What Determines The Effectiveness Of School Curriculum?

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What Determines The Effectiveness Of School Curriculum
An effective curriculum should satisfy all state and federal standards as well as achieve measurable objectives. When creating an effective curriculum, remember that data is essential. Having specific goals that help evaluate student assessment results will also allow for evaluation of the curriculum program.
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How can we determine the effectiveness of curriculum?

What Determines The Effectiveness Of School Curriculum Curriculum development projects are designed to create new content or present content to students in a new format with new activities or approaches. The following are important things to know about evaluating curriculum development projects.1. Understand the underlying model, pedagogy, and process used to develop the curriculum.

  1. There are several curriculum development models, including the DACUM model (Developing a Curriculum), the Backward Design Method, and the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model of instructional design.
  2. Whatever approach is used, make sure you understand its methodology and underlying philosophy so that these can help guide the evaluation.2.

Establish a baseline. If possible, establish what student performance was before the curriculum was available, to assess the level of change or increased learning created as a result of the new curriculum. This could involve data on student grades or performance from the year before the new curriculum is introduced or data on job performance or another indicator.3.

Clearly identify the outcomes expected of the curriculum. What should students know or be able to do when they have completed the curriculum? Take the time to understand the desired outcomes and how the curriculum content, activities, and approach support those outcomes. The outcomes should be directly linked to the project goals and objectives.

Look for possible disconnects or gaps.4. Employ a pre/post test design. One method to establish that learning has occurred is to measure student knowledge of a subject before and after the curriculum is introduced. If you are comparing two curriculums, you may want to consider using one group as a control group that would not use the new curriculum and comparing the performance of the two groups in a pre/post test design.5.

  1. Employ content analysis techniques.
  2. Content analysis is the process of analyzing documents (student guides, instructor guides, online content, videos, and other materials) to determine the type of content, frequency of content, and internal coherence (consistency of different elements of the curriculum) and external coherence (interpretation in the curriculum fits the theories accepted in and outside the discipline).6.

Participate in the activities. One effective method for helping evaluators understand the impact of activities and exercises is to participate in them. This helps determine the quality of the instructions, the level of engagement, and the learning outcomes that result from the activities.7.

Ensure assessment items match instructional objectives. Assessment of student progress is typically measured through written tests. To ensure written tests assess the student’s grasp of the course objectives and curriculum, match the assessment items to the instructional objectives. Create a chart to match objectives to assessment items to ensure all the objectives are assessed and that all assessment items are pertinent to the curriculum.8.

Review guidance and instruction provided to teachers/facilitators in guides. Determine if the materials are properly matched across the instructor guide, student manual, slides, and in-class activities. Determine if the instructions are clear and complete and that the activities are feasible.9.

  1. Interview students, faculty, and, possibly, workforce representatives.
  2. Faculty can provide insights into the usefulness and effectiveness of the materials, and students can provide input on level of engagement, learning effort, and overall impression of the curriculum.
  3. If the curriculum is tied to a technician profession, involve industry representatives in reviewing and examining the curriculum.

This should be done as part of the development process, but if it is not, consider having a representative review the curriculum for alignment with industry expectations.10. Use Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation. A highly effective model for evaluation of curriculum is called the Kirkpatrick Model.

The levels in the model measure initial learner reactions, knowledge gained from the instruction, behavioral changes that might result from the instruction, and overall impact on the organization, field, or students.11. Pilot the instruction. Conduct pilot sessions as part of the formative evaluation to ensure that the instruction functions as designed.

After the pilot, collect end-of-day reaction sheets/tools and trainer observations of learners. Having an end-of-program product—such as an action-planning tool to implement changes around curriculum focus issue(s)—is also useful.
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What are four basic factors of an effective curriculum?

“Every Journey Begins With The First Step.” The curriculum development process systematically organizes what will be taught, who will be taught, and how it will be taught. Each component affects and interacts with other components. For example, what will be taught is affected by who is being taught (e.g., their stage of development in age, maturity, and education).

issue/problem/need is identified ( issue what ), characteristics and needs of learners ( target audience who ), changes intended for learners ( intended outcomes /objectives what the learners will be able to do ), the important and relevant content ( what ), methods to accomplish intended outcomes ( how ), evaluation strategies for methods, content, and intended outcomes ( What works? ).

