What Is Personality In Physical Education Class 12?
Short Answer (SA) Type Questions – 1. What is the role of psychology in sports? Ans. Psychology plays a vital role in enhancing the performance of players to a great extent. Psychological factors like learning, interest, attitude, motivation, emotion, stress, etc., largely affect the performance of players.
With the help of psychology, players as well as instructors can understand the weak areas and devise ways to bring improvement. Therefore, the knowledge of psychology helps the physical educators and the coaches to understand the behaviour of players and how desirable changes and modifications can be brought in their behavioral pattern to improve the level of their performance.2.
Explain the meaning of personality with the help of definitions. Ans. Personality is basically a set of characteristics like attitude, habits, traits, etc., possessed by a person which greatly influences his motivation, emotion and behavior in different situations.
- It reveals the psychological make up of an individual through his behavior.
- Personality is a dynamic and continuous process of learning in which an individual acquires different psychological characteristics.
- The word ‘personality’ is also used to represent all the factors inherited or acquired, which make up an individual.
Some definitions of personality are as follows According to Warren, “Personality is the entire organization of a human being at any stage of development.” According to Guildford, “Personality is an individual’s unique pattern of traits which distinguishes one individual from the other.” 3.
What are the types of personality as given by Sheldon? Or Discuss the Sheldon types of personality in detail. (CBSE 2020) Ans. The personality type on the basis of physical attributes is given by William Herbert Sheldon. These are as follows (i) Endomorphs, They have a pear-shaped and rounded physique.
They have short arms and legs. They are more inclined to become obese. They are most suitable for activities in which great strength is required. Sports like weight-lifting and power-lifting are most suitable for endomorphs. (ii) Ectomorphs, They are usually referred to as slim persons because their muscles and limbs are elongated.
- They have great difficulty in gaining weight.
- They have flat chest and have less muscle mass.
- They are best suited for games and sports like gymnastics.
- Iii) Mesomorphs,
- They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph.
- They have broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and average body fat.
They are well proportioned. They are physically capable of doing a lot of activities and tend to be athletically aggressive. They are adventurous, energetic and competitive.4. Write any three personality types that are formulated by Carl Jung. Ans. The types that are formulated by Carl Jung are described as follows (i) Extroverts-Introverts An extrovert is more open as the direction of energy is derived and expressed in the external world, environment and surroundings.
On the other hand, an introvert is mainly confined to the internal world. (ii) Sensing-Intuition Sensing means that the person perceives information that he receives through the senses or external world. On the other hand, intuition means that the person believes mainly the information that he receives through the inner self or imaginary world.
(iii) Thinking-Feeling Thinking means a person processes or makes a decision by logical reasoning. On the other hand, feeling means that a person processes information based on emotions.5. Differentiate between Extroverts and Introverts. Ans. The differences between extroverts and introverts are as follows:
|They are very outgoing, confident, lively and make friends easily.||They are reserved, too self-conscious and more interested in their own thoughts and ideas.|
|Actors politician group leaders are extroverts||Poets, artists, writers, philosophers are introverts usually.|
|Extroverts are more open as the direction of energy is derived and expressed in external world,||Introverts are mainly confined to their internal world i.e. their own self.|
6, Extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation Justify? Ans. Intrinsic motivation is within the individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc. Sometimes extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation because the physical appearance of something i.e.
Reward or punishment has more influence on the mind of an athlete than his own desire to succeed. Therefore, it is important to encourage students to achieve excellence rather than rely on rewards and punishments only.7. What is meant by motivation? Explain any two techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.
(All India 2017) Ans. Motivation means a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction. Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are as follows (i) Active Participation: Active involvement of the coach/teacher develops healthy competition and interaction between the students.
Teachers are able to identify the problems and explain how to solve those problems. (ii) Rewards Announcing, Rewards that will be given, once the tasks are completed successfully, has a great effect on a person’s performance. For example, parents giving chocolates to their children for good performance.
Rewards are of various types and help in achieving the goal, like cash, prize, job, professional security, honor, social status, etc.8. Discuss in detail any three techniques of motivation. (CBSE 2020) Ans. The three techniques of intrinsic motivation are as follows (i) Knowledge of the Goal,
- It is one of the most important techniques of motivation.
- A person should be made aware about the attainment of the goal.
- The player should be acquainted well with the aim and objectives of the goal.
- For example, telling the player that the goal is to cover 100 m distance in shortest time.
- In this, knowledge of the goal helps the player to reach towards it, (ii) Equipment and Surroundings,
Modern equipment and healthy surroundings like well maintained playgrounds, latest sports equipment, etc., act: as motivating factors for high performance. (iij) Positive Attitude, Positive attitude enhances the level of intrinsic motivation and helps in accepting external motivation, Sportsperson with a positive attitude gives his/her best to win the game.
- Such people always show confidence in themselves despite having difficult situations.
- Coaches and trainers also play an important role in imparting a positive attitude.9.
- What are the types of aggression? (CBSE 2020) Ans.
- There are three types of aggression in sports.
- They are as follows (i) Instrumental Aggression,
The main aim is to achieve a goal by using aggression. For example, a footballer using aggression to tackle his opponent by high intensity play without harming anyone. (ii) Hostile Aggression, The main aim is to cause harm or injury to the opponent. It is usually an unplanned, impulsive reaction.
For example, a bowler throwing a bouncer to deliberately injure the batsman. (iii) Assertive Behavior, It is also referred to as assertive aggression. It is generally seen as a positive form of aggression. In ground, it simply means to stand up for your values in an unthreatening manner, and involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s goals.10.
Explain Assertive behavior in detail. Ans. Assertive behavior is also referred to as assertive aggression. It is generally seen as a positive form of aggression. In ground, it simply means to stand up for your values in an unthreatening manner, and involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s goals.
