What Is Open Education Class 12?


What Is Open Education Class 12
Definition of open education – The European Commission’s definition of open education is: “a way of carrying out education, often using digital technologies. Its aim is to widen access and participation to everyone by removing barriers and making learning accessible, abundant, and customisable for all.
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What is open education answers?

Open education is an educational movement founded on openness, with connections to other educational movements such as critical pedagogy, and with an educational stance which favours widening participation and inclusiveness in society. Open education broadens access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems and is typically (but not necessarily) offered through online and distance education,

The qualifier “open” refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness or “opening up” education is the development and adoption of open educational resources in support of open educational practices,

An example of an institutional practice in line with open education would be decreasing barriers to entry, for example, eliminating academic admission requirements. Universities which follow such practices include the Open University in Britain, Athabasca University and Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning in Canada and the Open University of Catalonia, in Spain, among many others ( see full list here ). Open education and flexible learning
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What is the type of open education?

Licensing and types – Turning a Resource into an Open Educational Resource Open educational resources often involve issues relating to intellectual property rights. Traditional commercial educational materials, such as textbooks, are protected under conventional copyright terms.

However, alternative and more flexible licensing options have become available as a result of the work of Creative Commons, a non-profit organization that provides ready-made licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the “all rights reserved” terms of standard international copyright. These new options have become a “critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.” Another license, typically used by developers of OER software, is the GNU General Public License from the free and open-source software (FOSS) community.

Open licensing allows uses of the materials that would not be easily permitted under copyright alone. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free online courses available to anyone who wants to enroll. MOOCs offer a wide range of courses in many different subjects to allow people to learn in an affordable and easy manner.
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What is difference between open university and distance education?

What Is Open Education Class 12 Open vs Distance: At present, there are 14 government run open universities in India. ( Representational Image/ AP) Open and distance modes of learning are quite similar but there is a significant difference between these correspondence courses. In the open learning module, candidates are allowed to take admission in any courses without any age limit.

  • Meanwhile, distance learning is a form of open learning where candidates can pursue a desired course without any classroom presence.
  • Speaking to indianexpress.com, Jadavpur University professor Santwan Chattopadhyay commented that open courses are a viable option for candidates who had to drop out of mainstream education.

“As admission in open institutions does not require any age-related eligibility criteria, students who discontinued their studies can continue further.” Recently, a 93-year-old grandfather completed a Master’s level degree through IGNOU which could only have been possible through the open mode.

  • While this gives a second chance to candidates despite a long break, the value of the open degree programme is often questioned.
  • The degrees granted through the open mode is also valued, if the candidates has the required skills,” remarked Chattopadhyay.
  • However, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Vice Chancellor believes the open mode is preferred among the two by employers.

Practical facility makes the difference V-C Tankeshwar Kumar said, “Though both the form of education, open and distance are quite similar, but in open education, students get lab facilities and so they are preferred in professional field. The distance mode candidates do not have any access to lab facilities, and are comparatively less preferred in jobs.” READ | BE versus BTech: What should be your pick? The Supreme Court in 2017, however, ruled that technical education cannot be pursued in distance mode or open mode.

  • The SC suspended all engineering degrees obtained between 2001 and 2005 through correspondence courses.
  • Following the apex court order, the University Grants Commission (UGC) suspended all engineering degrees offered in distance mode by JRN Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Allahabad Agricultural Institute (AAI), Institute of Advanced Studies in Education (IASE), Rajasthan and Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation, Tamil Nadu.

VIDEO | How a fake varsity running in Delhi The list of degree courses not allowed to be imparted through distance mode include engineering, medicine, dental, pharmacy, nursing, architecture, physiotherapy and agriculture. At present, there are 14 government run open universities in India.

The varsities are Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), Dr.B.R. Ambedkar Open University Hyderabad, Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota, Nalanda Open University, Patna, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik, Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University, Bhopal, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University, Ahmedabad, Karnataka State Open University, Mysore, Netaji Subhas Open University, Kolkata, U.P.