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The CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL on the next page ( Figure 1 ) shows how these components relate to each other and to the curriculum development process. It begins when an issue, concern, or problem needs to be addressed. If education or training a segment of the population will help solve the problem, then curriculum to support an educational effort becomes a priority with human and financial resources allocated.

  • The next step is to form a curriculum develop-ment team.
  • The team makes systematic decisions about the target audience (learner characteristics), intended out-comes (objectives), content, methods, and evaluation strategies.
  • With input from the curriculum development team, draft curriculum products are developed, tested, evaluated, and redesigned -if necessary.

When the final product is produced, volunteer training is conducted. The model shows a circular process where volunteer training provides feedback for new materials or revisions to the existing curriculum. An Example: 1n the case of population education, a need rural out-of-school youth with information on how population relates to the total environment as well as their personal lives. Figure 1 Figure 2 PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 2 on the previous page) further illustrates how the 12 essential steps progress from one to the next. It also shows the interaction and relationships of the four essential phases of the curriculum development process: ( I) Planning, (II) Content and Methods, (III) Implementation, and (IV) Evaluation and Reporting.

It is important to acknowledge that things do not always work exactly as depicted in a model! Each phase has several steps or tasks to complete in logical sequence. These steps are not always separate and distinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently. For example, the curriculum development team is involved in all of the steps.

Evaluations should occur in most of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what does not and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is imple­mented. Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to design learning activities before learner outcomes and content are described and identified.

  • Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes are described.
  • In the experience of the author, and confirmed by other curriculum specialists, the following curriculum development steps are frequently omitted or slighted.
  • These steps are essential to successful curriculum development and need to be emphasized.

Essential Curriculum Development Steps Needing Emphasis

Needs assessment : if not conducted, wonderful curriculum could be developed, but the appropriate needs of the target audience may not be met. Involving youth : the target audience and volunteers (or staff) who will be the implementors of the curriculum must be involved (i.e., they participate as full members of the curriculum development team). Recruiting and training volunteer facilitators: competent and skilled curriculum implementors are critical (the printed word cannot teach experiential group process, it doesn’t provide feedback). Evaluating and reporting on the impact of the curriculum : is critical for securing human and financial support from key policy decision makers and for assessing whether the curriculum has achieved the intended outcome.

Two types of evaluation are included in the Phases and Steps illustration: (1) Formative provides feedback during the process of developing the curriculum, and (2) Summative answers questions about changes (impact) that have occurred in learners because of their learning experiences.

Summative evaluation provides evidence for what works, what does not work, and what needs to be improved. In every step of the curriculum development process, the most important task is to keep the learner (in this case, youth) in mind and involve them in process, For example, the curriculum team members, who have direct knowledge of the target audience, should be involved in con­ducting the needs assessment.

From the needs assessment process, the problem areas are iden­tified, gaps between what youth know and what they need to know are identified, and the scope of the problem is clarified and defined. The results may prompt decision makers to allocate resources for a curriculum development team to prepare curriculum materials.

A brief description of each of the curriculum development steps is described below. After reviewing these descriptions, you should have a very clear idea of how the steps occur in each of the phases and what each step includes. “Nobody plans to fail but failure results from a failure to plan.” The planning phase lays the foundation for all of the curriculum development steps.

The steps in this phase include: (1) Identify Issue/Problem/Need ↪ (2) Form Curriculum Development Team ↪ (3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
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What are the 3 major factors that influence curriculum development?

Essay Question – Click to reveal a sample response. Name at least three factors that influence curriculum design and explain how they affect the curriculum design. There are many factors that influence curriculum design. Three of these main factors include technology, a multicultural society, and classroom management.

  1. Technology is sometimes fearful for teachers, but it should simply be viewed as another tool to help teachers.
  2. It has many positive qualities that can really affect the curriculum.
  3. For example, it can help accelerate the pace of the curriculum.
  4. Also, technology certainly helps supplement it with materials that cannot be accessed just from paper textbooks and lecture.

A multicultural society also influences curriculum design. It helps the curriculum reflect a complex society. Factors of diversity include religion, race, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and also children with different kinds of disabilities.

Diversity has been a major issue in schools since the beginning. Classroom management is another factor that influences curriculum design. It is about achieving order in the classroom so productive learning can occur. The ultimate goal of classroom management is to promote learning. Accomplished learning means the teacher is getting the curriculum across to the students, which is his or her ultimate goal in their career.