- For an act to be assertive, it must be a goal directed with no specific intention to harm along with the use of legitimate force with no rules broken.
- Thus, assertive behavior should include four components tiz.
- It should be goal-oriented, should not be intended to harm, should use only legitimate force and should not break any rule of the sport.11.
Why do players show hostile aggression on the field? Ans. Players who want to achieve success quickly or are not able to manage their emotions, show hostile aggression towards another player. Sometimes players lose their self-control or are not able to manage humiliation and feel hurt and insulted, then they show hostile aggression as a form of revenge.
- Usually, new players show greater hostility than experienced players.
- Such aggression is against the spirit of the game.
- Hostile aggression may also arise as a result of bad feelings, jealousy, insecurity and threat.
- Here, the aim is to harm the player who becomes the reason for bad feelings.
- However, hostile aggression may be planned or unplanned to cause injury to the intended player on the field.12.
Distinguish between instrumental and hostile aggression. Ans. The difference between instrumental and hostile aggression are as follows:
|Instrumental Aggression||Hostile Aggression|
|It is a positive kind of aggression as the aim is to achieve a goal/target.||It is a negative kind of aggression as the aim is to cause harm or injury to others.|
|It arises from the need to excel and to do better.||It arises from insults, hurt feelings, jealousy and threats.|
|Here, the aim is to excel by improving their own performance||Here, the aim is to excel but devising ways to reduce the performance of others.|
Click Below To Learn Term-2 Physical Education Syllabus Notes/Questions-Answer
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- 1 How do you define personality class 12?
- 2 What are the types of personality in physical education?
- 3 What is personality type with example?
- 4 Why is personality important?
What do you mean by personality in physical education?
Define personality and motivation Last updated at March 15, 2022 by Teachoo
- According to Begge and Hunt, “Personality refers to the whole behavioral pattern of an individual to the totality of its characteristics.”
- According to Valentine, “Personality is the sum-total of inherited and acquired abilities.”
- According to Guild Ford, “Personality is an individual’s unique pattern of traits.”
- According to Sigmund Freud, “Personality is an individual’s unique thought, feeling and behavior that persist over time and different situations.”
- According to Young, “Personality is the totality of behavior of an individual with a given tendency system interacting with a sequence of situations.”
According to R.B. Cattel, “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.”
- On the basis of these definitions, a brief definition would be that, “Personality is the sum total of inner and outer capabilities of an individual.”
- According to Sage, “The drive to strive is called motivation.”
- According to Crooks and Stein, “Any condition that might energize and direct our actions” is called motivation.
- According to Morgan and King, “Motivation refers to a state within a person or animal that drives behavior towards some goal.”
According to P.T. Yong, “Motivation is the process of arousing, action, sustaining the activities in progress, and regulating the patterns of activity.” According to Johnson, “Motivation is the influence of a general pattern of activities indicating and directing the behavior of the organism.” Get Real time Doubt solving from 8pm to 12 am!
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How do you define personality class 12?
Self And Personality – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Psychology FACTS THAT MATTER • Self refers to the totality of an individuals conscious experiences, ideas thoughts and feelings with regard to her self or him self. • The study of self and personality help us to understand ourselves as well as others.
• The structure of self can be understood in terms of identity of the intended and the development of personal and social self. • Personal identity refers to those attributes of a person that make him/her different from others. • Social identity refers to those aspects of a person that link him/her to a social or cultural group or are derived from it.
Self refers to the totality of an individual’s conscious experiences, ideas, thoughts and feelings with regard to himself or herself.
- • Subject:
- • Object:
- • Kinds of Self:
- • Personal Self:
- • Techniques of self-control:
- CULTURE AND SELF:
Who does something (actor). Self actively engages in the process of knowing itself. Which gets affected (consequence). Self gets observed and comes to be known. (i) Formed as a result of the interaction of the biological self with the physical and sociocultural environment.
(ii) Biological self developed |is a result of our biological needs. Primarily concerned with oneself. Emphasis comes to be laid on those aspects of life that relate only to the concern the person, such as personal freedom, personal responsibility, personal achievement, or personal comforts. • Social/Familial/Relational Self Emerges in relation with others.
Emphasises such aspects of life as co-operation, unity, affiliation, sacrifice, support or sharing. This self values family and social relationship. • Self-concept is the way perceive ourselves and the ideas we hold about our competencies and attributes.
- A person’s self-concept can be found out by asking the person about himself herself.
- Self-esteem is the value judgement of a person about himself/herself.1.
- Assessment present a variety of statements to a person and ask him/her to indicate the extent to which those statements are true for him or her.2.
By 6 to 7 years, children have formed self-esteem in four areas—academic, social and physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance become more refined with age.3. Overall self-esteem: It is the capacity to view oneself in terms of stable disposition and combine separate self-evaluations into a general psychological image of oneself.4.
Self-esteem has a strong relationship with our everyday behaviour. Children with low self-esteem in all areas often display anxiety, depression, and increasing anti-social behaviour.5. Warm and positive parenting helps in development of high self-esteem among children- allows them to know they are accepted as competent and worthwhile.
• Self-efficacy is the extent to which a person believes they themselves control their life outcomes or the outcomes are controlled by luck or fate or other situational factors.1. A person who believes that he/she has the ability or behaviour required by a particular situation demonstrates high self-efficacy.2.
- The notion of self-efficacy is based on Bandura’s social learning theory.
- He showed that children and adults learned behaviour by observing and imitating others.3.
- People’s expectations of achievement also determine the type of behaviour in which they would engage, as also the amount of risk they would undertake.4.
Strong sense of self-efficacy allows people to select, influence, and even construct the circumstances of their own life; also feel less fearful.5. Society, parents and own positive experiences can help in the development of a strong sense of self-efficacy by presenting positive models during the formative years of children.