Rajarshi Tandon Open University, Allahabad, Tamil Nadu Open University (TNOU), Chennai, Sunderlal Sharma Open University (PSSOU), Bilaspur, Uttarakhand Open University, Haldwani, Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, Guwahati,
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What is open education class 12 answer?

Class 12 Education Chapter 2 Non – Formal Education – Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT () Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT, Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Education Chapter 2 Non-Formal Education Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here Questions for 2 mark each 1) What do you mean by Non – formal education ? Ans:- Non formal education is organised, systematic, need based and goal directed education.

It is conducted outside the formal system which is directed to meet the specific needs of various groups of persons. According to J.P. Naik non – formal education differs from formal education in the sense that it takes place outside the formal school system. It also differ from incident education in that it is organized.2) What is the role of the teacher in non – formal education ? Ans:- The teacher – taught relationship avoids dominance.

Thus in this system teacher and taught are partners in the learning process.3) What is meant by Open ? Ans:- Open means free, without any barrier, All times those students who are unable to get formal education can get education there.4) What is Open education ? Ans:- Dut to limitations of formal education a good number of people are deprived from education.

Most of the people are under poverty, so they are not in a position to get education in time. In addition to them there are some disable families, illiterate gurdians, remote areas, communicationless areas, early marriages system and the people of conservative attitude. Economically backward people engage their children in work in early stage.

Formal education system has no space to include them. To meet their demands open school system is established.

  • 5) What is distance education ?
  • Ans:- According to Dohmen – Distance education means “A systematically organised form of self study in which student counselling, the presentation organised form of self study in which students success is carried out by a team of teachers, each of whom has responsibilities which can cover long distances.
  • 6) Why correspondence education is known as Postal education ?

Ans:- Correspondence education is a system through which individual may complete a prescribed courses of study offered by an institution without attending to its classes. The educational transaction in this method is facilitated by the medium of print which is conducted with the help of postal system.Therefore are correspondence education is also known as Postal education.7) Write about the origin of correspondence education.

Ans:- Correspondence education was first introduced by Issac Pitman in 1840. He provided his ‘short hand’ course to the students living at a distance places. In 1898, Hens Hermod published his first correspondence course on book keeping. Many others soon followed him. In India, the government of India appointed a committee on correspondence course and evening colleges in 1961 under the chairmanship of D.S.

Kothari. The committee recommended the introduction of correspondence courses and as a result of it, University of Delhi Started correspondence courses in 1962.8) Give a definition of distance education. Ans:- Distance Education is defined differently by different thinkers in different situation.

  • Some of them are:- According to Dohmen :- “A systematically organised form of self study in which student counselling, the presentation organised form of self study in which students success is carried out by a team of teachers, each of whom has responsibilities.
  • It is made possible at a distance by means of media which can cover long distances.”According to Moore :- “The family of instructional methods in which the teacher behaviours are performed apart from learning behaviours, including those that in a contiguous situation would be performed in the learner’s presence so that communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical or other devices.” According to Wedemeyer :- “Independent study consists of various forms of teaching learning arrangements in which teachers and learners carry out their essential taske and responsibilities apart from one another, communicating in a variety of ways.

Its purposes are to free on campus or internal learners from inappropriate class placing or patterns to provide of campus or external learners with the opportunity to continue learning in their own environments, and developing in all learners the capacity to carry on self – directed learning, the ultimate maturity required of the educated person.” 9) ‘Distance education is possible without being open’ – Discuss.

Ans:- Distance education system is open education system. Actually distance education is not posible without being open. In statance education the learner have the chance to take education according to their need and comfort.10) Describe Non – formal education as a supportive system of education. Ans:- Non formal education is such type of education through which people can take education for the whole life.

This education is considered as comprehensive education for all people and it can fulfill the need and interest of all people. It is a supportive and substitudes of formal education.

  1. 11) Why Non – formal education is considered as flexible system of education ?
  2. Ans:- Non formal education is considered as flexible system of education, because there have no rigid/strict rules regulation in admission, curriculum construction, place of education, etc.
  3. 12) Why correspondence education is known as Postal education ?

Ans:- Correspondence education is a system through which individual may complete a prescribed courses of study offered by an institution without attending to its classes. The educational transaction in this method is facilitated by the medium of print which is conducted with the help of postal system.13) “All open education is distance education, but all distance education may not be open” – explain.

