What Is Confirmative Assessment In Education?


What Is Confirmative Assessment In Education
What Is Confirmative Evaluation? – Confirmative evaluation is the process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting facts and information to evaluate whether learners are still competent or whether the instructional materials are still effective. It urges educators to abandon linear models in favor of incorporating the evaluative process into every phase of the program.

Confirmative assessment is a new approach to continuous quality improvement. Under this approach, students take assessments even after the educator finishes executing the instruction in the classroom. The ultimate purpose of confirmative evaluations is to determine whether the instruction is a success after a year.

In addition, it also determines whether the technique the educators are using for teaching is still effective.
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What are the seven types of assessments?

Frequently asked questions – ✔️ What are the types of assessment? Pre-assessment or diagnostic assessment, Formative assessment, Summative assessment, Confirmative assessment, Norm-referenced assessment, Criterion-referenced assessment and Ipsative assessment.
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What are the two main types of assessment?

Formative Assessment – Formative assessments are administered throughout the year, usually by classroom teachers. Their primary purpose is to inform teachers about how their students are progressing, where gaps exist in students’ learning, and how their instruction needs to be adjusted to improve student learning, possibly by slowing down the pace, repeating instruction, or even challenging some students with new and potentially more difficult tasks.

  1. Formative assessments don’t have to be formal tests.
  2. They often include informal activities like hand signals, brain dumps, and entry/exit tickets, which give teachers informal and immediate feedback on student learning.
  3. They are often embedded as learning activities such as using concept maps or journal entries which means this can be assessment as learning.

Even though some of these are very informal (like a thumbs up or thumbs down), teachers can use this data (be it quantitative or qualitative) to adjust their instructional groupings or reteach specific skills to students who seem to need help. In fact, any systematically collected and evaluated display of learning can give teachers the insight they need to inform instruction. Formative feedback (be it more formal, like a quiz—or informal, like a thumbs-up) should be used daily to inform instruction and planning. By having the right data at the right time, you can make sure that:

  • Instruction is appropriate for student’s levels of development and needs
  • Instruction is efficient and seamless
  • Instruction provides students the time they need to grow or master the skills that are taught
  • Instruction is sequenced flexibly and accommodates individual progress and answers the question “what next?”

By evaluating along the way throughout the year and making micro just-in-time course corrections, you’ll be more likely to garner the best outcomes you intend for your students to achieve. Both diagnostic and formative assessments are measurements for learning, Summative assessments are measurements of learning,
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What are the 4 principles of assessment?

Principles of Assessment – Part 4 (Validity) – International Teacher Training Academy (Australia) There are four Principles of Assessment –,, and Validity. In our previous Blogs we discussed the Principles of, and, Here we are to discuss the Principle of Validity.

  1. Perhaps this last principle of assessment should have been discussed first, as it is so important.
  2. Validity means that the assessment process assesses what it claims to assess – i.e.
  3. The unit of competency or cluster of units.
  4. The assessment tool must address all requirements of the unit to sufficient depth and over a sufficient number of times to confirm repeatability of performance.

The unit of competency is the benchmark for assessment. The assessment must adhere strictly to its requirements.

Nothing from the unit must be omitted from assessment Nothing must be required over and above the unit requirements.

The assessment instruments that make up the tool need to be designed so that:

the outcomes and performance requirements of the unit are addressed the broad range of skills and knowledge that are essential to competent performance are addressed assessment of knowledge and skills is integrated with their practical application

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What are the two types of assessments in education?

“When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative. When the guests taste the soup, that’s summative.” Robert E. Stake, Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Illinois Formative assessment and summative assessment are two overlapping, complementary ways of assessing pupil progress in schools,

While the common goal is to establish the development, strengths and weaknesses of each student, each assessment type provides different insights and actions for educators. The key to holistic assessment practice is to understand what each method contributes to the end goals — improving school attainment levels and individual pupils’ learning — and to maximise the effectiveness of each.

Both terms are ubiquitous, yet teachers sometimes lack clarity around the most effective types of summative assessment and more creative methods of formative assessment, In our latest State of Technology in Education report, we learnt that more educators are using online tools to track summative assessment than formative, for example.
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What are the 4 pillars of assessment?