- Self-regulation refers to the ability to organize and monitor one’s own behaviour.1.
- People who are able to change their behaviour according to the demands of.
- The environment are high on self-monitoring.2.
- Self-control is learning to delay or refer the gratification of needs.3.
- Will-power is the ability to respond to situational pressure with resistance and control over ourselves.4.
Self-control plays a key role in the fulfilment of a long-term goal.5. Indian culture tradition provides certain effective mechanisms (fasting in vrata or roza and non-attachment with worldly things) for developing self-control.1. Observation of own behaviour: provides necessary information that may be used to change, modify or strengthen certain aspects of self.2.
- • Western
- CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY
- APPROACHES TO STUDY PERSONALITY
Boundary is relatively fixed. Holds clear dichotomies between self and other, man and nature, subjective and objective. Individualistic Culture: Self and the group exist as two different entities with clearly defined boundaries; individual members of the group maintain their individuality.
- Personality refers to unique and relatively stable qualities that characterized an individual’s behaviour across different situation over a period of time.1.
- Derived from persona (Latin), the mask used by actors in Roman theatre for changing their facial make-up.2.
- Once we are able to characterize someone’s personality, we can predict how that person will probably behave in a variety of circumstances.3.
An understanding of personality allows us to deal with people in realistic and acceptable ways. Features of Personality: 1. Personality has both physical and psychological components.2. Its expression in terms of behaviour is fairly unique in a given individual.3.
Its main features do not easily change with time.4. It is dynamic in the sense that some of its features may change due to internal or external situational demands; adaptive to situations. • TYPE APPROACHES 1. Hippocrates (Greek Physician) (i) Proposed a typology of personality based on fluid or humour.
(ii) Classified people into four types (i.e., sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic and choleric); characterised by specific behavioural features.2. Charak Samhita (Treatise on Ayurveda) (i) Classifies people into the categories of vata, pitta and kapha on the basis of three humoural elements called tridosha.
(ii) Each refers to a type of temperament, called prakriti (basic nature) of a person.3. Typology of personality based on the trigunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. — Sattva guna—cleaniness, truthfulness, dutifulness, detachment, discipline. — Rajas guna—intensive activity, desire for sense gratification, dissatisfaction,envy, materialism.
— Tamas guna—anger, arrogance, depression, laziness, helplessness All the three gunas are present in every person in different degrees—the dominance of, any guna leads to a particular type of behaviour.4. Sheldon Using body built and temperament as the main basis for classification: (i) Endomorphic (fat, soft and round)—relaxed and sociable.
(ii) Mesomorphic (strong musculature, rectangular, strong body build)—energetic and courageous. (iii) Ectomorphic (thin, long, fragile)—brainy, artistic and introverted. — Limited use in predicting behaviour—simple and similar to stereotypes.5. Jung Grouped people into two types, widely recognized. (i) Introverts: People who prefer to be alone, tend to avoid others, withdraw themselves in the face of emotional conflicts, and are shy.
(ii) Extraverts: Sociable, outgoing, drawn to occupations that allow dealing directly with people, and react to stress by trying to lose themselves among people and social activity.6. Friedman and Roesenman Tried to identify psycho-social risk factors and discovered types.
I) Type-A (susceptible to hypertension and coronary heart disease): Highly motivated, impatience, feel short of time, be in a great hurry, and feel like being always burdened with work. Such people find it difficult to slow down and relax, (ii) Type-B The absence of Type-A traits. Moris continued this research and identified: (iii) Type-C (prone to cancer): Co-operative, unassertive patient, suppress negative emotion, show compliance to authority.
(iv) Type-D (prone to depression). Personality typologies are usually too simplistic as human behaviour is highly complex and variable. Assigning people to a particular personality type is difficult. People do not fit into such simple categorization schemes so neatly.
- TRAIT APPROACHES A trait is considered as a relatively enduring attribute or quality on which one individual differ another.
- They are: Relatively Stable over Time — Generally consistent across situations.
- Their strengths and combination vary across individuals leading to individual differences in personality.1.
Allport’s Trait Theory (Gordon Allport) (i) Individuals possess a number of traits—dynamic in nature and determine behaviour. (ii) Analysed words people use to describe themselves—provided a basic for understanding human personality—and categorized them into— — Cardinal Traits: highly generalized disposition, indicates the goal around,
- Which a person’s entire life revolves, e.g., Hitler’s Nazism.
- Central Traits: less pervasive in effect, but still quite generalized disposition.e.g., sincere.
- Secondary trai least generalized characteristics of a person, e.g., likes mangoes.
- Iii) The way an individual reacts to a situation depends on his/her traits.
(iv) People sharing the same traits might express them in different ways.2. Personality Factors (Raymond Cattell) (i) Identified primary traits from descriptive adjectives found in language. (ii) Applied factor analysis, a statistical technique to discover the common structure on which people differ from each other.
Source or Primary Traits (16): stable, building blocks of personality— described in terms of opposing tendencies. — Surface Traits: result out of the interaction of source traits. (iii) Developed Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire for the assessment of personality.3. Eysenck’s Theory (H.J.
Eysenck) (i) Reduced personality into, two broad dimensions which are biologically and genetically based and subsume a number of specific traits. — Neuroticism (anxious, moody, touchy, restless) us. Emotional stability (calm, even tempered, reliable)—the degree to which people have control over their feelings.
- Extraversion (active, gregarious, impulsive, thrill seeking) vs.
- Introversion (passive, quiet, caution, reserved)—the degree to which people are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn.
- Ii) Later proposed a third dimension, Psychoticism (hostile, electric, and antisocial) vs.
- Sociability, considered to interact with the other two dimensions.