  1. Ans:- Open education refers to educational organisation that seek to eliminate barriers to entry into the world of education and learning.
  2. It means to erase the formalised roles of students and teacher.
  3. Otherhand distance education is a system of education in which there is no face to face relationship between the teacher and the taught but they are linked through correspondence, radio talk, television or computer.14) Explain distance education as a flexible system of education.
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Ans:- A flexible attitude is taken in case of prior educational qualification, ages and in selection of subjects. In this education system, people can achieve education at any time of his life. It takes the problem of educating school dropouts, working adults, house wives and learners from socially and economically disadvantaged section of the society.

  • Flexible education through distance mode is a flexible arrangement.
  • Sometimes there are no fixed entry points or exits.15) ‘Two way communications is an essential element of distance education’.
  • Discuss.
  • Ans:- In the two way communications there is reaction sand interaction with constant feed back.
  • There is provision for further information, classification etc.

as thought by the learner. In Distance Education the teacher prepares learning materials from which he himself may never teach. Another teacher may use the materials and evaluate students work with the help of electronic media.

  • 16) Mention two groups of people who may get benefit of non – formal education.
  • Ans:- i) Backward pupils.
  • ii) Dropout section of pupils.
  • Questions for 3 mark each
  • 1) Mention three merits of open education.
  • Ans:- The merits of the open education system are the following :-

i) Through this system of education higher education brings to the door step of needy person. Specially it help working persons, employees, housewives and the peoples of conservative attitudes. ii) Open education system facilitates the people of Remote areas, Hilly areas, Rural areas, Drop outs, Adults who are not entitled to get education in time.

  • Iii) Fees structure of this system of education is moderate so, most of the people are interested for it.
  • Its expenditure is one third (1/3) of general education.
  • Iv) Admission system of this type of education is very easy and eligibility criterias are flexible.
  • V) This system of education have more flexibility in time factor of the courses.

For a one year course learner can avail four years to complete the course. vi) All the courses of this type of education are meaningful and well organized. Courses are effective, applicable and useful.

  1. 2) Who can be the learner of open school ?
  2. Ans:- Working persons, employees, housewifes, conservative attitude people, people of remote areas, hilly areas, rural areas, drop outs, adults can be the learner of open schools.
  3. 3) What are the objectives of open school ?
  4. Ans:- Objectives of open schools are :-
  5. i) To offer educational opportunities to the deprived classes and masses and to cope with the everincreasing demands.
  6. ii) To help to decreasd the disparities and imbalance growth in the society.
  7. iii) To find out an alternative and economical approach to the formal system of education.
  8. iv) To bridge the gulf between the educated few and uneducated masses of our society.
  9. v) To help to achieve the mission of a learning society.
  10. vi) To impart education at the individual’s convenience, and to utilise the leissure time for educational purpose.
  11. vii) To help to continue work and education without any break.
  12. 4) Explain the scope of non Formal Education.

Ans:- Scope of non formal education is very vast. It covers various levels of education ranging from pre – primary to university education. It comprises all areas of formal education. It provides new knowledge, understanding, interests, skills, critical thinking, appreciation etc.Non – formal education complements formal system of education.

It exploits the time and resources of the individual and develop innate potentialities to the maximum. The non – formal education can include within school education other kinds of professional and vocational programme like community development, farming agriculture extension, technical training etc.

It is meant for all for whom formal education is either unsuitable or unavailable. Non – formal education may be class – room activities or distance education or correspondence course. It may on the job, part time, full – time as well as recurrent.5) Write three merits of open education.

  • Ans:- The merits of the open education system are the following :- i) Through this system of education higher education brings to the door step of needy person.
  • Specially it help working persons, employees, housewives and the peoples of conservative attitudes.
  • Ii) Open education system facilitates the people of Remote areas, Hilly areas, Rural areas, Drop outs, Adults who are not entitled to get education in time.

iii) Fees structure of this system of education is moderate so, most of the people are interested for it. Its expenditure is one third (1/3) of general education. iv) Admission system of this type of education is very easy and eligibility criterias are flexible.