Pillars of Assessment in Psychology — Monique M. Chouraeshkenazi, Ph.D., Psy.D. By Dr. Monique Marie Chouraeshkenazi Photo Source: Stuart Kime Jerome M. Sattler is a world-renowned psychologist and author, who is considered a “pioneer” in the field of psychological testing and assessments.

Because of his strides in the assessment of children, Sattler published Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications, which entails the four pillars of assessment that are predicated on information assessment methodologies, interviews, observations, and norm-referenced tests (Sattler, 2001). The first pillar are norm-referenced tests and such assessments compare an individual’s performance to those in a similar fields and/or categories; there must be a solid comparison group for results to be considered reliable and credible.

An individual’s score is compared to another, which is in a specific norm for a standardized group (Aiken & Groth-Marnat, 2006). Examples of norm-referenced tests are specialized tests for gifted students (academia and intelligence), emotional and behavioral matters (psychological), and memory skills (functional), to name a few.

The second pillar is the assessment of interviews. Assessments are used to generate information from tests to draw a conclusion. The purpose of such tests is to differentiate reasoning precisely norm (standardized) efforts by collecting and examining, analyzing, and interpreting the information given by individuals of the same group.

Types of assessments are indicative of interviews, which fall into three categories; unstructured, semi-structured, and structured. Interviews are critical data collection tools in research and experiments and have been responsible for groundbreaking results.

  • Additionally, interviews are essential because researchers attempt to identify commonalities between specific themes (Arizona State Unviersity, n.d.).
  • These commonalities afford opportunities to provide prolific results, which can assist policymakers in making informed decisions derived from research study efforts.
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The third pillar is observations, which is an integral part of the testing process. According to the introductory lesson of understanding psychological testing and assessments, it is important to observe an individual’s demeanor, methodologies, behavior, facial expressions, and so forth, when testing (American Public University System, 2018).

Such mannerisms should be noted to understand a person’s agitation or possible levels of difficulty during testing and to gauge consistency of behaviors during the entire assessment, which can be underlying factors when interpreting results and making recommendations. The fourth pillar assessment is information assessment procedures, in which samples of tests can be considered to obtain information from a specific group.

These type of tests are not considered official testing tools and should be used for preliminary information and review; therefore, critical information such as diagnosis, medical management, treatment, to publish results, and other professional works within the field should be based on official testing tools that are recognized through prominent psychological associations (i.e.

the American Psychological Association). The purpose of using informal assessments are to obtain information that can bring value to official testing procedures. Part A: The Testing Process The developed scenario is seeking applicants to participate in an experimental study and examine the psychological effects of terrorism.

This will be a forensic study to determine not only perceived psychological concerns, but how those who engage in terrorism should be tried and persecuted for their crimes with the federal judicial system within the United States. Finally, the results from the experiment will be published and distributed to psychological facilities, law enforcement, department of justices, and counterterrorism agencies throughout the world to acknowledge recommendations for policymakers and the evolution of persecution for terroristic acts.

  • To complete this study, norm-referenced tests would be required for the following populace:
  • – Reformed terrorists
  • – Terrorists who have been captured (standardized groups)

This specific population is needed to gather information on emotional and behavioral issues, academic intelligence, potential mental illnesses and/or disorders, socioeconomic status, professions prior to engagement in terrorism, salary, military background, age, and familial/social backgrounds.

Like elements needed for norm-reference testing, clinical assessments should be used to gather information specific traits such as socioeconomic status, familial background, mental and behavioral matters, upbringing, and other information required to understand the correlation of psychological effects, the justice system, and policymaking processes in terrorism.

This experimental study will be a mixed methods approach, structured interview, case study to examine and analyze the information collected by the population selected. Collaborators are required to observe participants during the assessment to record all behaviors that can be an element considered to the results of this experiment.

  • As a guideline for this study, Schuuranum’s research design of compiling articles as a dataset to review the evolution of terrorism attacks (2018).
  • Instead, the focus will be on academic journals published between 2001and 2017 to review information on psychological effects such as trauma, mental disabilities, and other effects that have diagnosed before and after involvement in terrorist attack.