(iii) Developed Eysenck Personality Questionnaires to study dimensions of personality. (iv) Useful in understanding the personality profile of people across cultures (v) Consistent with the analysis of personality traits found in different languages and methods • Psycho-dynamic Approach (Sigmund Freud)
- A Levels of Conciousness
- B Structure of Personality
- • Id:
- • Ego:
- • Superego:
- C Ego Defence Mechanisms
- D Stages of Personality/Psychosexual Development (Five Stage Theory of Personality)
1. Conscious—thoughts, feelings and action of which people are aware.2. Preconscious-—mental activity which people may become aware only if they attend to it closely.3. Unconscious—mental activity that people are aware of. (i) A reservoir of instinctive or animal drives—stores all ideas and,wishes that arise from sexual desires.
- Ii) Cannot be expressed openly and therefore are repressed or concealed from conscious awareness.
- Iii) Constant struggle to find a socially acceptable way to express unconscious awareness.
- Iv) Unsuccessful resolution of conflicts results in abnormal behaviour Approaches to the Unconscious 1.
- Free Association—a method in which a person is asked to openly share all the thoughts, feelings and ideas that come to his/her mind.2.
Dream Analysis.3. Analysis of Errors—mispronunciations, forgetting. Psycho-analysis is a therapeutic procedure, the basic goal which is to bring repressed unconscious material to consciousness, thereby helping people to live in a more self-aware and integrated manner.1.
- Freud gave an imaginary division of mind it believed in internal dynamics which can be inferred from the ways people behave.2.
- Three competing forces—i.e.
- Id, ego and superego influence behaviour relative strength of each structure determines a person’s stability.1.
- Source of a person’s instinctual energy—deals with immediate gratification of primitive needs, sexual desires and aggressive impulses.2.
Works on the pleasure principle, which assumes that people seek pleasure and try to avoid pain.3. Demanding, unrealistic and does not care for moral values, society, or other individuals.4. Energised by instinctual forces, life (sexual) instinct (libido) and death instinct.1.
- Seeks to satisfy an individual’s instinctual needs in accordance with reality.2.
- Works on the reality principle, and directs the id towards more appropriate ways of behaving.3.
- Patient and reasonable.1.
- Moral branch of mental functioning.2.
- Tells the id and ego whether gratification in a particular instance is ethical 3.
Controls the id by internalising the parental authority the process of socialisation. According to Freud personality is Biological determined. It is instinctive. Life instinct and death instinct determine behaviour. • Life instinct is dominant in human behaviour.1.
A defence mechanism is a way of reducing anxiety by distorting reality unconsciously.2. It defends the ego against the awareness of the instinctual reality.3. It is normal and adaptive; people who use mechanism are often unaware of doing so. (i) Repression: Anxiety provoking behaviours or thoughts are totally dismissed by the unconscious.
‘ (ii) Projection: People attributes their own traits to others. (iii) Denial: A person totally refuses to accept reality. (iv) Reaction Formation: A person defends against anxiety by adopting behaviours opposite to his/her true feelings. (v) Rationalisation: A person tries to make unreasonable feelings or behaviour seem reasonable and acceptable.1. • Oedipus Complex (Male) Love for mother, hostility towards the father, and fear of punishment or castration by the father. Accepts his father’s relationship with his mother and models his own behaviour after his father.
- • Electra Complex (Female)
- Resolution of Complex
- 1. Carl Jung: Aims and Aspirations are the source of energy
- 2. Karen Horney: Optimism
Attaches her love to the father and tries to symbolically marry him and raise a family. Identifies with her mother and copies her behaviour as a means of getting (or sharing in) her father’s affection.1. Identification with same sex parent.2. Giving up sexual feeling for sex parent.
Failure of a child to pass successfully through a stage leads to fixation to that stage. The child’s development gets arrested at an earlier stage. Regression occurs when a person’s resolution of problems at any stage of development is less than adequate. People display behaviours typing of a less mature stage of development.
• Post-Freudian Approach Neo-analytic or Post-Freudian View (i) Less prominent role to sexual and aggressive tendencies of the Id. (ii) Expansion of the concept ego. (iii) Emphasis on human qualities of creativity, competence, and problem-solving. (i) Saw human being as guided by aims and aspirations.
Ii) Analytical Psychology; personality consists of competing forces and structures within the individual (that must be balanced) rather than between the individual and the demand of society, or between the individual and reality. (iii) Collective unconscious consisting of archetypes or primordial images; not individually acquired, but are inherited—found in myths, dreams and arts of all mankind.
(iv) The self-strive for unity and oneness; for achieving which, a person must become increasingly aware of the wisdom available in one’s personal and collective unconscious, and must learn to live harmony with it. (i) Optimistic view of human life with emphasis on human growth and self actualisation (ii) Challenge to Freud’s treatment of women as inferior—each sex has attributes to be admire by the other, and neither sex can be viewed as superior or inferior; countered that women were more likely to be affected by social and cultural factors than by biological factors.
(iii) Psychological disorders were caused by disturbed interpersonal relationship during childhood. (iv) When parent’s behaviour toward a child is indifferent, discouraging and erratic, the child feels insecure and a feeling called basic anxiety results—deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occur due to this anxiety.3.
Alfred Adler: Lifestyle and Social Interest source of energy-attainment of personal goals. (i) Individual Psychology: human behaviour is purposeful and goal directed. (ii) Each one of us has the capacity to choose and create. (iii) Personal goals, goals that provide us with security and help us in overcoming the feelings of inadequacy, are the sources of our motivation.
- 4. Erich Fromm: The Human Concerns
- 5. Erik Erikson: Search for Identity
- • Criticism to Psychodynamic Theories
- • Behavioural Approach
- • Cultural Approach
- • Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers
- • Abraham Maslow
- • Characteristics of Healthy Person
- • Assessment of Personality
(i) Social orientation viewed human beings as social beings who could be understood in terms of their relationship with others. (ii) Character traits (personality) develop from our experiences with their individuals. (iii) Psychological qualities such as growth from our experiences of potentials resulted from A desire for freedom.
