What Is A Balanced Diet In Physical Education?

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What Is A Balanced Diet In Physical Education
Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition is part of, Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition.1 Mark Questions Question 1.

What is balanced diet? (Delhi 2014 7) OR What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer: A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

Question 2. What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer: Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food. Question 3. What are carbohydrates? Answer: Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

  • Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.
  • Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.
  • Question 4.
  • Why does the weightlifters’ diet includes lots of protein? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015) Answer: The diet includes a lot of protein because proteins contain amino acids.

This is used in building muscles and increase strength which are necessary for weightlifting. Question 5. What are fats? (CBSE 2013) Answer: Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later.

Question 6. What are micronutrients? (All India; Delhi 2016) Answer: Micro nutrients are little Wonders of Nature that control growth and development, cell formation, disease resistance and repair processes of our body. Question 7. What are vitamins? (All India 2014) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon vvhich are essential for the normal growth and working of the body.

They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and 6-complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12). Question 8. Enlist two sources of calcium and iron separately. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Calcium—milk, cheese Iron—meat; eggs. Question 9.

  • What do you mean by components of diet? Answer: Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet.
  • These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and microelements like calcium; iron, zinc etc.
  • Question 10.

Enlist two non-nutritive components of diet. (All India 2015) Answer: Non-nutritive components of diet are

  • Colour compounds
  • Flavour compounds

Question 11. Define food supplements. Answer: Food supplements which are also known as a dietary supplement, are providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial, substances in the form of capsules,- soft gels, cops and tablets.

  1. Question 12.
  2. What is the disadvantage of food supplements? Answer: Food supplements can interact with medications which can cause unwanted side effects and decrease the efficacy of the medicine.
  3. Question 13.
  4. Critically explain the use of dietary supplements in heavy dose for longer duration.
  5. Justify your answer with two suitable examples.

All indin 2015 Answer: Dietary supplements if taken in heavy doses can be toxic and cause serious side effects. For example

  1. Heavy dose of vitamin A can cause liver damage, blurred vision, headache, bone pain and nausea.
  2. Heavy dose of iron can cause digestive problems.

Question 14. Explain the importance of fluid intake during competition. Answer: Fluid intake is very essential during competition as it helps to keep the body hydrated. The fluid intake requirement depends upon the duration of the events, as explained below

  • or events lasting for less than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 180-240 ml of water every 10-15 minutes to prevent dehydration.
  • For events lasting for more than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 150-300 ml of carbohydrate/electrolyte beverage every 15-20 minutes during exercise.

3 Marks Questions Question 15. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. CBSE 2012 Answer: Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food.

  1. Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc.
  2. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures.
  3. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Importance

  • Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:
  • Fats also help in production of hormones.
  • Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
  • Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
  • Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question 16. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer: Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats

  • They provide heat and energy to the body.
  • They also help in regulation of body temperature.
  • They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
  • Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:

Sources of Fats

  • Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
  • Vegetable Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut, soybean, foodgrains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question 17. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. OR Vitamins are very essential for working of the body and are divided into two groups. Explain about them. (All India 2015) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body.

  • Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, proper functioning of nervous system and digestive system.
  • Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
  • Vitamin E increases fertility and ensures proper functioning of the glands.
  • Vitamin K helps in clotting of blood.

Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B complex and C which are given below

  • Vitamin B complex consists of various groups of vitamins namely B, B2, B3, B6, and B12.
  • They are necessary for proper growth and functioning.of various organs of the body.
  • Vitamin C is essential for maintenance of ligaments, tissues, tendons and strong blood vessels.

Question 18. Briefly explain the functions and resources of fat soluble vitamins. (Delhi 2015) Answer: The vitamins that are soluble in fats are called fat soluble vitamins. They are vitamin A, D, E and K Functions

  1. Vitamin A This is essential for normal growth of the bpdy. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness and also affects the kidneys, nervous system and digestive system. Sources are milk, curd, ghee, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya,’ green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot and pumpkin.
  2. Vitamin D This is essential for the formation of healthy teeth and bones. The presence of this vitamin in the body enables it to absorb calcium and phosphorus. Its deficiency causes rickets, softness of bones, teeth diseases. Sources are egg yolk, fish, sunlight, vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream, butter.
  3. Vitamin E This is. essential.in increasing the fertility among men and women as well as proper functioning of adrenal and sex glands. Its deficiency causes weakness in muscles and heart. Sources are green vegetables, sprouts, coconut oil, dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter, maize.
  4. Vitamin K This is helpful in the clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes anaemia and blood do not clot easily. Sources are cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomato, potato, wheat, egg and meat.