V) This system of education have more flexibility in time factor of the courses. For a one year course learner can avail four years to complete the course. vi) All the courses of this type of education are meaningful and well organized. Courses are effective, applicable and useful.6) Mention the characteristics which distinguish Non – formal education from formal education.

Ans:- Formal education is too rigid as regards to time, place, duration, attendance, syllabus, methods, evaluation etc. Whereas non forma education is opposed to these characteristic.Formal education is too expensive whereas non Formal education is reasonable.Those joining formal education goes for degree or certificates or jobs whereas non – formal education donot care for degrees, diplomas and certificates.Formal education ends at a certain point of age whereas non Formal education is a life long system of education.

  • 7) Mention three objectives of correspondence education.
  • Ans:- To expand, democraties and provide educational opportunities to most people.
  • a) To provide more freedom to learners in regard to admission, living and location of learning activities.
  • b) Through this system learners can integrate learning work.
  • c) To motivate school dropouts to resume education.
  • 8) What do you know about IGNOU ?

Ans:- In 1985 the government of India passed the bill for betting up a national open university and hence forth the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) was established. To democratise higher education by providing access to large segments of the population, in particular the disadvantaged groups such as those in living in remote and rural areas including women, working people and other adults who wish to acquire and upgrade their knowledge and skills.9) ‘Present world is facing three types of explosion’.

  1. Ans:- These explosions are :-
  2. a) Knowledge explosion.
  3. b) Population explosion.
  4. c) Environmental explosion.
  5. 10) Explain how distance education helps us to face the educational problems caused by these explosions.
  6. Ans:- Distance education helps us to face the educational problems caused by these explosions are the following ways :-
  7. a) Distance education helps to equalize to educational facilities by distributing them equally to people irrespective of caste, religion and community.

b) Distance education helps forward broadly person’s acquiring knowledge of development process. It makes all realizes that every person has his birth right of achieving knowledge.

  • c) It helps to form real and adequate human resource by giving emphasis on the use of different electronic medias and the skills of modern technology such as radio, television, computer internet, email etc.
  • 11) Mention three modern technical aids generally used it distance education.
  • Ans:- The there modern teaching aids generally used in distance education are :-
  • a) Radio,
  • b) Television,
  • c) Computer multimedia.
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What is the first open education?

History – Distance education in India started in 1962 with a pilot project correspondence courses, which led to the birth of ‘s School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education. The success of the project led to introduction of correspondence course institutes (later renamed as directorates or centres of distance education) in more universities.

  1. In 1982 was established, the first in India.
  2. This was followed by the establishment of at the national level in 1985.
  3. Although the for regulating higher education in India is the (UGC), the responsibility for promotion and coordination of open and distance learning (ODL) was bestowed on IGNOU under the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act (1985),

The Distance Education Council (DEC) was set up by IGNOU in 1991 and became operational in 1992. with the of IGNOU acting as the ex officio chairperson of DEC. In August 2010, the (MHRD) constituted a committee for investigating distance education standards in India.

  1. The committee recommended the creation of a new regulatory body, the Distance Education Council of India (DECI).
  2. It also recommended that until such body is established, the DEC may be shifted to UGC.
  3. On 29 December 2012, the MHRD published an Order transferring the regulatory authority of distance education from IGNOU to UGC.

In May 2013 IGNOU dissolved the DEC and the UGC took over the entire assets and manpower, establishing the Distant Education Bureau.
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What is open education in simple words?

Open education is a philosophy about the way people should produce, share, and build on knowledge. Proponents of open education believe everyone in the world should have access to high-quality educational experiences and resources, and they work to eliminate barriers to this goal.
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Why is open education important?

@Glencox – OEC: What is Open Education? Cox: From my perspective, Open Education includes making freely available, under an open license, all materials that make up education. This could include every kind of teaching material which could range from an entire course to an image or an infographic.

Importantly, it includes entire textbooks. From my perspective, I also feel that open access research articles also make up the very important component of education and therefore they can also come under this broader banner of Open Education. In addition to that, I feel that part of Open Education is also Open Science and Open Data because all these aspects can be included as part of an education.