- And striving for justice and truth.
- Iv) People’s dominant character traits in a given work as forces in shaping the social processes and the culture itself (i) Rational, conscious ego processes in personality development.
- Ii) Development is viewed as a lifelong process, and ego identity is granted a central place in this process.
(iii) Identity crisis at the adolescent age—young people must generate for themselves a central perspective and a direction that can give them a meaningful sense of unity and purpose.1. The theories are largely based on case studies; they lack a rigorous scientific basis.2.
- They use small and a typical individual as samples for advancing generalisations.3.
- The concepts are not properly defined, and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing.4.
- Freud has used males as the prototype of all human personality development and overlooked female experiences and perspectives.1.
Focus on learning of stimulus—response connection and their reinforcement.2. Personality is the response of an individual as sample for advancing generalization.3. The concepts are not properly defined, and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing.4.
- Freud has used males as the prototype of all human personality development and overlooked females experiences and perspective.1.
- Considers personality as an adaptation of individuals or group to the demand of their ecology and culture.2.
- A group’s economic maintenance system plays a vital role in the origin of cultural and behavioural variations.3.
The climatic conditions, the nature of terrain of the habitat and the availability of food determine people’s settlement patterns, social structures, division of labour, and other features such as child-rearing practices. Economic maintenance system.4.
These elements constitute a child’s overall learning environment—skills, abilities, behavioural styles, and value priorities are viewed as strongly linked to these features.1. Fully functioning individual—fulfilment is the motivating force for personality development (people try to express their capabilities, potentials and talents to the fullest extent possible).2.
Assumptions about human behaviour: (i) It is goal-oriented and worthwhile. (ii) People (who are innately good) will almost always choose adaptive, self-actualising behaviour.3. People are constantly engaged in the process of actualising their true self.4.
Ideal self is the self that a person would like to be—correspondence between ideal and real self = happiness, discrepancy = dissatisfaction.5. People have tendency to maximize self-concept through self-actualisation.6. Personality development is a continuous process.7. Role of social influences in the development of self-concept—positive social conditions lead to a high self-concept and self-esteem, generally flexible and open to new experiences.8.
An atmosphere of unconditional positive regard must be created in order to ensure enhancement of people’s self-concept.9. Client-centered therapy that Rogers developed basically attempts to create this condition.1. Attainment of self-actualisation, a state in which people have reached their own fullest potential.2.
- Optimistic and positive view of man who has the potentialities for love, joy and to do creative work.3.
- Human beings are considered free to shape their lives and to self-actualisation.4.
- Self-actualisation becomes possible by analysing the motivations that govern our life.1.
- Healthy become aware of themselves, their feelings, and their limits; accept themselves, and what they make of their own responsibility; have ‘the courage to be’.2.
They experience the ‘here-and-now’; are not trapped.3. They do not live in the past or dwell in the future through anxious expectation and distorted defences. A formal effort aimed at understanding personality of an individual is termed as personality assessment. Self-Report Measures: • It was Allport who suggested that the best method to assess a person is by asking her/him about herself himself. • Fairly structured measures, based on theory that require subjects to give verbal responses using some kind of rating scale. • The method requires the subject to objectively report her/his own feeling with respect to various items. Responses are accepted at face value, scored in quantative terms and interpreted on basis of norms for the test. • eg. MMPI, EPQ, 16 PF —> Direct technique
- Projective Techniques:
- MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY
- EYSENCK PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE
- WORDS THAT MATTER
- • Values: Enduring beliefs about ideal modes of behaviour or end-state of existence; attitudes that have a strong evaluative and ‘ought’ aspect.
• Direct methods of personality assessment cannot uncover the unconscious part of our behaviour. • Techniques based on assumption that a less structured or unstructured stimulus or situation will allow the individual to project her/his feelings, desires and needs on to that situation. These projections are interpreted by experts. • E.G. RORSCHACH Inkblot test, thematic apperception test, sentence completion test, Draw-a-person test. —> Indirect technique Besides promoting our understanding assessment is also useful for diagnosis, training, placement, counselling and other purposes. —> Developed by HATHAWAY and McKINLEY —> Effective in identifying varieties of psychopathology —> Revised version is MMPI-2 —> Consists of 567 statements. The subject has to judge each statement as ‘true’ or ‘false’. —> The test is divided into 10 sub scales which seek to diagnose hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviant, masculinity-feminity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, mania and social introversion. —>In India, Mallick and Joshi have developed Jodhpur Muitiphasic Personality Inventory. (JMPI) —> Developed by Eysenck —> Initially assessed 2 dimensions of personality: hitroversion-Extraversion and emotionally stable-emotionally unstable. Emotional stability instability. —>These dimensions are characterised by 32 personality traits. —> Later on, Eysenck added a third dimension, called psychoticism. It is linked to psychopathology-sociability. —> It represents a lack of feeling for others, a tough manner of interacting with people, and a tendency to defy social conventions. A person scoring high on this dimension tends to be hostile, egocentric and antisocial. • Alienation: The feeling of not being part of society or a group. • Anal stage: The second of Freud’s psycho-sexual stages, which occurs during the child’s second year. Pleasure is focused on the anus and on retention and expulsion of faeces. • Antisocial Personality: A behavioural disorder characteristics by truancy, delinquency, promiscuity, theft, vandalism, fighting, violation of common social rules, poor work record, impulsiveness, irrationality, aggressiveness, reckless behaviour, and inability to plan ahead. The particular pattern of behaviour varies from individual to individual. • Archetypes: Jung’s term for the contents of the collective unconscious; images or symbols expressing the inherited patterns for the organization of experience. ” • Cardinal Trait: According to All port, a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality. • Central Traits: The major trait considered in forming an impression of others. • Client centred therapy: The theraphentic approach developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist helps clients to clarify their true feelings and come to value who they are. • Collective Unconscious: Inherited portion of the unconscious, as