Question 19. Mention the uses of any two minerals in our diet. Answer:

  1. Iodine Iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
  2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes rickets and asthma. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question 20. Write briefly about protein as an essential component of diet.flll India; (Delhi 2016) OR What are proteins? Discuss. Answer: Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins

  • Vegetable proteins
  • Animal proteins

Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sources are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc. Question 21. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer: Balanced Diet A balanced diet is that which ‘ contains the proper amounts of each nutrient.

  • Carbohydrates These are our main sources of energy.
  • Proteins These provide essential growth as ‘ well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
  • Fats These are the sources of energy.
  • Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
  • Minerals These are essential for proper – growth and functioning of our body.
  • Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.

Question 22. In sports such as boxing and wrestling, the players tend to loose weight sharply. Explain the pitfalls of dieting. Answer: Pitfalls of dieting are

  1. Eating too Little In dieting people take just 1500-1800 calories per day. But this is not sufficient to meet the daily requirements. This may result in massive weight loss and other related health problems.
  2. More Drinking than Eating In order to reduce calorie consumption, more drinks are taken like sweetened juices, sodas, tea and coffee with sugar. These increase the weight.
  3. Skipping Meals Not taking breakfast, lunch, dinner or proper meals reduces the metabolic rate. Then the body starts conserving energy, the next time it gets food. This also results in more intake of calories in next meal.
  4. Intake of Labelled Foods By taking foods that are labelled as ‘low fat’, Tow sugar’, Tow calories’ may not produce proper results. For example, drinking more tea with sugarfree results in more intake of tea and hence greater calorie consumption.
  5. Not Performing Exercises No exercises reduce the level of metabolism drastically and there is no burning of calories. In that case dieting will not be effective.

Question 23. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer: The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximise carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about 3-4 hours prior to the start of the competition.

  • If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea-the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach.
  • An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.

Question 24. What are the Nutritive and Non-nutritive components of diet? Explain. (Delhi 2017) Answer: Food components whether they are nutritive (providing calories) or non-nutritive (not providing calories) are needed to a multiple of food and beverages.

  • They not only provide a sweet flavour to foods, they are also used to preserve foods (in jams or jellies), provide body bulk and texture (in ice-cream and baked goods), enhance other flavours (like salty) and aid in fermentation (in breads and pickles).
  • The nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Non-nutritive components do not contribute to the energy, calories or nutrition of the body. Some non-nutritive components are essential for the body while others harm the body. Colour compounds, flavour compounds, food additives, plant compound, water, roughage or fibre are some non-nutritive components of diet.5 Marks Questions Question 25.

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Explain any five essential elements of diet. (Delhi 2014) Answer: There are many nutrients in the food. These are known as elements. Essential elements of our diet are 1. Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.

Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans, animal products etc.

  • Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands.
  • The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.3.
  • Fats Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc.

Functions of Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B- complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, Bg and B12).

Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, amla etc. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin. They are helpful in RBC production.

carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body.

Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.6. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet. Source Nature. Functions Water helps in the digestive system. It regulates body temperature and carries nutrients to cells. Question 26. ‘Vitamins are essential for our metabolic process.

What happens if we devoid our diet of vitamins? (CBSE 2012) Answer: Vitamins are required by the body for proper growth and development. The following may happen if we will avoid vitamins in our diet

  • In the absence of vitamin A, there may be night-blindness.
  • Deficiency of vitamin B causes Beri-Beri disease.
  • Deficiency of vitamin C causes Scurvy.
  • Deficiency of vitamin E causes weakness in heart and muscles.
  • Deficiency of vitamin K causes anaemia.
  • In addition, deficiency of vitamins in the body affects the working of the organs, nervous system and digestive system adversely.
  • Their presence is necessary for maintaining healthy teeth and bones as well as overall health.