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Although there are many other factors that influence curriculum design, these three factors are very important to that design. Without these factors, who knows what the curriculum would be like? —Jaime Park There are many factors that influence curriculum design.

  • Three of these main factors include technology, a multicultural society, and classroom management.
  • Technology is sometimes fearful for teachers, but it should simply be viewed as another tool to help teachers.
  • It has many positive qualities that can really affect the curriculum.
  • For example, it can help accelerate the pace of the curriculum.

Also, technology certainly helps supplement it with materials that cannot be accessed just from paper textbooks and lecture. A multicultural society also influences curriculum design. It helps the curriculum reflect a complex society. Factors of diversity include religion, race, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and also children with different kinds of disabilities.

Diversity has been a major issue in schools since the beginning. Classroom management is another factor that influences curriculum design. It is about achieving order in the classroom so productive learning can occur. The ultimate goal of classroom management is to promote learning. Accomplished learning means the teacher is getting the curriculum across to the students, which is his or her ultimate goal in their career.

Although there are many other factors that influence curriculum design, these three factors are very important to that design. Without these factors, who knows what the curriculum would be like? —Jaime Park
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What are the 5 factors that influence curriculum development?

There are five (5) factors that affect curriculum design. These are (1) political, (2)social, (3) economic, (4) environmental and (5) technological.
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What are the 3 important elements of curriculum implementation?

Curriculum implementation is the translation of a written curriculum into classroom practices. Regardless of the definition or approach, curriculum can be organized into three major components: objectives, content or subject matter, and learning experiences.
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What are the 4 A’s in curriculum development?

The 4As of adult learning: Activity, Analysis, Abstraction, and Application is illustrated in Figure 6-1. The constructivist approach to teaching asserts that a Learner gains and builds knowledge through experience. It recognizes that life experiences are rich resources for continued learning.
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What are the key elements of curriculum?

Any curriculum consists of several components: objectives, attitudes, time, students and teachers, needs analysis, classroom activities, materials, study skills, language skills, vocabulary, grammar and assessment.
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What are the characteristics of effective teaching?

Some qualities of a good teacher include skills in communication, listening, collaboration, adaptability, empathy and patience. Other characteristics of effective teaching include an engaging classroom presence, value in real-world learning, exchange of best practices and a lifelong love of learning.
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What is the most appropriate criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of teaching?

Free WBSETCL JE Gr-II Electrical 2018 Official Paper 100 Questions 100 Marks 90 Mins Learning outcomes are the most appropriate criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of teaching. Evaluation is an important component of the teaching-learning process. Key Points Effective Teacher Evaluation System :

The evaluation criteria are the specific referent to assess the learning process of the student and the learning outcomes it achieves. Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class, course, or program, and help students understand why that knowledge and those skills will be useful to them. They describe whatever needs to be valued and what the student must achieve, both in terms of knowledge and skills; they respond to what must be achieved in each subject The methods of Effective Teacher Evaluation System includes

​ principal evaluations analysis of classroom artifacts (i.e., ratings of teacher assignments and student work) teaching portfolios teacher self-reports of practice, including surveys, teaching logs, and interviews student ratings of teacher performance

Additional Information

Course completion is not the appropriate criterion for effecting teaching. A good Use of teaching aids is helpful in communicating messages but what a student is assimilating may not be co-terminus with the effective teaching-learning. The scope refers to the areas of development addressed by the curriculum. Scope includes both the breadth (the curriculum addresses development across all of the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework (ELOF) domains) and depth (curriculum content addresses specific developmental goals within each sub-domain. It is important but for an effective evaluation for teachers it is not an appropriate criterion as the curriculum framed is not under the ambit of teaching.

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What are the three C’s of curriculum design?

Abstract – The Three Cs Model integrates the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission’s accreditation standards. The three major concepts of this model – Context, Content, and Conduct – relate to one or more of the accreditation standards. This model has been used to integrate three levels of programs in one nursing department and facilitate the self-study process for ongoing accreditation of each program.
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What are internal factors that influence curriculum development?

Resources Within the Institution and Nursing Program – An analysis of the existing resources within the institution and the nursing program supplies information related to possible program expansion and curriculum revisions. First, there should be adequate classrooms, learning laboratories, library staff and resources, computer facilities, clinical practice simulations, instructional technology support, and distance education resources for the current program.