postulated by Carl Jung. The unconscious shared by all human beings. • Defence Mechanisms: According to Freud, ways in which the ego unconsciously tries to cope with unacceptable id impulses, as in repression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, rationalisation, etc. • Deinstitutionalisation: The transfer of former mental patients from institution into the community. • Ego: The part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside. • Evolution apprehension: The fear of being evaluated negatively by others who are present (an audience). • Extraversion: One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed outward to nature and other people rather than inwards to the thoughts and feelings of self (introvert). • Humanistic Approach: The theory that people are basically good and tend to grow to higher levels of functioning. • Id: According to Freud, the impulsive and unconscious part of the psyche that operates through the pleasure principle toward the gratification of instinctual drives. The Id is conceived as the true unconscious, or the deepest part of the psyche. • Ideal Self: The kind of person we would like to be. Also called ego-ideal/idealized self-image. • Identity: The distinguishing character of the individual—who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of. • Inferiority Complex: According to Adler, a complex developed by adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world. • Interview: Verbal interaction between a respondent and a researcher to gather information about the respondent. • Introversion: One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed inwards rather than outwards (extrovert). • Latency Period: In Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual stages, the period between the phallic stage and the mature genital stage (period from age 4 to 5 to about 12) during which interest in sex is sublimated. • Libido: Freud introduced this term. In Freud’s treatment, libido was quite simply a direct or indirect sexual expression. • Meta needs: In the hierarchy of needs, those at the top, such as self-actualisation, self-esteem, aesthetic needs, and the like, which can only be satisfied when lower order needs are satisfied. • Observational Method: A method in which researcher observes phenomenon that occurs naturally without being able to manipulate. • Oedipus Complex: The Freudian concept in which the young child develops an intense desire to replace the parent of the same sex and enjoy that affection of the opposite sex parent. • Personal Identity: Awareness of oneself as a separate, distinct being. • Phallic Stage: Third of Freud’s psycho-sexual stages (at about age five) when pleasure is focused on the genitals and both males and females experience the ‘Oedipus complex’. • Projection: A defence mechanism; the process of unwittingly attributing one’s own traits, attitudes, or subjective processes to others. • Projective Techniques: The utilization of vague, ambiguous, unstructured stimulus objects or situation in order to elicit the individual’s characteristic modes of perceiving his/ her world or of behaving in it. • Psycho-dynamic Approach: Approach that strives for explanation in terms of motives, or drives. • Psycho-dynamic Therapy: First suggested by Freud; therapy based on the premise that the primary sources of abnormal behaviour are resolved past conflicts and the possibility that unacceptable unconscious impulses will enter consciousness. • Rationalisation: A defence mechanism that occurs when one attempts to explain failure or shortcoming by attributing them to more acceptable causes. • Reaction Formation: A defence mechanism in which a person denies a disapproved motive through giving strong expression to its opposite. • Regression: A defence mechanism that involves a return to behaviours characterized of an earlier stage in life. The term is also used in statistics, in which with the help of correlation prediction is made. • Repression: A defence mechanism by which people push unacceptable, anxiety provoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. In short it is unconscious forgetting. • Repression: A defence mechanism by which people push unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. • Self-actualization: A state of self-fulfillment in which people realise their highest potential in their own unique way. • Self-efficacy: Bandura’s term for the individual’s beliefs about his or her own effectiveness; the exception that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes. • Self-esteem: The individual’s personal judgment of his or her own worth; one’s attitude toward oneself along a positive-negative dimension. • Self-regulation: It refers to our ability to organise and monitor our own behaviour. • Social Identity: A person’s definition of who he or she is; includes personal attributes (self¬concept) along with membership in various groups. • Super Ego: According to Freud, superego is the final personality structure to develop; it represents society’s standards of right and wrong as handed down by person’s parents, teachers, and other important figures. • Surface Traits: R.B. Cattell’s term for clusters of observable trait elements (response) that seems to go together. Factor analysis of the correlations reveals source traits. • Trait: A relatively persistent and consistent behaviour pattern manifested in a wide range of circumstances. • Trait Approach: An approach to personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality. • Type Approach: Explanation of personality based on broad categories which are mostly determined by body constitution and temperament. • Typology: Ways of categorising individuals into discrete categories or types e.g., Type-A personality. • Unconscious: In psychoanalytic theory, characterising any activity or mental structure which a person is not aware of. : Self And Personality – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Psychology
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What do you mean by personality?
Personality refers to the enduring characteristics and behavior that comprise a person’s unique adjustment to life, including major traits, interests, drives, values, self-concept, abilities, and emotional patterns. Various theories explain the structure and development of personality in different ways, but all agree that personality helps determine behavior.
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What are the types of personality in physical education?
PERI consists of five factors, namely, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The inventory was administered face-to-face. Specialities and personality traits of physical education teachers were compared for the purpose of the study.
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What do you mean by personality in B Ed?
Personality – Concept – Personality means the constitution of mental as well as the physical health of an individual. In his medical text book, “Principles and Practice of Medicine,” Davidson states about personality, which is socially acquired after having a genetic basis, over the course of time.
The individual arrives at an adult psychological stage after passing successively through a series of maturational stages. According to McClelland, “Personality is the most adequate conceptualisation of an individual’s behaviour with all its details, which the scientist can provide in a moment.” In the definition given by Davidson, there are three different aspects-Social, Physiological and Psychological of one’s personality and its development and growth.