Question 27. Diet for a sportsperson is important. What should be the aims of preparing diet for sportsperson? (Delhi 2015) Answer: For a sportsperson, taking proper diet is very essential. The aims of preparing diet for a sportsperson are as follows

  • For maintaining healthy body weight.
  • For providing energy needed to perform various activities of the body.
  • For the proper growth of the body.
  • For replacing worn out tissues.
  • For providing chemicals that help to control the body functions.
  • For protecting the body against diseases.
  • For providing the body with adequate energy required during practice sessions as well as during, competitions.
  • For providing easy recovery of cells and tissues after a competition is over.

Question 28. What is the role of various elements of diet on performance of ah athlete? (All India 2014) Answer: For a sportsperson athlete, it is essential to take a balanced diet as lot of physical activity and endurance is needed in sports. The quality of sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

  • Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
  • Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
  • A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
  • Diet prevents, various diseases, maintains healthy weight.
  • Vitamins are essential for good performance and overall development of the body.
  • Water is essential as it helps in releaving the body of waste materials and transportation of nutrients to cells.,

Value-Based Question Question 29. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer: Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

  1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bacterial infections.
  2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
  3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
  4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

1 Mark Questions Question.1. What are fats? Answer. Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later. Butter, ghee and nuts are rich sources of fats; too much of fats can lead to diseases like blood pressure, heart problems and obesity.

Question.2. What do you mean by components of diet? Answer. Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and micro elements like calcium, iron, zinc etc.

Question.3. What is balanced diet? Or What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer. A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

  • Question.4.
  • What are vitamins? Answer.
  • Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body.
  • They are required in very small quantities.
  • The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, Bs, B6, B7, B9 and B12).
  • Vitamins are found in milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, oil, nuts, fish, amla etc.

Question.5. What are carbohydrates? Answer. Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.

Question.6. What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer. Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food. Question.7. What is Glycemic Index? Answer. Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale of how much a particular type of food raises blood sugar over a two-hour period compared to pure glucose.

Question.8. List the goals of nutrition during competition. Answer. The goals of nutrition during competition are to

  1. stay hydrated
  2. provide immediate fuel
  3. boost performance
  4. preserve muscle and
  5. improve recovery.

3 Marks Questions Question.9. Discuss the role of fats on the performance of sports persons. Answer. Fats are considered as a major source of fuel for light to moderate levels of activity. Various sports require different proportions of fat in the muscles for maximum performance.

  1. Particularly for long distance runners and swimmers, fat is very important, as lack of fat will reduce the available amount of calories required by the body for the exercise undertaken.
  2. Fat is important to meet the demands of energy.
  3. When the body has used up the calories from carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 40 minutes of exercises, it begins to depend on calories from fat.

Question.10. Explain about any two components of diet in brief. Answer. (i) Proteins Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. The basic structure of proteins is a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins: (a) Non-essential proteins (b) Essential proteins Functions: (a) Proteins are essential for growth and development of children.

  • B) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with proteins.
  • Ii) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in all activities.
  • These provide energy to the body and are not stored in the body for a long time.
  • Carbohydrates are of two types: (a) Simple carbohydrates (b) Complex carbohydrates Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.

Question.11. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. Answer. Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body. Types of Vitamins There are various vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (Bt, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12) There are two groups of vitamins

  1. Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are A, D, E and K.
  2. Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B and C.

12. What are the uses of any two minerals in our diet? Answer.

  1. Iodine For creativity as well as proper activity of the thyroid gland, iodine is essential. Its deficiency may stop the growth of hair. It is found in rich quantity in sea fish. Iodised salt is normally the main source of iodine in a normal diet.
  2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. It also maintains the balance between acids and bases in our bodies. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question.13. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer. Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

  1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bactarial infections.
  2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
  3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
  4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

Question.14. Discuss the functions and sources of proteins. Or What are proteins? Discuss. Answer. Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a ‘ chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen.

These are two types of proteins (i) Non-essential proteins (ii) Essential proteins Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sorces are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc. Functions (a) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein. (b) Proteins are needed for growth and development of children.

(c) Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. Question.15. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer. Balanced Diet A diet that contains the right amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet.