In addition, the experiment will utilize the Inventory of Personality Organization Reality Test scale, which is used for “reality testing, primitive psychological defense, and identity diffusion, in a nonclinical sample” (Lenzenweger, Clarkin, Kernberg, & Foelsch, 2001, para.1).

  • This is especially important to utilize, as there needs to be a process implemented to determine reliability, consistency, and validity of assessment protocol before using official testing tools for this study.
  • Part B: Three Ethical Guidelines Studying the psychological effects of terrorism is very complex topic and requires unorthodox protocol because the experiments calls for those who are international and domestic criminals that are responsible for committing heinous crimes against governments and humanity throughout the world.

Because of the sensitivity of this topic, there are many ethical considerations, which can negatively impact the success of this study. Even though all ethical considerations are important and will be utilized in this study, the following will be the focus:

  1. – Competence
  2. – Human Relations
  3. – Informed Consent

Competence is a very important element in this research study; because of the seriousness of terrorism, it needs to be determined if the participants’ capabilities and comprehension levels are recorded prior to and after the experiment to show competency.

It is also important that psychologists are competent in the field they specialize in to avoid violations, misdiagnosis, and other problems (possible criminal issues) that can heavily impact the results and/or that prevents the publishing a study. According to the American Psychological Association (2018), competence is an integral characteristic of a psychologist’s performance to determine their abilities.

To ensure they are qualified to provide services and competency is clear, psychologists frequently complete training to ensure their competency when necessary. Human relations cover various elements that can be detrimental to experimental settings. For this study, unfair discrimination, avoiding harm, and other harassment issues will be centralized factors and require specific protocol to ensure the participants are protected.

Unfair discrimination can be projected in this study, considering the sensitive population. Dealing with criminals who have committed heinous crimes against humanity are unacceptable by most citizens in the world. Discrimination is predicated on the unfair treatment of individuals based on their gender, race, ethnicity, culture, origin, religious preference, and other factors that are considered rightful to an individual, as a human (U.S.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). In this research study, there can be bias and discrimination against terrorists because of their chosen careers and voluntary role played in the execution of terrorist acts. Therefore, psychologists conducting this experience should annotate meticulous protocol of how he or she will mitigate prejudice from their analysis and results and conduct this experiment in a way that produces the most reliable information possible.

  1. Other harassment issues relate to psychologists and working with participants that are considered a “sensitive” population.
  2. Because discrimination may not be the intention with this experiment, psychologists may inadvertently do so and secondary measures need to be ensured to prevent partiality and protecting the integrity of the study.
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Avoiding harm may be the most important element under human relations issues. It is dependent upon psychologists to take necessary steps to mitigate harming participants and/or putting them in harmful conditions (APA, 2018). In addition to establishing protocols for discrimination, there must be strict guidelines for preventing harmful environments for reform and captured terrorists during the longevity of this experiment.

Informed consent must be established by psychologists who want to interview, assess, counsel, or consult services human subjects (APA, 2018). Because this is a sensitive experiment, involving serious activities, there is an exceptional need to ensure participants are legally capable to give consent to participate in this study.

Additionally, the seriousness of this experiment may question participants’ mental capacity to complete assessments of their involvement in terrorism. To protect the integrity of the study and participants, additional protocol should be annotated, which involves a third reputable party (i.e.

  • Legal entities) to ensure the competency and comprehension of the participants selected.
  • Privacy and confidentiality is a mandate psychologists must follow to protect all private and confidential components of the information collected by participants (APA, 2018).
  • Appropriate measures should be taken to determine where all data collected will be stored during and after the research study.

Protocol should include where storage equipment will be located and who will have access to the information. There should be alternative measures for information that is lost, stolen, and/or unintentionally erased. Additionally, since information will be recorded via video and manual recording devices, there will be an addendum to support methods on how recorded information should be handled and stored.

  • This should mitigate intrusion efforts and/or access to information unauthorized persons and provide administrative actions.
  • Addendums to intrusion information should include administrative actions for those who purposely access private and confidential information and are authorized.
  • Understanding the pillars of assessment paves the way for quality and sound research studies.