As an open educational practitioner, I feel that for me to truly walk the talk of Open Education I need to be considering sharing all these different aspects so data, research, teaching materials, slideshows, presentations all these different aspects.

  • I believe all of that makes up Open Education.
  • OEC: What does it mean to you to be an Open Education Practitioner? Cox: The way I approach everything I do is from an open perspective.
  • Because of that open perspective I am constantly striving to think of ways of sharing different aspects of what I do.
  • As an educator in a higher education institution I do data collection, I do research, I do teaching, I teach workshops, I go to conferences where I do and share presentations.

I believe that as an Open Educational Practitioner you need to be able to share all these different components. The Practice side is walking the talk of Open Education. OEC: Why do you think Open Education is important? Cox: I think Open Education is important because it extends the reach of teaching, learning and research materials beyond the classroom.

At school level, Open Education gives teachers and learners access to materials and textbooks that they previously would not be able to get hold of. That’s related to cost and I will talk about that a bit more later. In tertiary education, there are a number of problems or crises or concerns not only in the Global South but across the globe.

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Tertiary education is very expensive. There are limited spaces available meaning many people cannot get access to tertiary education and even if they do there is a variable quality between the different tertiary education institutions that you can go to.

  • Open Education is important because having materials openly available and textbooks openly available allows teachers and students or learners at those institutions to have access to materials that they normally would not be able to afford.
  • So it is a potential solution to some of the crises in higher education not only in the Global South but across the world.

OEC: What is your view on Open Education in relation to informal learning and those who cannot get access to universities. Can you see any potential benefits of Open Education there? Definitely. I have talked about basic education and schooling and then tertiary education.

But there is an enormous group of people who may have that basic education but there is no way that they could continue with higher education for a number of different reasons. Having these materials available to teach themselves, to do self-directed learning extends the reach of these materials. I believe that is very important.

OEC: What changes do you hope Open Education will bring? Cox: In terms of changes there is some evidence that is growing now of the impact of Open Education. Open Education is being researched more extensively. Now we are building some evidence that higher education and other sectors have benefited from Open Education.

We can now actually see that there is a benefit and there are numerous examples now. Such examples are extremely important when we are trying to convince people of the value of Open Education and why it is useful. Evidence of impact is important and we now have cases of this evidence of impact especially in the Global South with the Research on OER for Development project (ROER4D).

More recently in higher education, and this is certainly the case in South Africa but there are other calls around the globe, there is a call for “fees must fall.” Students and learners are asking for free education. Although this is a complex problem that involves government and policy in complex historical contexts free textbooks and teaching materials can offer solution to part of that problem.

By making textbooks and materials openly available higher education certainly becomes much cheaper for individual students. I feel that that is one of the changes that I hope Open Education can make. That it can address some of these calls for people to have a reduced fee on tertiary education. Having said that I am aware that there are big challenges.

One of the challenges is a lack of awareness of Open Education. While, at the moment, people are calling for “fees must fall,” they are not necessarily aware that Open Educational Resources are available. This is a challenge for Open Education researchers and advocates to make teachers and lecturers aware of these materials and help them to see the value of contributing materials.

I am hoping that through Open Education we can solve some of these challenges. Certainly, there is a lot of work to be done around awareness of Open Education before we can see a bigger change or more impact. OEC: What role do you think Open Education will play in education in the future (either in the country or the region)? Cox: Perhaps I should focus on South Africa since that’s my context while referring to cases where I have done some research at different institutions.

I am aware of the different contexts out there. In South Africa, my hope is that sharing of teaching materials between institutions will assist some of the smaller institutions, the less resourced institutions but also some of the very new institutions is going to help lectures at such institutions to access different materials, different viewpoints, different ways of teaching and to help them to not reinvent the wheel by creating new resources when in fact those resources are already created and available.

  • In South Africa, the challenge is also around awareness.
  • Making those people in smaller or new institutions aware of the power of Open Educational Resources and the fact that these resources are there for them to use.
  • Also in South Africa, with the crisis in basic education where math and science students don’t achieve well and we know that much of the schooling system is quite inadequate: Having textbooks available for free through various platforms now that are being created like Siyavula and Nolwazi, just to name two, these textbooks and teaching materials are now available for teachers in schools.