  1. Carbohydrates These are our main source of energy.
  2. Proteins These provide essential growth as well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
  3. Fats These are the source of energy.
  4. Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
  5. Minerals These are essential for proper growth and functioning of our body.
  6. Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.

Question.16. What are vitamins? Write the sources of vitamins A, D, E and K. Answer. Vitamins Vitamins are the compounds of carbon that are absolutely essential for the normal growth and working of the body. These are required in a very small quantities.

Sources Vitamin-A Milk, butter, eggs, carrots, pumpkin and green vegetables. Vitamin-D Cheese, butter, milk, green vegetables and exposure to sunlight. Vitamin-E Vegetable oil, butter, milk, whole grains, com, nuts, seeds and spinach. Vitamin-K Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other vegetables. Bacteria in the intestines normally also produce vitamin-K.

Question.17. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer. Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats:

  1. They provide heat and energy to the body.
  2. They also help in regulation of body temperature.
  3. They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
  4. They are helpful in making the body soft and oily and protect it from external effects of hot and cold climates.
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Sources of Fats:

  1. Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
  2. Vegetables Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut,, soyabean, food grains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question.18. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. Answer. Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food. One gram of fat provides double the energy provided by one gram of carbohydrates.

Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Poly-unsaturated fats and mono-unsaturated fats help in lowering the blood cholesterol.

  1. Fats are necessary for many body functions.
  2. Fats keep up warm and give protection to organs.
  3. Fats also help in production of hormones.
  4. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
  5. Fats are also important energy sources.
  6. Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
  7. Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question.19. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer. The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximize carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about three hours prior to the start of the competition.

If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea – the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach. An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.5 Marks Questions Question.20.

What is a balanced diet? Explain its elements. Or Explain in detail the different elements of diet. Answer. Balanced diet is the intake of appropriate types and right / sufficient amount of food and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintenance of body cells, tissues and organs and to support normal growth and development.

  1. Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrate is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.
  2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans and animal products etc. Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.
  3. Fats Fats cantain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc. Functions Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.
  4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D E, K and B- complex (B1B2 B3 B5 B6, B7 B9 and B12). Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, am/a etc. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin. They are helpful in RBC production.
  5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body. Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.
  6. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet. Source Natural. Functions Water helps in the digestive system. It breaks down complex food molecules. It also regulates the body temperature and is essential for various chemical reactions.

Question.21. Discuss the role of diet on the performance of a sportsperson. Answer. The energy requirement of an athlete depends on:

  1. Quality Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fluids.
  2. Quantity Calories according to the sport.
  3. Variety Different types of food.
  4. Portability Proper cooking.
  5. Acceptability of Nutrients To suit different customs, habits and tastes. The quality of a sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

Functions of different elements of diet are:

  1. Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
  2. Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the bdy.
  3. A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
  4. Diet prevents various diseases.
  5. Vitamins are essential for good performance.
  6. Vitamin-B complex helps in increasing the internal strength of our systems.
  7. Vitamin-E is beneficial in the treatment of heart diseases.
  8. Diet maintains healthy weight.
  9. Diet provides stress relief.
  10. Diet maintains normal body functions and proper blood sugar levels.
  11. Diet gives positive psychological feeling.
  12. Diet provides enough glycogen storage.
  13. Proteins are necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
  14. Minerals deficiency can decrease performance, especially during exercises in hot climate.

A normal person needs around 2100 – 2800 calories per day. An athlete may need up to 5000 to 7000 calories per day. At training or competition time, the best food is to take in a small amount of non-carbonated fruits, juices or non-carbonated soft drinks.

Eating Diet Before Performance We should eat suitable foods in the breakfast like cereals, porridge, bread or toast, fruit juice, boiled rice, potatoes, biscuits etc. Question.22. What are the goals of eating during competition? Explain the two different categories of such nutrition, indicating the different requirements.

Answer. The goals of eating during competition are to :

  1. stay hydrated
  2. provide immediate fuel
  3. boost performance
  4. preserve muscle and
  5. improve recovery.

The two different categories of this nutrition are :

  1. competitions less than two hours long, and
  2. competitions more than two hours long.

For the first category, the main focus should be on hydration. This is especially true if you’re using good pre-and post-training nutrition. So make sure you consume plenty of water. However, if you’re exercising in the heat and sweating a lot, sports drinks maybe useful since they have electrolytes that help speed hydration and recovery.