Psychologists, scientists, and other trained professionals involved in research studies can use the pillars of assessments as a guideline for ensuring all elements are included and that all legal and ethical protocols are acknowledged and adhered to.

Additionally, utilizing the pillars of assessment brings values to problem-solving and evaluations that attempts to solve the world’s problems in psychology and science. Psychological testing is a controversial tool that underlines the ethical concerns, which may negate the hard work and effort involved to publishing groundbreaking information within the field.

The pillars of assessment identify specific issues such as the examiner, bias, tools, challenges, accuracy, and confidentiality—that if acknowledged within the study, can increases its changes, as being a respected, reliable, and valid study. References Aiken, L.R.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological Testing and Assessment. Boston, MA: Pearson Educational Group, Inc. American Psychological Association. (2018). Ethical principles of psychologists code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/ (accessed on 8 July 2018). American Public University System.

(2018). PSYC502: Week 1 Lesson. Retrieved from https://edge.apus.edu/portal/site/387829/tool/6156a533-ceaf-4256-84eb-b640bfd94f56/ShowPage?returnView=&studentItemId=0&backPath=&errorMessage=&clearAttr=&source=&title=&sendingPage=2169519&newTopLevel=false&postedComment=false&addBefore=&itemId=7313703&path=push&addTool=-1&recheck=&id= (accessed on 8 July 2018).

Sattler, J.M. (2001). Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications (4th Edition). San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler, Inc. Schuurman, B. (2018). Research on terrorism, 2007-2016: A review of data, methods, and authorship. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09546553.2018.1439023 (accessed on 8 July 2018).U.S.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Discrimination by type. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/ (accessed on 8 July 2018). : Pillars of Assessment in Psychology — Monique M. Chouraeshkenazi, Ph.D., Psy.D.
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What are the main methods of assessment?

Assessment Methods An important step in the assessment process is choosing an appropriate method for collecting data. When considering how to assess your goals or outcomes, it can be helpful to start by thinking about answers to the following questions:

What type of data do you need? Has someone already collected the information you are looking to gather? Can you access the existing data? Can you use the existing data? Is there potential for collaboration with another individual, program, or department? How can you best collect this data? How will you specifically use the information you collect?

The most important aspect of choosing a method is ensuring that the method will provide the evidence needed to determine the extent to which the goal or outcome was achieved. Decisions about which assessment methods to utilize should be based primarily on the data that is needed for the specific goals and outcomes being assessed, not on past data collection efforts or convenience.

Direct Method – Any process employed to gather data which requires participants to demonstrate their knowledge, behavior, or thought processes. Indirect Method – Any process employed to gather data which asks participants to reflect upon their knowledge, behaviors, or thought processes.

For example, if a department or program has identified effective oral communication as a learning goal or outcome, a direct assessment method involves observing and assessing students in the act of oral communication (e.g., via a presentation scored with a rubric).

Asking students to indicate how effective they think they are at communicating orally (e.g., on a survey-like instrument with a rating scale) is an indirect method. Direct Evidence of Student Learning Sources of direct evidence of student learning consist of two primary categories: observation and artifact/document analysis.

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The former involves the student being present, whereas the latter is a product of student work and does not require the student to be present. Here are some examples of each:

Observation opportunities: performances, presentations, debates, group discussions. Artifact/document analysis opportunities: portfolios, research papers, exams/tests/quizzes, standardized tests of knowledge, reflection papers, lab reports, discussion board threads, art projects, conference posters.

The process for directly assessing learning in any of the above situations involves clear and explicit standards for performance on pre-determined dimensions of the learning outcome, often accomplished through the development and use of a rubric. For example, assessment of the learning outcome “Students in Research Methods will be able to document sources in the text and the corresponding reference list.” could be assessed by randomly selecting papers from the course and using a rubric to determine the extent to which students are actually able to document sources.

It is important to note that stand-alone grades, without thorough scoring criteria, are not considered a direct method of assessment due to the multiple factors that contribute to the assignment of grades. Indirect Evidence of Student Learning In addition to the sources of direct evidence, there are also other types of data that indirectly provide evidence of student learning.