Especially for students who cannot afford to buy any kind of textbook to have these materials freely available will hopefully improve pass rates and improve grades. That’s what I am hoping for in South Africa. OEC: At the level of basic education the Department of Basic Education is responsible for distributing textbooks to schools.

  1. How is the availability of openly licensed textbooks going to improve pass rates and grades where cost of textbooks is not necessarily an issue]? Cox: In many of those schools the textbooks don’t ever arrive.
  2. Even when they do arrive there are often not enough of them.
  3. We know that this does happen especially in poor areas.

It is these kinds of inconsistencies that can be solved by having more of these materials available. We know that teachers are supposed to get support from government but often they don’t get the training that they really need. They don’t have access to these resources and they don’t get the support, the training that they should be getting.

I think that the situation in South Africa is very inconsistent. Having materials openly available on different platforms will hopefully equalize this situation and give those teachers who are really struggling to get those materials. As part of the ROER4D project that I was working on I compared 3 different institutions in SA: UNISA, Fort Hare and the University of Cape Town.

The situation in just these 3 institutions is quite different with complex institutional cultures and history. As an advocate, I hope that these institutions will include more open education resources (OER). The politics and history around using other materials is very complicated.

Word of caution: Although we might suggest that people use these OER, the process of getting people to actually do it requires quite a bit of work even when they agree that this is a wonderful idea. The hard work is in terms of showing people value and making them aware. This is a project that needs to be taken on not only in SA but in many institutions.

We need to help lecturers become aware of the potential of OER. Having looked at different institutions, I can see how complicated it is to simply take on OER. OEC: Clarifying question: What role do you think open education will play in the Global South based on your experiences with the ROER4D project? Cox: ROER4D has a number of studies in various countries in the Global South.

I think that it is quite encouraging to see the variety of different projects that are being taken on. In South America (Colombia, Chile, and Brazil). In Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Kenya). In Southeast Asia (Philippines, Mongolia): We had country studies where we can see that OER has been introduced and we can see measures of positive impact on educators.

These are still relatively isolated projects however. We hope to continue that research in the future and build on that research. We hope that through this project – part of the project is a development project: Not only have we done research but we also try to develop people involved in the project – For example, my small project: Part of that project was to teach workshops on Open Education and Creative Commons at institutions in a hope that it would benefit the different sites where we were.
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Who is the father of open education?

3. Chuck Wedemeyer – In the fall of 1969, I joined the first staff of the Open University, working in offices in an old Georgian building in Belgrave Square, central London. I knew nothing about distance education (I was hired as a researcher) and was advised to go to a talk being given by a slight, stooped American.

His name was Chuck Wedemeyer and he was the first to develop a modern pedagogy that was unique to distance education. Here’s an extract from the Mildred and Charles A. Wedemeyer Award site, (I had the honour of sharing the award with Michael Moore in 1995.) Charles Wedemeyer, W.H. Lighty Professor of Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is considered a father of modern distance education.

An enthusiastic instructor, in the early 1930’s Wedemeyer used the University of Wisconsin’s radio station to broadcast English lessons and expand access for those otherwise excluded from the education system. As a World War II naval instructor he created effective teaching methods for thousands of sailors deployed around the world.

As Director of the University of Wisconsin’s Correspondence Study Program (1954-1964) Wedemeyer and his graduate students initiated a number of research projects on learning theory and the sociology of independent learners. The work advanced a new discipline in the field of education by integrating adult, distance, open and independent learning with instructional systems design, and applications of instructional technology, organizational development, and evaluation.

In 1965, Wedemeyer predicted today’s e-Learning: “the extension student of the future will probably not ‘attend’ classes; rather, the opportunities and processes of learning will come to him. He will learn at home, at the office, on the job, in the factory, store, or salesroom, or on the farm.” “the teacher will reach students not only in his own state or region but nationally as well, since the media and methods employed by him in teaching will remove barriers of space and time in learning” Charles A.
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Is open education free?