For the second category, sports drinks are helpful. Every hour you will need 15 grams of proteins and 30 to 45 grams of carbohydrates, which can be taken in the form of liquids, gels or solid food. However, ensure that you get enough electrolytes, especially sodium. This can be in the form of table salt added to any drink.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.
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What is meant by balanced diet physical education?

A balanced diet includes eating the right amount of calories and nutrients to maintain a healthy weight. ChooseMyPlate and the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide recommendations for most Americans on what and how much to eat to nourish your body. Physical activity is any form of movement that uses energy.
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What is balanced diet with example?

Why should I eat lean meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes (beans), tofu, nuts, and seeds? – These foods contain protein, minerals, and vitamins. Legumes, nuts, and seeds also have dietary fibre. It’s good to choose a variety of foods from this group. Oily fish such as salmon and mackerel are very healthy. It is recommended that you eat these twice per week.
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What is a balanced diet and why is it important?

– A balanced diet supplies the nutrients your body needs to work effectively. Without balanced nutrition, your body is more prone to disease, infection, fatigue, and low performance. Children who don’t get enough healthy foods may face growth and developmental problems, poor academic performance, and frequent infections.

  1. They can also develop unhealthy eating habits that may persist into adulthood.
  2. Without exercise, they’ll also have a higher risk of obesity and various diseases that make up metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
  3. According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, 4 of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States are directly linked to diet.

These are:

heart disease cancer stroke type 2 diabetes

Learn more about healthy meal plans for kids. Summary Your body needs nutrients to stay healthy, and food supplies essential nutrients that stop us from getting sick.
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What is balanced diet and its benefits?

A well-balanced diet provides all of the:

energy you need to keep active throughout the day nutrients you need for growth and repair, helping you to stay strong and healthy and help to prevent diet-related illness, such as some cancers

Keeping active and eating a healthy balanced diet can also help you to maintain a healthy weight. Deficiencies in some key nutrients – such as vitamin A, B, C and E, and zinc, iron and selenium – can weaken parts of your immune system. More about vitamins, minerals and nutrients
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What are the three types of balanced diet?

Every diet needs a balance of three main categories of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
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What are the methods of diet?

Overview of dietary assessment methods for measuring intakes of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements in research studies , August 2021, Pages 91-96 Accurate assessment of dietary intake enables the understanding of diet effects in human health and disease and the formulation of nutrition policy and dietary recommendations (e.g., foods and diet patterns) for individuals, groups, and communities.

However, accurately measuring dietary exposures through self-report are notoriously difficult to measure accurately and reliably. Traditional methods of dietary assessment include food records, food frequency questionnaires, and 24-hour recalls; digital and mobile methods that leverage technology are available for the traditional methods, and this field is quickly evolving,

Several screening tools and diet history methods also exist. In general methods of assessment can be categorized based on the scope of interest (e.g. the total diet or a limited number of dietary components), study design, and reference time frame (Table 1).

  1. Short-term instruments aim to capture recent or current dietary estimates, whereas long-term instruments aim to capture dietary data for a period of weeks up to a year.
  2. Long-term or habitual dietary exposures are the most appropriate means of capturing dietary exposures in both research and monitoring of a population or subgroup given that most dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time to determine group or population adequacy and to determine associations with health outcomes, respectively.
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Nevertheless, there are certain research questions for which temporal or recent dietary exposures may be of interest, such as relating sodium intakes to blood pressure, Ultimately, the choice of assessment method is dependent upon the research question, the study design, sample characteristics, and the size of the sample, to name just a few (Table 1).

  • In this brief review, methods of dietary assessment for research and their strengths and limitations will be discussed.
  • A food record is a comprehensive recording of all foods, beverages, and dietary supplements that a participant in a research study consumed within a designated period of time.
  • Usually 3–4 days of intake are recorded as participant burden generally causes a decline in the quality of information recorded if more days are recorded.

Ideally dietary intakes are weighed and measured, but are more often estimated by participants preceding and after consumption, Training of participants greatly A 24HR is a means to assess an individual’s intake over the previous 24-hour. Ideally, multiple 24HRs on non-consecutive, random days would be collected.

