What Is Hypertension Class 12 Physical Education?

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What Is Hypertension Class 12 Physical Education
When there is an increase in the blood pressure in the arteries, the condition is known as hypertension. The systolic pressure reaches to 140 and the diastolic pressure reaches to 90. There are many causes which can result in the development of hypertension.
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What is hypertension in physical education?

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Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure. It is defined as transitory (short-lived) or chronic elevation of the blood pressure in the arteries. This elevation may lead to cardiovascular damage. When left untreated, the damage to the circulatory system can cause heart attack, stroke, heart failure, heart disease and kidney failure.

Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide, according to the WHO, with about 46% of adults unaware of their condition, 42% of adults being diagnosed and treated and about 21% of adults having their hypertension under control. Pressure numbers Blood pressure is broken into systolic and diastolic values. The systolic measurement (top number) is the peak pressure in the arteries, and the diastolic measurement (bottom number) is the minimum pressure in the arteries. Normal blood pressure is defined as being below 120/80, where 120 represents the systolic (maximum) measurement and 80 represents the diastolic (minimum) measurement.

Hypertension occurs when the blood pressure reaches above 140/90. The risk for hypertension is increased in a condition known as prehypertension, which occurs when the blood pressure is between 120/80 and 139/89. Types of hypertension The two types of hypertension are essential or secondary. High blood pressure with an unknown cause is essential hypertension and tends to develop over many years.

High blood pressure with a known or direct cause is secondary hypertension. This type of hypertension tends to appear suddenly and can be caused by conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, kidney disease, adrenal gland tumors, thyroid problems or medications such as use of birth control pills or illegal drugs like cocaine and amphetamines.

  • Hypertension is diagnosed by a health care professional who uses a sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure.
  • However, the results of a sphygmomanometer measurement may be skewed by stress, so further inquiry about family history and other risk factors is often required to make a complete and accurate diagnosis.

When hypertension is suspected, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms or blood tests may be used to further evaluate the heart or identify possible causes of secondary hypertension. Rates and risk factors Risk of hypertension increases with age. It is more common in men (50%), while women (44%) are more likely to develop hypertension after age 65.

Hypertension is more common among non-Hispanic black adults (56%) compared with non-Hispanic white adults (48%), non-Hispanic Asian adults (46%) and Hispanic adults (39%). Conditions, such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure, are also more common in the non-Hispanic black group as well. Physical traits and lifestyle choices play a part in how a patient may be at greater risk for high blood pressure.

The most common causes of hypertension include smoking, obesity or being overweight, diabetes, having a sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity, high salt or alcohol intake levels, insufficient consumption of calcium, potassium or magnesium, a deficiency in vitamin D, stress, aging, chronic kidney disease and adrenal and thyroid conditions or tumors.

Some individuals may also be genetically predisposed to hypertension. Pregnancy can also sometimes be a cause of high blood pressure (gestational hypertension or preeclampsia). “Silent killer” Known as a “silent killer,” many cases of high blood pressure are asymptomatic. However, headaches, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, chest pains, breathing problems, irregular heartbeat and blood in the urine are all symptoms of hypertension.

Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to complications such as aneurysms, damage to blood vessels in the kidneys or eyes, metabolic syndrome, memory loss or trouble with comprehension and dementia. Fortunately, high blood pressure is easily detectible and treatable with lifestyle changes and medications.

Treatment and prevention Hypertension is treated by changing lifestyle factors including eating, smoking and exercise habits. Pharmaceutical interventions include ACE inhibitors, ARB drugs, beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers and peripheral vasodilators. The best way to prevent hypertension is to eat healthy and get exercise.

Eating more fruits and vegetables and limiting saturated fats and eliminating trans fats are helpful ways to prevent hypertension. Reduction of stress, salt intake and alcohol intake are also helpful ways to prevent hypertension. Regularly checking blood pressure, staying on track with treatment (diet, exercise and medication) and managing other medical conditions can help patients manage their hypertension.