Pricing is based on packages, modules, and hosting options, starting from $799.
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What is open education Brainly?

The qualifier ‘open’ of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning.
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Is open degree equal to regular degree?

Online degree on par with regular degree September 09, 2022 10:41 pm | Updated September 10, 2022 01:48 pm IST – NEW DELHI READ LATER Picture for representation. | Photo Credit: Freepik

The degrees obtained through distance and online learning from recognised institutions would be treated on par with those offered through conventional mode, according to the University Grants Commission (UGC).”The degrees at the undergraduate and the postgraduate level in conformity with the UGC notification on the Specification of Degrees, 2014 and, the post graduate diplomas awarded through Open and Distance learning or Online mode by Higher Educational Institutions, shall be treated as equivalent to the corresponding degrees and post graduate diploma offered through conventional mode,” UGC Secretary Rajnish Jain said.The decision was taken as per the Regulation 22 of the UGC (Open and Distance learning Programmes and Online Programmes) Regulations.

: Online degree on par with regular degree
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What is distance education class 12?

Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school, or where the learner and the teacher are separated in both time and distance. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via mail,

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Distance education is a technology mediated modality and has evolved with the evolution of technologies such as video conferencing, TV, and internet. Today, it usually involves online education and the learning is usually mediated by some form of technology. A distance learning program can be completely distance learning, or a combination of distance learning and traditional classroom instruction (called hybrid or blended ).

Other modalities include distance learning with complementary virtual environment or teaching in virtual environment (e-learning). Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent educational modes in distance education.

A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, m-learning, online learning, virtual classroom etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education. E-learning has shown to be a useful educational tool. E-learning should be an interactive process with multiple learning modes for all learners at various levels of learning.

The distance learning environment is an exciting place to learn new things, collaborate with others, and retain self-discipline.
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What is distance education and open education?

Ministry of Education, Department of Higher Education >> >> Overview Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system is a system wherein teachers and learners need not necessarily be present either at same place or same time and is flexible in regard to modalities and timing of teaching and learning as also the admission criteria without compromising necessary quality considerations. ODL system of the country consists of Indra Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU), State Open Universities (SOUs), Institutions and Universities offering education and includes Correspondence Course Institutes (CCIs) in conventional dual mode universities. This is becoming more and more significant for continuing education, skill updation of in service personnel and for quality education of relevance to learners located at educationally disadvantageous locations. With the dissolution of the Distance Education Council of the IGNOU, the regulatory powers on ODL is currently vested with the University Grants Commission(UGC). Last Updated by admin on Wednesday, 3 May 2017 – 10:43am : Ministry of Education, Department of Higher Education
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When did open education start in India?

Background – Open and Distance Learning in India was introduced by Delhi University in 1962 through the School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education to enable those, who had the inclination and aptitude to acquire further knowledge and improve their professional competence.

  1. Subsequently in 1968, Correspondence Courses were started by Punjabi University and University of Rajasthan.
  2. Meerut and Mysore University started these courses in 1969.
  3. In the eighties, the distance education system expanded further. Dr.B.R.
  4. Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad was established in 1982 by the State of Andhra Pradesh.

The setting up of Indira Gandhi National Open University by the Government of India in 1985 by an Act of the Parliament is considered to be a landmark development in the field of distance education in the Country. The Distance Education Council (DEC) was established in 1991 under Section 16(7) read with Section 5(2) of the IGNOU Act, 1985.

  1. As per clause (2) (a) of the statute 28, the DEC was responsible for the promotion and coordination of the Open and Distance Learning system in the Country.
  2. In May, 2007 a Joint Committee was formed by signing a MoU between UGC, AICTE and DEC for the period of three years till May, 2010.
  3. The Joint Committee developed guidelines in the form of ‘Recognition of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institutions’ Handbook 2009.

Thereafter, in pursuance of the directions issued by the Ministry of Education, the Department of Higher Education, Government of India issued order dated 29.12.2012, thereby the regulatory functions with regard to Distance Education programmes (excluding technical education) in higher education were vested with the University Grants Commission and for technical education, the AICTE act as a regulator through ODL mode.
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What is the education answer?