  • When planning for revisions of the curriculum or for new programs, the need for expanding these facilities and additional staffing should be identified.
  • If expansion is not possible, then creative approaches to scheduling for maximizing the use of these facilities, for example, for evening classes, weekend learning experiences, and online delivery of courses, can be examined.
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Academic support services such as the library, academic advisement, teaching–learning resources, and instructional technology contribute to the maintenance of a quality education program and are internal frame factors that should be assessed when developing new programs or revising existing ones.

  • If there are to be new programs or expansion of current curricula, the library resources must be adequate.
  • Library resources include not only those resources on campus but also services for off-campus programs and students.
  • There should be internet and web-based library access for students and faculty, and this is especially true when the campus has a large commuter student population, distance education programs, or proposes new programs.

Library and instructional technology support staffing must be large enough and knowledgeable about nursing education needs. Thus, faculty should have strong relationships with librarians and the instructional technology staff in order to build the resources needed to revise the curriculum or develop new programs.

Academic advisement services play an important role in program planning as new programs can require additional staffing. If the curriculum is revised, updates for academic advising are necessary so that the faculty and its support staff that provide the services have current information to impart to the students.

Teaching–learning resources need to be available to keep faculty current in instructional strategies, particularly if the revisions to the curriculum have an effect on instructional design. For example, a baccalaureate program may decide to convert its RN program to a web-based delivery system.

In this case, faculty often needs and should training in preparing and implementing web-based courses. The need to convert coursework into online learning during the pandemic gives us insight into identifying the strengths and weaknesses of current faculty in providing this mode of teaching and learning.

We must examine if this is to become the norm and what training, along with review and revision of the curriculum, is now required. Instructional support systems are part of planning as well since the nature of the proposed program or the revised curriculum may call for additional resources.

  • These resources include programmed instructional units, audiovisual aids, hardware and software, computer technologies, high- and low-fidelity mannequins for simulated clinical situations, and so forth.
  • They can generate large costs to the program and should be calculated into the business case and the costs associated with their maintenance and replacement expenses over time.

Some instructional support systems include monthly or annual student fees as well. For new programs or revisions, these costs are often included in requests for additional student lab fees or external funding. If the updating or creation of new laboratory/simulation practice labs involves onetime-only costs, external funding through donations, grants, or endowments is possible.

Student support services are equally important to nursing education programs and are an integral part of the curriculum development process. Major student services include enrollment (recruitment, admissions, registrar activities, graduation records), maintaining student records, advising and counseling, disciplinary matters, remediation and study skills, work–study programs, career counseling, job placement, and financial aid.

Depending on the size of the university or college, these services can be congregated into one department or subdivided into several. Their role in curriculum development is important, as expanding or changing educational programs require student services support.

For example, if a new program is proposed, then the recruitment and admissions staff will need to be apprised of the program to best serve the needs of the new program in recruitment and admission activities. Financial aid programs are crucial to the recruitment, admission, and retention of students.

and if the proposal brings in new revenues through grants or other financial support structures, the financial aid staff must be cognizant of the proposal. They can provide useful information to program planners and thus, a partnership between the student services staff and the nursing program staff is beneficial.

  1. Work–study programs and job placement information can supplement the curriculum if these programs are in concert with the educational plan and not in conflict with the program of study.
  2. An example of a conflict is a revised curriculum that calls for accelerated study and clinical experiences that disallow student employment and therefore prohibits enrollment in the work–study program.

Another aspect is the potential influence of students’ part-time employment on the curriculum and its role in intended and unintended outcomes on the educational experience. With the preponderance of adult learners in nursing programs, the reality of their outside employment while enrolled in studies must be taken into account.

The informal curriculum often takes place through the planned activities of the student services department. Again, partnerships between student services and nursing faculty increase the effectiveness of the formal curriculum. Students who could benefit from remediation or learning skills workshops should be referred to student services.

Faculty members work with student services staff to identify the learning needs of nursing students and this is especially relevant when curriculum changes are taking place. Additionally, student services staff work with faculty concerning the special needs of students with learning disabilities and the accommodations they require without imperiling the student’s individual needs or the safety of the clients for whom the students provide care.
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