The 24HR has traditionally been interviewer administered over the phone or in person ; but 24HR are also collected in person or online (e.g. Automated-Self-Administered ). The use of ASA-24 in general reduces interviewer burden and costs, allows the participant to answer questions at their own pace, and is free; but, may not be FFQs assess usual intake over a specified period of time, generally a longer reference period, and query how frequently a person consumes food items, often combining multiple food items with similar nutrient profiles into a category.

FFQs offer a more cost-effective alternative to the 24HR because the subject usually self-completes the tool and are generally used in research studies with for large sample sizes. FFQs can be quantitative, semi-quantitative, or qualitative, Qualitative FFQs Screening tools are generally used when specific information is desired such as dietary estimates of a particular nutrient (e.g.

  • Calcium), food groups (e.g.
  • Fruits and vegetables), or dietary fat,
  • Screening tools should be developed and validated prior to use, and should be population-specific.
  • The time frame of various screening tools varies but is thought to generally represent the prior month or year.
  • Similar limitations exist with screeners as described above for The accuracy of self-reported data can be assessed by comparison with recovery biomarkers or other concentration biomarkers.

Recovery biomarkers are much more rigorous means to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported dietary assessment because the majority of what is consumed is ‘recovered’, but these biomarkers only exist for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium. Traditionally, studies investigating diet and health relationships have failed to include nutrient exposures from dietary supplements.

However, more than half of US adults and one-third of children use DS and because DS are not restricted by energy, the majority of these products contain higher amounts of nutrients than are usually found in foods, Given the pervasive use of dietary supplements, collecting information on their use is critical.

Dietary supplement use can be The most common methods used in nutrition research are the diet record, 24HR, and FFQ. Each method has benefits and drawbacks; however, the 24HR is the most accurate means to assess food and nutrient intake at present. Given the episodic nature of our food choices, utilizing a combination of methods has been preferred for both foods and beverages as well as dietary supplements,

R.L. Bailey et al. E.D. Kantor et al. R.R. Briefel et al. J.R. Speakman S.S. Jonnalagadda et al. G.H. Beaton et al. S.A. Bingham A.F. Subar et al. F.E. Thompson et al. F.E. Thompson et al.

G. Block et al. S.J. Blalock et al. S.B. Domel et al. H.A. Brants et al. J.A. Heady A.F. Subar et al. G.H. Beaton et al. J.W. Marr et al. V.A. Campbell et al. C.J. Boushey et al. S.I. Kirkpatrick et al. National Cancer Institute C.M. Weaver et al. F.E. Thompson et al. P.H. Casey et al.