Education | Definition, Development, History, Types, & Facts Education refers to the discipline that is concerned with methods of and in schools or school-like environments, as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of, Beginning approximately at the end of the 7th or during the 6th century, became the first city-state in ancient Greece to renounce education that was oriented toward the future duties of soldiers.

The evolution of Athenian education reflected that of the city itself, which was moving toward increasing democratization. Research has found that education is the strongest determinant of individuals’ occupational status and chances of success in adult life. However, the correlation between family socioeconomic status and school success or failure appears to have increased worldwide.

Long-term trends suggest that as societies industrialize and modernize, becomes increasingly important in determining educational outcomes and occupational attainment. Alternative forms of education have developed since the late 20th century, such as,, and many parallel or supplementary systems of education often designated as “nonformal” and “popular.” Religious institutions also instruct the young and old alike in sacred knowledge as well as in the values and skills required for participation in local, national, and transnational societies.

School vouchers have been a hotly debated topic in the United States. Some parents of voucher recipients reported high levels of satisfaction, and studies have found increased voucher student graduation rates. Some studies have found, however, that students using vouchers to attend private schools instead of public ones did not show significantly higher levels of academic achievement.

education, that is concerned with methods of and in schools or school-like as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships). Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society.

  • In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term or enculturation.
  • Children—whether conceived among tribespeople, the Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan—are born without,
  • Education is designed to guide them in learning a, molding their behaviour in the ways of, and directing them toward their eventual role in society.

In the most primitive, there is often little formal learning—little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or, Instead, the entire and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission.

  1. The outcome is formal education—the school and the specialist called the teacher.
  2. As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context.

This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education.

  • Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation.
  • In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education.
  • This article discusses the history of education, tracing the evolution of the formal teaching of knowledge and skills from prehistoric and ancient times to the present, and considering the various philosophies that have inspired the resulting systems.

Other aspects of education are treated in a number of articles. For a of education as a discipline, including educational organization, teaching methods, and the functions and training of teachers, see ; ; and, For a description of education in various specialized fields, see ; ; ;,

  • For an analysis of educational philosophy, see,
  • For an examination of some of the more important aids in education and the dissemination of knowledge, see ; ; ; ; ;,
  • Some restrictions on educational freedom are discussed in,
  • For an analysis of pupil attributes, see ; ;,
  • The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of, which is the process of cultural transmission.

A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural and timelessness. The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation.

  1. As for prehistoric education, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures.
  2. The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their or band.
  3. There is a marked emphasis upon training for, because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Because of the variety in the countless thousands of primitive cultures, it is difficult to describe any standard and uniform characteristics of prepuberty education. Nevertheless, certain things are practiced commonly within cultures.

  • Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist called, identification, and,
  • Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices.
  • Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate,

In contrast to the spontaneous and rather unregulated imitations in prepuberty education, postpuberty education in some cultures is strictly standardized and regulated. The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men, often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans.

  • The may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates.
  • The purpose of this separation is to deflect the initiate’s deep attachment away from his and to establish his emotional and social anchorage in the wider web of his culture.

The initiation “curriculum” does not usually include practical subjects. Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion,, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge. Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge the initiation curriculum as most essential to their tribal membership.
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What is open education Brainly?

The qualifier ‘open’ of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning.
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What is an open question in education?

23 Aug 2019 by Caitlin Neely Now that school is in session again, you’re probably wondering about how you can connect with your students in the classroom and during lessons. The answer? Open-ended questions! Open-ended questions are an effective way to challenge your students and learn more about how they think.

They encourage extended responses and allow your students to reason, think, and reflect. Some examples of open-ended question include, “What do you think. ?” and “How did you decide. ?” At first, it can be hard to incorporate open-ended questions into your daily routines and lesson plans. But, with some practice, they can help you transform your classroom’s learning environment, and the way your students think about the world.

We’ve got three resources below that will teach you more about the basics of open-ended questions and how to incorporate them into your classroom.
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What is education answer in one word?

1 instruction, schooling, learning.4 learning, knowledge, enlightenment. See synonyms for education on Thesaurus.com.
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