Additional information can be found by searching the following websites: www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/the-facts-about-high-blood-pressure www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/the-facts-about-high-blood-pressure/what-is-high-blood-pressure www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410#:~:text=High%20blood%20pressure%20(hypertension)%20is,problems%2C%20such%20as%20heart%20disease,

my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4314-hypertension-high-blood-pressure www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/highbloodpressure.html www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension ADD TOPIC TO EMAIL ALERTS Receive an email when new articles are posted on Please provide your email address to receive an email when new articles are posted on,
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What is hypertension short answer?

Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently raised pressure. Blood is carried from the heart to all parts of the body in the vessels. Each time the heart beats, it pumps blood into the vessels.

  • Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries) as it is pumped by the heart.
  • The higher the pressure, the harder the heart has to pump.
  • Hypertension is a serious medical condition and can increase the risk of heart, brain, kidney and other diseases.

It is a major cause of premature death worldwide, with upwards of 1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women – over a billion people ­– having the condition. The burden of hypertension is felt disproportionately in low- and middle-income countries, where two thirds of cases are found, largely due to increased risk factors in those populations in recent decades.

Many people with hypertension do not notice symptoms and may be unaware there is a problem. Symptoms can include early morning headaches, nosebleeds, irregular heart rhythms, vision changes, and buzzing in the ears. More severe forms may exhibit fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anxiety, chest pain, and muscle tremors.

If left untreated, hypertension can cause persistent chest pain (also called angina), heart attacks, heart failure, and an irregular heartbeat, which can lead to a sudden death. Hypertension can also cause strokes by blocking or bursting arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain, as well as kidney damage, which can lead to kidney failure.

  1. High blood pressure causes damage to the heart by hardening arteries and decreasing the flood of blood and oxygen to the heart.
  2. Detecting hypertension is done with a quick and painless test of blood pressure.
  3. This can be done at home, but a health professional can help assess any risks or associated conditions.

Reducing modifiable risk factors is the best way to prevent hypertension and associated diseases of the heart, brain, kidney and other organs. These factors include unhealthy diets (excessive salt consumption, a diet high in saturated fat and trans fats, low intake of fruits and vegetables), physical inactivity, consumption of tobacco and alcohol, and being overweight or obese.

There are also non-modifiable risk factors, including a family history of hypertension, age over 65 years and co-existing diseases such as diabetes or kidney disease. Avoiding dietary and behavioural risk factors is doubly important for those with unmodifiable or hereditary risk factors. Hypertension can be managed by reducing and managing mental stress, regularly checking blood pressure and consulting with health professionals, treating high blood pressure and managing other medical conditions.

Cessation of tobacco use and the harmful use of alcohol, as well as improvements in diet and exercise, can help reduce symptoms and risk factors from hypertension.
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What are the effects of hypertension Class 12?

The common symptoms of hypertension include: Dizziness. Chest Pain. Heart attack.
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What is hypertension and its causes?

Complications – The excessive pressure on the artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage blood vessels and body organs. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications including:

Heart attack or stroke. Hardening and thickening of the arteries due to high blood pressure or other factors can lead to a heart attack, stroke or other complications. Aneurysm. Increased blood pressure can cause a blood vessel to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening. Heart failure. When you have high blood pressure, the heart has to work harder to pump blood. The strain causes the walls of the heart’s pumping chamber to thicken. This condition is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Eventually, the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs, causing heart failure. Kidney problems. High blood pressure can cause the blood vessels in the kidneys to become narrow or weak. This can lead to kidney damage. Eye problems. Increased blood pressure can cause thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. This can result in vision loss. Metabolic syndrome. This syndrome is a group of disorders of the body’s metabolism. It involves the irregular breakdown of sugar, also called glucose. The syndrome includes increased waist size, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol, high blood pressure and high blood sugar levels. These conditions make you more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Changes with memory or understanding. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may affect the ability to think, remember and learn. Dementia. Narrowed or blocked arteries can limit blood flow to the brain. This can cause a certain type of dementia called vascular dementia. A stroke that interrupts blood flow to the brain also can cause vascular dementia.

Sept.15, 2022
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What is called hypertension?

What is high blood pressure (hypertension)? – High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is blood pressure that is higher than normal. Your blood pressure changes throughout the day based on your activities. Having blood pressure measures consistently above normal may result in a diagnosis of high blood pressure (or hypertension).