McClelland has stressed mainly the psychological aspects effecting desirable changes in the behaviour and personality of an individual. Hence, both these definitions throw some light on personality development and individual behaviour. Thus, both these definitions have utmost applicability and usefulness in organisational behaviour apart from the comprehensive approach made by Allport on the subject.
Personality of an individual is unique, personal and a major determinant of his behaviour. Because of differences in personality, individuals differ in their manner of responding to different situations. Some personality theorists emphasize the need to recognize the person-situation interaction, i.e., the social learning aspects of personality.
Such an interpretation is highly meaningful to the study of human behaviour.
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What is personality definition PDF?
It. includes all of the patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things. in particular ways. At a basic level, personality is expressed through our temperament. or emotional tone.
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What is personality in summary?
personality, Totality of an individual’s behavioral and emotional characteristics. Personality embraces a person’s moods, attitudes, opinions, motivations, and style of thinking, perceiving, speaking, and acting. It is part of what makes each individual distinct.
- Theories of personality have existed in most cultures and throughout most of recorded history.
- The ancient Greeks used their ideas about physiology to account for differences and similarities in temperament.
- In the 18th century Immanuel Kant, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, and Giambattista Vico proposed ways of understanding individual and group differences; in the early 20th century Ernst Kretschmer and the psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung offered competing personality theories.
Freud’s model rested on the power of psychosexual drives as mediated by the structural components of the id, ego, and superego and the interplay of conscious and unconscious motives. Particularly important was the array of defense mechanisms an individual employed.
Jung, like Freud, emphasized unconscious motives but de-emphasized sexuality and advanced a typal theory that classified people as introverts and extraverts; he further claimed that an individual personality was a persona (i.e., social facade) drawn from the “collective unconscious,” a pool of inherited memories.
Later theories by Erik H. Erikson, Gordon W. Allport, and Carl R. Rogers were also influential. Contemporary personality studies tend to be empirical (based on the administration of projective tests or personality inventories) and less theoretically sweeping and tend to emphasize personal identity and development.
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What is personality and its types?
Read a brief summary of this topic – personality, a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people’s relations to the environment and to the social group,
The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings have evolved. The first pertains to the consistent differences that exist between people: in this sense, the study of personality focuses on classifying and explaining relatively stable human psychological characteristics.
The second meaning emphasizes those qualities that make all people alike and that distinguish psychological man from other species; it directs the personality theorist to search for those regularities among all people that define the nature of man as well as the factors that influence the course of lives.
This duality may help explain the two directions that personality studies have taken: on the one hand, the study of ever more specific qualities in people, and, on the other, the search for the organized totality of psychological functions that emphasizes the interplay between organic and psychological events within people and those social and biological events that surround them.
The dual definition of personality is interwoven in most of the topics discussed below. It should be emphasized, however, that no definition of personality has found universal acceptance within the field. The study of personality can be said to have its origins in the fundamental idea that people are distinguished by their characteristic individual patterns of behaviour—the distinctive ways in which they walk, talk, furnish their living quarters, or express their urges.
Whatever the behaviour, personologists—as those who systematically study personality are called—examine how people differ in the ways they express themselves and attempt to determine the causes of these differences. Although other fields of psychology examine many of the same functions and processes, such as attention, thinking, or motivation, the personologist places emphasis on how these different processes fit together and become integrated so as to give each person a distinctive identity, or personality.
The systematic psychological study of personality has emerged from a number of different sources, including psychiatric case studies that focused on lives in distress, from philosophy, which explores the nature of man, and from physiology, anthropology, and social psychology,
The systematic study of personality as a recognizable and separate discipline within psychology may be said to have begun in the 1930s with the publication in the United States of two textbooks, Psychology of Personality (1937) by Ross Stagner and Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937) by Gordon W.
Allport, followed by Henry A. Murray’s Explorations in Personality (1938), which contained a set of experimental and clinical studies, and by Gardner Murphy’s integrative and comprehensive text, Personality: A Biosocial Approach to Origins and Structure (1947).
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What are the 4 types of personality?
This article is about the “four humours” in Greco-Roman medicine, a specific form of the more universal proto-medical concept of humourism, For the music by Hindemith choreographed by Balanchine, see The Four Temperaments, For the symphony by Carl Nielsen, see Symphony No.2 (Nielsen), 18th-century depiction of the four temperaments, Phlegmatic and choleric above, sanguine and melancholic below The four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory which suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic,
Most formulations include the possibility of mixtures among the types where an individual’s personality types overlap and they share two or more temperaments. Greek physician Hippocrates (c.460 – c.370 BC) described the four temperaments as part of the ancient medical concept of humourism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviours.
Modern medical science does not define a fixed relationship between internal secretions and personality, although some psychological personality type systems use categories similar to the Greek temperaments.
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What is personality type with example?
Type theories – Further information:
- An early form of personality type indicator theory was the system of, based on the model of ; an extended system based on the classical theory was published in 1958.
- One example of personality types is, According to this theory, impatient, achievement-oriented people are classified as Type A, whereas easy-going, relaxed individuals are designated as Type B. The theory originally suggested that Type A individuals were more at risk for, but this claim has not been supported by empirical research.
- One study suggests that people with Type A personalities are more likely to develop personality disorders whereas Type B personalities are more likely to become alcoholics.
- Developmental psychologist is a prominent advocate of type indicator theory. He suggests that shy, withdrawn children are best viewed as having an inhibited temperament, which is qualitatively different from that of other children.
- As a matter of convenience, trait theorists sometimes use the term type to describe someone who scores exceptionally high or low on a particular personality trait. refers to superordinate personality factors as types, and more specific associated traits as traits,
- Several theories (e.g.,, the ) rely on the idea of distinctively different types of people.
- distinguishes eight psychoanalytic personalities: Psychopathic (Antisocial), Narcissistic, Schizoid, Paranoid, Depressive and Manic, Masochistic (Self-Defeating), Obsessive and Compulsive, Hysterical (Histrionic), and one Dissociative psychology.
