What Are The Elements Of Culture In Value Education?

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What Are The Elements Of Culture In Value Education
Key Takeaways –

  • The major elements of culture are symbols, language, norms, values, and artifacts.
  • Language makes effective social interaction possible and influences how people conceive of concepts and objects.
  • Major values that distinguish the United States include individualism, competition, and a commitment to the work ethic.

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What are the elements of culture?

The elements of culture – The major elements of culture are material culture, language, aesthetics, education, religion, attitudes and values and social organisation. Material culture Material culture refers to tools, artifacts and technology. Before marketing in a foreign culture it is important to assess the material culture like transportation, power, communications and so on.

  • Input-output tables may be useful in assessing this.
  • All aspects of marketing are affected by material culture like sources of power for products, media availability and distribution.
  • For example, refrigerated transport does not exist in many African countries.
  • Material culture introductions into a country may bring about cultural changes which may or may not be desirable.

(see case) Case 3.2 Canned Drinks In Zimbabwe Until the early 1990s, Zimbabwe did not allow both alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages to be packed in cans. There were both economic and environmental reasons for this. Economically, Zimbabwe did not have the production facility for canning.

Environ mentally, Zimbabwe had seen the litter in Botswana, caused by discarded empty cans. By putting a deposit on glass containers they ensured the empties were returned to the retailer, thus avoiding a litter problem. However, with the advent of trade liberalisation under the Structural Reform Program, the Government of Zimbabwe decided to allow the import of some 4 million cans as an experiment, after which it would assess the environmental impact.

The result was a huge influx of canned alcoholic and other beverages not just from nearby Botswana and South Africa but from Australia, USA and Europe Language Language reflects the nature and values of society. There may be many sub-cultural languages like dialects which may have to be accounted for.

  1. Some countries have two or three languages.
  2. In Zimbabwe there are three languages – English, Shona and Ndebele with numerous dialects.
  3. In Nigeria, some linguistic groups have engaged in hostile activities.
  4. Language can cause communication problems – especially in the use of media or written material.
  5. It is best to learn the language or engage someone who understands it well.

Aesthetics Aesthetics refer to the ideas in a culture concerning beauty and good taste as expressed in the arts -music, art, drama and dancing and the particular appreciation of colour and form. African music is different in form to Western music. Aesthetic differences affect design, colours, packaging, brand names and media messages.

For example, unless explained, the brand name FAVCO would mean nothing to Western importers, in Zimbabwe most people would instantly recognise FAVCO as the brand of horticultural produce. Education Education refers to the transmission of skills, ideas and attitudes as well as training in particular disciplines.

Education can transmit cultural ideas or be used for change, for example the local university can build up an economy’s performance. The UN agency UNESCO gathers data on education information. For example it shows in Ethiopia only 12% of the viable age group enrol at secondary school, but the figure is 97% in the USA.

Education levels, or lack of it, affect marketers in a number of ways: · advertising programmes and labelling · girls and women excluded from formal education (literacy rates) · conducting market research · complex products with instructions · relations with distributors and, · support sources – finance, advancing agencies etc.

Religion Religion provides the best insight into a society’s behaviour and helps answer the question why people behave rather than how they behave. A survey in the early 1980s revealed the following religious groupings (see table 3.1) 3, Table 3.1 Religious groupings

Groups Million
Animism 300
Buddhism 280
Christianity 1500
Hinduism 600
Islam 800
Shinto 120

Religion can affect marketing in a number of ways: · religious holidays – Ramadan cannot get access to consumers as shops are closed. · consumption patterns – fish for Catholics on Friday · economic role of women – Islam · caste systems – difficulty in getting to different costs for segmentation/niche marketing · joint and extended families – Hinduism and organizational structures; · institution of the church – Iran and its effect on advertising, “Western” images · market segments – Maylasia – Malay, Chinese and Indian cultures making market segmentation · ensitivity is needed to be alert to religious differences.

Attitudes and values Values often have a religious foundation, and attitudes relate to economic activities. It is essential to ascertain attitudes towards marketing activities which lead to wealth or material gain, for example, in Buddhist society these may not be relevant. Also “change” may not be needed, or even wanted, and it may be better to relate products to traditional values rather than just new ones.

Many African societies are risk averse, therefore, entrepreneurialism may not always be relevant. Attitudes are always precursors of human behaviour and so it is essential that research is done carefully on these. Social organisation Refers to the way people relate to each other, for example, extended families, units, kinship.

In some countries kinship may be a tribe and so segmentation may have to be based on this. Other forms of groups may be religious or political, age, caste and so on. All these groups may affect the marketer in his planning. There are other aspects of culture, but the above covers the main ingredients. In one form or another these have to be taken account of when marketing internationally.

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Hofstede’s contribution One of the most prolific writers on culture is Hofstede, a Dutchman. Working with two colleagues Franke and Bond 1 (1991) he sought to explain why “culture” could be a better discriminator than “material” or “structural conditions” in explaining why some countries gain a competitive advantage and others do not.

They noted that in Michael Porter’s 1990 book on the “Competitive Advantage of Nations” he popularized the idea that nations have competitive advantage over others. Unfortunately he stopped short of the key question as to why certain nations develop competitive advantage and others do not. In their study Hofstede, Franke and Bond sought to answer that question in research entitled “Cultural Roots of Economic Performance”.