Worldwide, the number of persons over the age of 65 years and those at risk of malnutrition (over and under) is growing, and the prevalence of diet-related chronic disease is at a record high. Pathologies that are linked to poor nutrition underlie the leading causes of death. Safe and effective strategies to improve human health outcomes are urgently required. Identification of nutrient needs for health outcomes has led to the development of food products, supplements, and dietary pattern recommendations. Application of these nutrient-based therapies have the potential to optimize clinical outcomes, such as tissue regeneration post-skeletal muscle trauma. However, despite progress in identifying nutrient needs there is often a delay in the utilization of products in clinical practice. Computational methods are becoming more and more essential to elucidate biological systems. Many different approaches exist with pros and cons. This paper reviews the most useful technologies focusing on nutrient metabolism and metabolic disorders. Space limitation prevents from exploring the examples in details, but pointers to the relevant papers are reported. The availability of nutrition applications (apps) has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from some of the leading apps. We identified five apps according to some selection criteria: >4-star ratings, >1 million downloads, including a food composition database, and in Italian language. Apps were used for 2 wk each. Using a 3-d food diary, the nutritional values obtained from each app were compared to a reference method including the Food Composition Database for Epidemiologic Studies in Italy. Energy intake differences were calculated for single nutrient and 3-d food diary between single app and reference method after food-item matching. Bland–Altman plots were used to assess agreement of the methods. Apps identified were FatSecret, Lifesum, MyFitnessPal, Yazio, and Melarossa. Apps tended to underestimate total energy intake compared with the reference method, from a minimum of –2 kcal for Lifesum, to a maximum of –5.4 kcal for Yazio (average per item). Apps tended to underestimate lipids, and to a lesser extent carbohydrate and fiber intake, except for Yazio and Lifesum, which overestimated the intake of protein. These discrepancies appear to be due to the use of no country-specific food composition databases and to user customization of the food list. The present findings suggest that the leading nutrition apps present critical issues in assessing the intake of energy and nutrients. Implementation of a framework for quality assessment is necessary to drive the design and development of higher-quality apps. Further research on efficacy and use of apps to monitor food intake is also warranted and some recommendations are provided. Dietary supplements are popular among patients with prostate cancer (PC). The objective of this systematic review was to critically examine double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of non-herbal dietary supplements and vitamins (NHDS) for evidence that prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were reduced in PC patients. Five databases were searched from their inception through December 2012 to identify studies that met our inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane tool. Eight RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were of high methodological quality. The following supplements were tested: isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein), minerals (Se) or vitamins (vitamin D) or a combination of antioxidants, bioflavonoids, carotenoids, lycopenes, minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mg), phytoestrogens, phytosterols, vitamins (B2, B6, B9, B12, C, and E), and other substances (CoQ10 and n -acetyl- l cysteine). Five RCTs reported no significant effects compared with placebo. Two RCTs reported that a combination of antioxidants, isoflavones, lycopenes, minerals, plant oestrogens and vitamins significantly decreased PSA levels compared with placebo. One RCT did not report differences in PSA levels between the groups. In conclusion, the hypothesis that dietary supplements are effective treatments for PC patients is not supported by sound clinical evidence. There are promising data for only two specific remedies, which contained a mixture of ingredients, but even for these supplements, additional high quality evidence is necessary before firm recommendations would be justified. The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002 and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially the images were intended to be used as a kid-friendly aid for estimating portion size in the context of a computerized 24-hour dietary recall for 8-15 year old children. In 2006, Baylor College of Medicine, Westat, and the National Cancer Institute initiated a collaboration that resulted in the expansion of this image database in preparation for the release of the web-based Automated Self- Administered 24 Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) for adults (now also available for use by children – ASA24-Kids). Researchers in the US and overseas have capitalized on these digital images for purposes including, but not limited, to dietary assessment. Malnutrition affects millions of people globally, especially women, children, and other vulnerable populations. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set in 2015 to end poverty, protect the planet, and improve the lives and prospects of everyone by 2030. To achieve the SDG goals effective nutrition interventions and programs need to be efficiently delivered to those most in need. Nutrition directly affects 2 SDGs (2 and 3) and indirectly influences five others. In addition, almost all SDGs influence nutrition and thus attaining the SDG goals is also a pre-requisite to achieving the Global Nutrition targets set in 2012. Evidence-based nutrition interventions, for which there is strong evidence of their biological impact, have the potential to directly influence SDGs 2 and 3 if successfully delivered at scale in high-burden countries. Nevertheless, delivery of nutrition programs is a complex process, where policy, government commitment, adequate budget allocation, supplies and delivery systems, training of service providers, informed beneficiaries and program monitoring and evaluation all need to be in place and aligned with each other. Although in the past decade there has been progress in the SDGs that nutrition directly affects, many goals are still off-track, likely due to several pending gaps at policy-level, program-level, and intervention-level. To accelerate the progress toward reaching the SDG goals that are directly influenced by nutrition, countries need to be supported to successfully and sustainably deliver proven interventions and to scale-up and deliver new interventions in new and innovative ways, and the evidence base should be built in promising areas especially integrating (rather than prioritizing over each other) nutrition-specific and sensitive approaches.

: Overview of dietary assessment methods for measuring intakes of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements in research studies
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What are 5 balanced diets?

We all know it’s important to eat a variety of foods to get the nutrients we need to stay healthy, but what does that actually look like? Eating your (at least) five portions of fruit and vegetables a day is a good start, but there’s more you can do to ensure you’re having a balanced diet. – A balanced diet is made up of foods from the five food groups: starchy carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, protein, dairy and healthy fats. Each provides the range of vitamins and minerals our bodies need to function efficiently. It’s unlikely that every meal will include all five, but the aim is to achieve a balance across the day, or across the week.
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