  1. The higher your blood pressure levels, the more risk you have for other health problems, such as,, and,
  2. Your health care team can diagnose high blood pressure and make treatment decisions by reviewing your systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and comparing them to levels found in certain guidelines.
  3. The guidelines used to diagnose high blood pressure may differ from health care professional to health care professional:
  • Some health care professionals diagnose patients with high blood pressure if their blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher.2 This limit is based on a guideline released in 2003, as seen in the table below.
  • Other health care professionals diagnose patients with high blood pressure if their blood pressure is consistently 130/80 mm Hg or higher.1 This limit is based on a guideline released in 2017, as seen in the table below.
Blood Pressure Levels

Blood Pressure Levels
The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (2003 Guideline) 2 The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults (2017 Guideline) 1
Normal systolic: less than 120 mm Hg diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg Normal systolic: less than 120 mm Hg diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg
At Risk (prehypertension) systolic: 120–139 mm Hg diastolic: 80–89 mm Hg Elevated systolic: 120–129 mm Hg diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg
High Blood Pressure (hypertension) systolic: 140 mm Hg or higher diastolic: 90 mm Hg or higher High blood pressure (hypertension) systolic: 130 mm Hg or higher diastolic: 80 mm Hg or higher

If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, talk with your health care team about your blood pressure levels and how these levels affect your treatment plan.
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What is the new definition of hypertension?

Highlights

High blood pressure is now defined as readings of 130 mm Hg and higher for the systolic blood pressure measurement, or readings of 80 and higher for the diastolic measurement. That is a change from the old definition of 140/90 and higher, reflecting complications that can occur at those lower numbers. In the first update to comprehensive U.S. guidelines on blood pressure detection and treatment since 2003, the category of prehypertension is eliminated, While about 14 percent more people will be diagnosed with high blood pressure and counseled about lifestyle changes, there will only be a small increase in those who will be prescribed medication. By lowering the definition of high blood pressure, the guidelines recommend earlier intervention to prevent further increases in blood pressure and the complications of hypertension.

Embargoed until 12:30 p.m. PT / 3:30 p.m. ET Monday, Nov.13, 2017 ANAHEIM, California, Nov.13, 2017 — High blood pressure should be treated earlier with lifestyle changes and in some patients with medication – at 130/80 mm Hg rather than 140/90 – according to the first comprehensive new high blood pressure guidelines in more than a decade.

The guidelines are being published by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) for detection, prevention, management and treatment of high blood pressure. The guidelines were presented today at the Association’s 2017 Scientific Sessions conference in Anaheim, the premier global cardiovascular science meeting for the exchange of the latest advances in cardiovascular science for researchers and clinicians.

Rather than 1 in 3 U.S. adults having high blood pressure (32 percent) with the previous definition, the new guidelines will result in nearly half of the U.S. adult population (46 percent) having high blood pressure, or hypertension, However, there will only be a small increase in the number of U.S.

  • Adults who will require antihypertensive medication, authors said.
  • These guidelines, the first update to offer comprehensive guidance to doctors on managing adults with high blood pressure since 2003, are designed to help people address the potentially deadly condition much earlier.
  • The new guidelines stress the importance of using proper technique to measure blood pressure.

Blood pressure levels should be based on an average of two to three readings on at least two different occasions, the authors said. High blood pressure accounts for the second largest number of preventable heart disease and stroke deaths, second only to smoking.

  1. It’s known as the “silent killer” because often there are no symptoms, despite its role in significantly increasing the risk for heart disease and stroke. Paul K.
  2. Whelton, M.B., M.D., M.Sc., lead author of the guidelines published in the American Heart Association journal, Hypertension and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, noted the dangers of blood pressure levels between 130-139/80-89 mm Hg.