While data of this nature can be useful, it is important to note that direct evidence is needed to fully assess student learning outcomes. Examples of indirect assessments include:

Student participation rates Student, alumni, and employer satisfaction with learning Student and alumni perceptions of learning Retention and graduation rates Job placement rates of graduates Graduate school acceptance rates

Implementation Plan Once methods have been discussed, it can be helpful (and ensure timeliness) to think about the assessment implementation plan for each method:

What: What specific data do we need to collect? Who: Who is responsible for implementing the assessment? Whom: From whom are we collecting this data? When: When are we collecting this data? (i.e., What is the timeline for data collection?) How: How will we collect this data (i.e., What resources will be used to collect the data?) Why: Why are we collecting this data (i.e., What do we plan to do with it?

The answers to these questions are often discussed as part of the assessment planning process and may be included in assessment plan documents. : Assessment Methods
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What’s the difference between a formative and summative assessment?

Difference 2 – There’s also a big difference between the assessement strategies in getting the right information of the student’s learning. With formative assessments you try to figure out whether a student’s doing well or needs help by monitoring the learning process,
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How many types of assessment are there in education?

What Are the Types of Assessment in Education? 6 Types of Assessments – Although nomenclature can vary from district to district, there are six main types of assessments in education:

  1. Just-In-Time/Short Cycle Assessments (Formative)
  2. Universal Screening Assessments
  3. Diagnostic Assessments
  4. Progress Monitoring Assessments
  5. Interim Assessments
  6. Summative Assessments

Let’s explore how each type of assessment helps analyze and support learning in the sections below.
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What are the 4 assessment tools?

What are assessment tools? – Assessment tools aid in assessing and evaluating student learning and can provide different options to assess students beyond the traditional exam. Several tools are available including grading rubrics, Canvas Assignments, plagiarism detection, self-assessment, and peer assessment, surveys, and classroom polling,
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What are the 4 assessment principles?

Principles of Assessment: What This Means For RTOs The RTO Standards Guide is an important document in the VET industry. If you’re reading this blog you’ve probably come across it once or twice. Maybe you’ve read it front to back, or are tackling it in small chunks.

  1. You may be familiar enough with it to quote snippets at dinner parties, or you are in the beginning phase of trying to wrap your head around all the new information.
  2. Either way, this blog is aimed at summarising what we consider to be one of the most important sections of the RTO Standards Guide – Conduct Effective Assessment.

Here, we are starting with Clause 1.8, Principles of Assessment. There are four Principles of Assessment Fairness Flexibility Validity Reliability. We will be discussing each of these and what it means for RTO Assessment. Download this infographic for easy reference.
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What are the 4 types of assessment in physical education?

Other Formative Assessment Physical Education Examples – Outside of just weightlifting, PE teachers can utilize a wide variety of fitness-based formative assessment strategies in class. Many PE teachers, because of the district or state requirements, will incorporate assessments like a 1-mile run, 1-minute squat, pacer, and 1-minute push-up test.

The important thing to remember with all of these examples is that students should only be compared to themselves. In the past, a norm assessment has been used to compare and contrast student performance with their peers. The problem with this assessment style is that it can leave students feeling like failures.

Let’s use a hypothetical physical activity assessment with a student named Sarah as an example of this. For example: Sarah ran the mile in 14:00. In a norm assessment she would be told she is in a certain percentile among her peers. Let’s say she was in the 20th percentile.

  1. When Sarah improved her mile time to 12:30, while she had a 1:30-minute personal improvement, she may only have moved up to the 25th percentile in her age group.
  2. Now Sarah feels as if her progress is not meaningful.
  3. This can have unintended consequences and people like Sarah overtime will learn to have a negative association to fitness.

But if we take a formative assessment approach with this mile example, her progress can be celebrated instead of making Sarah feel dejected. We can take that one-minute improvement and highlight that she made significant individual progress. A 10% improvement to be exact! This reframing of assessment and result can now better engage Sarah to continue working towards improvement, rather than disengagement and frustration.
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