framework for curriculum design. They address the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must eventually acquire to be considered fully proficient in science.

  • They are also a means to that end: they are practices that students need to participate in and become fluent with in order to develop proficiency.
  • Evidence to date indicates that in the process of achieving proficiency in science, the four strands are intertwined, so that advances in one strand support and advance those in another.

The committee thinks, and emerging evidence suggests, the development of proficiency is best supported when classrooms provide learning opportunities that interweave all four strands together in instruction. Suggested Citation: “2 Goals for Science Education.” National Research Council.2007.

Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625. × practice (see Lehrer and Schauble, 2006). The science-as-practice perspective invokes the notion that learning science involves learning a system of interconnected ways of thinking in a social context to accomplish the goal of working with and understanding scientific ideas.

This perspective stresses how conceptual understanding of natural systems is linked to the ability to develop explanations of phenomena and to carry out empirical investigations in order to develop or evaluate knowledge claims. The strands framework emerged through the committee’s syntheses of disparate research literatures on learning and teaching science, which define science outcomes differently and frequently do not inform one another.

The framework offers a new perspective on what is learned when students learn science. First, the strands emphasize the idea of knowledge in use. That is, students’ knowledge is not static, and proficiency involves deploying knowledge and skills across all four strands in order to engage successfully in scientific practices.

The content of each strand described below is drawn from research and differs from many typical presentations of goals for science learning. For example, we include an emphasis on theory building and modeling, which is often missing in existing standards and curricular frameworks.

  • And, the fourth strand is often completely overlooked, but research indicates it is a critical component of science learning, particularly for students from populations that are typically underrepresented in science.
  • These strands illustrate the importance of moving beyond a simple dichotomy of instruction in terms of science as content or science as process.

That is, teaching content alone is not likely to lead to proficiency in science, nor is engaging in inquiry experiences devoid of meaningful science content. Rather, students across grades K-8 are more likely to advance in their understanding of science when classrooms provide learning opportunities that attend to all four strands.
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What are 3 reasons why science is important?

Science is important for a variety of reasons including: Increases our fundamental knowledge. Creates new technology. Dreams up new applications. A pathway to share ideas.
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