“You’ve already doubled your risk of cardiovascular complications compared to those with a normal level of blood pressure,” he said. “We want to be straight with people – if you already have a doubling of risk, you need to know about it. It doesn’t mean you need medication, but it’s a yellow light that you need to be lowering your blood pressure, mainly with non-drug approaches.” Blood pressure categories in the new guideline are:

Normal: Less than 120/80 mm Hg; Elevated: Top number (systolic) between 120-129 and bottom number (diastolic) less than 80; Stage 1: Systolic between 130-139 or diastolic between 80-89; Stage 2: Systolic at least 140 or diastolic at least 90 mm Hg; Hypertensive crisis: Top number over 180 and/or bottom number over 120, with patients needing prompt changes in medication if there are no other indications of problems, or immediate hospitalization if there are signs of organ damage.

The new guidelines eliminate the category of prehypertension, which was used for blood pressures with a top number (systolic) between 120-139 mm Hg or a bottom number (diastolic) between 80-89 mm Hg. People with those readings now will be categorized as having either Elevated (120-129 and less than 80) or Stage I hypertension (130-139 or 80-89).

Previous guidelines classified 140/90 mm Hg as Stage 1 hypertension. This level is classified as Stage 2 hypertension under the new guidelines. The impact of the new guidelines is expected to be greatest among younger people. The prevalence of high blood pressure is expected to triple among men under age 45, and double among women under 45 according to the report.

Damage to blood vessels begins soon after blood pressure is elevated, said Whelton, who is the Show Chwan professor of global public health at Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine and School of Medicine in New Orleans. “If you’re only going to focus on events, that ignores the process when it’s beginning.

Risk is already going up as you get into your 40s.” The guidelines stress the importance of home blood pressure monitoring using validated devices and appropriate training of healthcare providers to reveal “white-coat hypertension,” which occurs when pressure is elevated in a medical setting but not in everyday life.

Home readings can also identify “masked hypertension,” when pressure is normal in a medical setting but elevated at home, thus necessitating treatment with lifestyle and possibly medications. “People with white-coat hypertension do not seem to have the same elevation in risk as someone with true sustained high blood pressure,” Whelton said.

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Only prescribing medication for Stage I hypertension if a patient has already had a cardiovascular event such as a heart attack or stroke, or is at high risk of heart attack or stroke based on age, the presence of diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease or calculation of atherosclerotic risk (using the same risk calculator used in evaluating high cholesterol). Recognizing that many people will need two or more types of medications to control their blood pressure, and that people may take their pills more consistently if multiple medications are combined into a single pill. Identifying socioeconomic status and psychosocial stress as risk factors for high blood pressure that should be considered in a patient’s plan of care.

The new guidelines were developed by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and nine other health professional organizations. They were written by a panel of 21 scientists and health experts who reviewed more than 900 published studies.

The guidelines underwent a careful systematic review and approval process. Each recommendation is classified by the strength (class) of the recommendation followed by the level of evidence supporting the recommendation. Recommendations are classified I or II, with class III indicating no benefit or harm.

The level of evidence signifies the quality of evidence. Levels A, B, and C-LD denote evidence gathered from scientific studies, while level C-EO contains evidence from expert opinion. The new guidelines are the successor to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7), issued in 2003 and overseen by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

In 2013, the NHLBI asked the AHA and ACC to continue the management of guideline preparation for hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. Co-authors are Robert M. Carey, M.D., vice chair of the writing committee; Wilbert S. Aranow, M.D.; Donald E. Casey, Jr., M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.; Karen J. Collins, M.B.A.; Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, R.N., A.N.P., Ph.D.; Sondra M.

DePalma, M.H.S., P.A.-C, C.L.S.; Samuel Gidding, M.D.; Kenneth A. Jamerson, M.D.; Daniel W. Jones, M.D.; Eric J. MacLaughlin, Pharm.D.; Paul Muntner, Ph.D.; Bruce Ovbiagele, M.D., M.Sc., M.A.S.; Sidney C. Smith, Jr., M.D.; Crystal C. Spencer, J.D.; Randall S.

Stafford, M.D., Ph.D.; Sandra J. Taler, M.D.; Randal J. Thomas, M.D., M.S.; Kim A. Williams, Sr, M.D.; Jeff D Williamson, M.D., M.H.S. and Jackson T. Wright, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., on behalf of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Author disclosures and our collaborating organization partners are listed online and in the appendix to the manuscript.