What is personality Class 11?
Personality usually means that an individual is much more than his outer appearance. Personality also refer to the pattern of thoughts, feeling, social adjustment and behaviour etc. Different of personality (Explanation of each)
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What is personality and skills?
Personal skills are abilities that help people positively interact with one another. Sometimes called interpersonal skills or people skills, personal skills are soft skills. That means people acquire them naturally or through practise, rather than formal study.
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What is personality in sentence?
Example Sentences – He has a very pleasant personality, We all have different personalities, The psychiatrist considered behavior as well as personality before prescribing a treatment. He has lots of personality, He wants to buy a car that has personality, Ian Crouch, The New Yorker, 25 Nov.2022 The Titans have again taken on the hard-nosed personality of their head coach, Mike Vrabel, the former Ohio State and New England linebacker. Jason Williams, The Enquirer, 23 Nov.2022 The television and radio personality has been married twice — first to Bert Girigorie in 1994, then to Kevin Hunter in 1997. Los Angeles Times, 23 Nov.2022 Alongside the photo, the HGTV personality ‘s husband wrote a caption that some of his followers thought contained an indirect dig at his wife’s ex, after their public feuding over custody issues related to Hudson. Georgia Slater, Peoplemag, 21 Nov.2022 Tim McInnerny delivers a masterly narration, finely tuned to the personality and convictions of each character. Katherine A. Powers, Washington Post, 17 Nov.2022 After the loss by doctor and television personality Mehmet Oz to Pennsylvania Lt. Gov. John Fetterman, Mr. McConnell’s pathway to victory had hinged on winning two of three final competitive states—Arizona, Nevada, and Georgia. Chad Day, WSJ, 14 Nov.2022 Bland answers, lying about injuries and having the personality of an eggplant is standard operating procedure for these millionaires, more concerned with their next extension and staying on boosters’ good sides. Scooby Axson, USA TODAY, 13 Nov.2022 Kardashian was not the only famous personality to endorse the obscure token, which sported a market cap of nearly $250 million in May 2021 but is currently virtually worthless. John Hyatt, Forbes, 11 Nov.2022 See More These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘personality.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback,
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Why is personality important?
Importance of Personality Development An individual’s personality refers to his/her appearance, characteristics, attitude, mindset and behavior with others. Let us go through the importance of personality development, Personality development grooms an individual and helps him make a mark of his/her own,
- Individuals need to have a style of their own for others to follow them.
- Do not blindly copy others.
- You need to set an example for people around.
- Personality development not only makes you look good and presentable but also helps you face the world with a smile.
- Personality development goes a long way in reducing stress and conflicts,
It encourages individuals to look at the brighter sides of life. Face even the worst situations with a smile. Trust me, flashing your trillion dollar smile will not only melt half of your problems but also evaporate your stress and worries. There is no point cribbing over minor issues and problems.
- Personality development helps you develop a positive attitude in life,
- An individual with a negative attitude finds a problem in every situation.
- Rather than cribbing and criticizing people around, analyze the whole situation and try to find an appropriate solution for the same.
- Remember, if there is a problem, there has to be a solution as well.
Never lose your cool. It would make the situation worse. It is essential for individuals to behave well with people around. Being polite with others will not only make you popular among other people but also earn you respect and pride. You can’t demand respect by being rude with people around.
Personality development plays an important role in developing not only your outer but also inner self, Human being is a social animal. One needs people around. An individual needs to have that magnetic power which attracts people towards him. You need to have that charisma of yours. Personality development helps you gain recognition and acceptance from the society as well as people around.
Personality development plays an essential role not only in an individual’s professional but also personal lives. It makes an individual disciplined, punctual and an asset for his/her organization. An in-disciplined individual finds it difficult to survive in the long run.
- Personality development teaches you to respect not only your Boss and fellow workers but also family members, friends, neighbours, relatives and so on.
- Never make fun of anyone at the workplace.
- Avoid criticizing and making fun of your fellow workers.
- One should never carry his/her attitude or personal grudges to work.
Office is not a place where you can be rude to others just because you had a fight with your friend last night. Personality development sessions help you differentiate between your personal as well as professional life. It is really essential to keep a balance between both the lives to lead a peaceful and stress free life.
Personality development helps an individual to inculcate positive qualities like punctuality, flexible attitude, willingness to learn, friendly nature, eagerness to help others and so on, Never hesitate to share information with others. Always reach office on time. Some people have a tendency to work till late.
Late sittings not only increase your stress levels but also spoil your personal life. Sitting till late at the office indicates that an individual is extremely poor in time management skills. Personality development helps you develop an impressive personality and makes you stand apart from the rest.
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What do you mean by personality in sports?
Quick Check –
- Sports psychology is the study of people and their behaviours in sport
- Personality is the unique pattern of behaviour and characteristics a person/athlete displays. Some psychologists believe success or failure on the sports pitch is determined by personality.
- There are a number of theories and approaches that try to explain personality and how it can influence participation and performance
- Can have double periodisation for two major competitions in the year
- Trait Theory (Eysenck) – Personality is inherent and is within the athletes genes, inherited from their parents.
- Social learning Theory (Bandura)- Personality is learned through environmental experiences and the influence of others.
- Biological Theory (Sheldon) – Personality was categorised into three personalities based on physical make-up.
- Interactionist approach – Personality is a result of inherent traits and learned experiences.
- Personality profiling – There has been a large amount of research to try to demonstrate a relationship between personality and sporting behaviour, success and participation.
: Sports psychology
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What is personality Class 11?
Personality usually means that an individual is much more than his outer appearance. Personality also refer to the pattern of thoughts, feeling, social adjustment and behaviour etc. Different of personality (Explanation of each)
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