Additional Resources:

Downloadable multimedia including HD interviews with Dr. Paul Whelton and Dr. Joaquin Cigarroa is on the right column of the release link: https://newsroom.heart.org/news/high-blood-pressure-redefined-for-first-time-in-14-years-130-is-the-new-high?preview=92ced1fad41b056df4e6ae0f73a09db4 Additional videos will be posted here Spanish Release After embargo lifts, please view the manuscript online at:

Hypertension: http://hyper.ahajournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065 JACC: http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/early/2017/11/04/j.jacc.2017.11.006

Commentary by AHA president John Warner, M.D. is available at https://healthmetrics.heart.org/commentary/ Data visualization of the impact of the new guidelines is available at https://healthmetrics.heart.org/data-visualization/ Find high blood pressure management resources at www.heart.org/hbp, Check.Change.Control. Calculator for Consumers www.heart.org/ccccalculator ACVD Risk calculator for healthcare professionals http://static.heart.org/riskcalc/app/index.html#!/baseline-risk Follow AHA/ASA news on Twitter @HeartNews

### The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association receives funding mostly from individuals. Foundations and corporations donate as well, and fund specific programs and events. Strict policies are enforced to prevent these relationships from influencing the association’s science content.

Financial information for the American Heart Association, including a list of contributions from pharmaceutical and device manufacturers and health insurance providers are available at www.heart.org/corporatefunding, About the American Heart Association The American Heart Association, the world’s leading voluntary health organization devoted to fighting cardiovascular disease, is devoted to saving people from heart disease and stroke – the two leading causes of death in the world.

We team with millions of volunteers to fund innovative research, fight for stronger public health policies, and provide lifesaving tools and information to prevent and treat these diseases. The Dallas-based association is the nation’s oldest and largest voluntary organization dedicated to fighting heart disease and stroke.

To learn more or to get involved, call 1-800-AHA-USA1, visit heart.org or call any of our offices around the country. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter, About the American College of Cardiology The American College of Cardiology is the professional home for the entire cardiovascular care team. The mission of the College and its more than 52,000 members is to transform cardiovascular care and to improve heart health.

The ACC leads in the formation of health policy, standards and guidelines. The College operates national registries to measure and improve care, offers cardiovascular accreditation to hospitals and institutions, provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research and bestows credentials upon cardiovascular specialists who meet stringent qualifications.
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What is hypertension definition PDF?

A case of Hypertension: Hypertension in adults (>18 yrs) is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm of Hg or greater and/ or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm of Hg or greater, based on the average of two or more properly measured, seated BP readings on each of two or more visits.
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What are three effects of hypertension?

High blood pressure dangers: Hypertension’s effects on your body – High blood pressure is a risk factor for more than heart disease. Discover what complications high blood pressure can cause. By Mayo Clinic Staff High blood pressure complications High blood pressure (hypertension) can quietly damage the body for years before symptoms develop.
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What is hypertension class 11?

What is Hypertension? – Abnormally high blood pressure and a combination of high psychological stress are known as Hypertension. These patients suffering from this disorder will have their blood pressure reading greater than 140 over 90 mm. Hypertension is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure.
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What is the introduction of hypertension?

1 Introduction Hypertension is defined as a persistence increase in blood pressure above the normal range of 120/80 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age. The persistent and chronic elevated arterial pressure causes marked pathological changes in the vasculature and heart.
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What is hypertension vs hypotension?

It’s when blood pressure is consistently high or low that there may be a problem. While most people hear about high blood pressure (hypertension) more frequently, low blood pressure (hypotension) can also be a serious condition.
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What is hypertension definition Wikipedia?

Hypertension
Other names Arterial hypertension, high blood pressure
Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Specialty Cardiology
Symptoms None
Complications Coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, dementia
Causes Usually lifestyle and genetic factors
Risk factors Lack of sleep, excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, alcohol, air pollution
Diagnostic method Resting blood pressure 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg
Treatment Lifestyle changes, medications
Frequency 16–37% globally
Deaths 9.4 million / 18% (2010)

Hypertension ( HTN or HT ), also known as high blood pressure ( HBP ), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia, Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide. High blood pressure is classified as primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills, Blood pressure is classified by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg. Different numbers apply to children. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement, Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet, If lifestyle changes are not sufficient, then blood pressure medications are used. Up to three medications taken concurrently can control blood pressure in 90% of people. The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy, The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit and others finding unclear benefit. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).
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How is hypertension defined and classified?

Background – High blood pressure, or hypertension, is the most common primary diagnosis in the United States, and it is one of the most common worldwide diseases afflicting humans and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease.

Despite extensive research over the past several decades, the etiology of most cases of adult hypertension is still unknown, and control of blood pressure is suboptimal in the general population. Due to the associated morbidity and mortality and cost to society, preventing and treating hypertension is an important public health challenge.

Fortunately, recent advances and trials in hypertension research are leading to an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension and the promise for novel pharmacologic and interventional treatments for this widespread disease. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), approximately 86 million adults (34%) in the United States are affected by hypertension, which is defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or more or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or more, taking antihypertensive medication, or having been told by clinicians on at least 2 occasions as having hypertension.

  1. Substantial improvements have been made with regard to enhancing awareness and treatment of hypertension.
  2. However, a National Health Examination Survey (NHANES) spanning 2011-2014 revealed that 34% of US adults aged 20 years and older are hypertensive and NHANES 2013-2014 data showed that 15.9% of these hypertensive adults are unaware they are hypertensive; these data have increased from NHANES 2005-2006 data that showed 29% of US adults aged 18 years and older were hypertensive and that 7% of these hypertensive adults had never been told that they had hypertension.

Furthermore, of those with high blood pressure (BP), 78% were aware they were hypertensive, 68% were being treated with antihypertensive agents, and only 64% of treated individuals had controlled hypertension. In addition, previous data from NHANES estimated that 52.6% (NHANES 2009-2010) to 55.8% (NHANES 1999-2000) of adults aged 20 years and older have prehypertension, defined as an untreated SBP of 120-139 mm Hg or untreated DBP of 80-89 mmHg.

See Epidemiology,) Data from the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7), which was released in 2003, were relatively similar to the NHANES data. The JNC 7 noted that approximately 30% of adults were unaware of their hypertension; up to 40% of people with hypertension were not receiving treatment; and, of those treated, up to 67% did not have their BP controlled to less than 140/90 mm Hg.

Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (the leading cause of death in North America), stroke (the third leading cause), congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Therefore, health care professionals must not only identify and treat patients with hypertension but also promote a healthy lifestyle and preventive strategies to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in the general population.
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What is hypertension definition Class 10?

A rise above 140/90 is known as hypertension or high blood pressure in popular language. It is caused by the constriction of very small arteries which results in increased resistance to blood flow. Very high blood pressure can lead to rupture of artery and cause internal bleeding.
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What is hypertension and prevention?

High blood pressure can often be prevented or reduced by eating healthily, maintaining a healthy weight, taking regular exercise, drinking alcohol in moderation and not smoking.
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What is hypertension vs hypotension?

It’s when blood pressure is consistently high or low that there may be a problem. While most people hear about high blood pressure (hypertension) more frequently, low blood pressure (hypotension) can also be a serious condition.
View complete answer

What is hypertension definition Wikipedia?

Hypertension
Other names Arterial hypertension, high blood pressure
Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Specialty Cardiology
Symptoms None
Complications Coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, dementia
Causes Usually lifestyle and genetic factors
Risk factors Lack of sleep, excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, alcohol, air pollution
Diagnostic method Resting blood pressure 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg
Treatment Lifestyle changes, medications
Frequency 16–37% globally
Deaths 9.4 million / 18% (2010)

Hypertension ( HTN or HT ), also known as high blood pressure ( HBP ), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia, Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide. High blood pressure is classified as primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills, Blood pressure is classified by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg. Different numbers apply to children. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement, Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet, If lifestyle changes are not sufficient, then blood pressure medications are used. Up to three medications taken concurrently can control blood pressure in 90% of people. The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy, The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit and others finding unclear benefit. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).
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