They hypothesized that differences in cultural values, rather than in material and structural conditions (the private and state control) are ultimate determinants of human organization and behaviour, and thus of economic growth. They took two examples of 18 and 20 nations, comparing rich countries like the USA, UK, Canada and Australia, to poor countries like India, Pakistan and Thailand and those on the rich/poor dividing line like Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore.

  1. Nigeria and Zimbabwe were in the study.
  2. In order to understand the results a word of explanation is needed on what the authors mean by “cultural variables”.
  3. There are as follows: · “Power distance” – Society’s endorsement of inequality, and its inverse as the expectation of relative equality in organizations and institutions · “Individualism” – The tendency of individuals primarily to look after themselves and their immediate families and its inverse is the integration of people into cohesive groups · “Masculinity” – An assertive or competitive orientation, as well as sex role distribution and its inverse is a more modest and caring attitude towards others · “Uncertainty Avoidance” – Taps a feeling of discomfort in unstructured or unusual circumstances whilst the inverse show tolerance of new or ambiguous circumstances · “Confucian Dynamism” – Is an acceptance of the legitimacy of hierarchy and the valuing of perseverance and thrift, all without undue emphasis on tradition and social obligations which could impede business initiative.

· “Integration” – Degree of tolerance, harmony and friendship a society endorses, at the expense of competitiveness: it has a “broadly integrative, socially stabilizing emphasis” · “Human Heartedness” – Open-hearted patience, courtesy and kindness. · “Moral Discipline” – Rigid distancing from affairs of the world.

  • · In the research work these variables were called “constructs” or “indices”.
  • Now, the results of the research have a revealing, and sobering effect on economies seeking economic growth via structural or material changes viz: a) “Confucian dynamism” is the most consistent explanation for the difference between different countries’ economic growth.

This index appears to explain the relative success of East Asian economies over the past quarter century. b) “Individualism” is the next best explanatory index. This is a liability in a world in which group cohesion appears to be a key requirement for collective economic effectiveness.

C) In extrapolations on the data after 1980 economic growth seems to be aided by relative equality of power among people in organizations (lower power distance) and by a tendency towards competitiveness at the expense of friendship and harmony (lower integration). In conclusion, therefore, “better” economic growth can be explained more by culture than structural or material changes.

Economic power, from this study, comes from “dynamism” – the acceptance of the legitimacy of hierarchy and the valuing of perseverance and thrift, all without undue emphasis on tradition and social obligations which could impede business initiative; “individualism” – the tendency of individuals primarily to look after themselves and their immediate families (its inverse is the integration of people into cohesive groups) and finally a tendency towards competitiveness at the expense of friendship and harmony.

Whilst debatable, this research may attempt to explain why the Far East, as compared to say Africa, has prospered so remarkably in the last ten years. The cultural values of the populations of the East may be very different to those of Africa. However, further evidence is required before generalisation can be made.

Culture has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national market environment. Marketers must either respond or change to it. Whilst internationalism in itself may go some way to changing cultural values, it will not change values to such a degree that true international standardisation can exist.
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What are the 6 element of culture?

Components of culture, explored in this lesson, are values and beliefs, norms, symbols, language, and rituals. There are also other components less common such as law and technology, prominent in societies that are more developed.
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What are the 5 elements of culture?

Key Takeaways –

  • The major elements of culture are symbols, language, norms, values, and artifacts.
  • Language makes effective social interaction possible and influences how people conceive of concepts and objects.
  • Major values that distinguish the United States include individualism, competition, and a commitment to the work ethic.

View complete answer

What are the three main elements of culture?

Learning Objectives – 3.1. What Is Culture?

  • Differentiate between culture and society.
  • Distinguish between biological and cultural explanations of human behaviour.
  • Compare and contrast cultural universalism, cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, and androcentrism.
  • Examine the policy of multiculturalism as a solution to the problem of diversity.

3.2. Elements of Culture

  • Understand the basic elements of culture: values, beliefs, and norms.
  • Explain the significance of symbols and language to a culture.
  • Describe the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
  • Distinguish material and nonmaterial culture.

3.3. Culture as Innovation: Pop Culture, Subculture, and Global Culture

  • Distinguish two modes of culture: innovation and restriction.
  • Discuss the distinction between high culture, pop culture, and postmodern culture.
  • Differentiate between subculture and counterculture.
  • Understand the role of globalization in cultural change and local lived experience.

3.4. Culture as Restriction: Rationalization and Commodification

  • Describe culture as a form of restriction on social life.
  • Explain the implications of rationalization and consumerism.

3.5. Theoretical Perspectives on Culture

Discuss the major theoretical approaches to cultural interpretation.

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What are the 4 types of culture?

5-second summary –

According to business professors Robert E. Quinn and Kim Cameron, no corporate culture is as straightforward as being “good” or “bad”, just distinct. They identified 4 types of culture – clan culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, and hierarchy culture.You can take the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) to assess your organization’s culture in just 15 minutes and make strategic changes to foster an environment that helps your team flourish.

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What makes your company unique? If you’re thinking, “Our corporate culture, of course!” you’d probably be right. But, what does that actually mean? Even though company culture has become a hot topic in recent years, it’s still sort of intangible and difficult to wrap our arms around.

  • Here’s one way to think about it, a definition from our friends at HubSpot : company culture is the promise you make to your employees and candidates about what it’s really like to work for you.
  • What sort of environment can people expect to work in? What are your core values? What are your norms? Think of your culture as the personality of your organization.

It captures the shared beliefs and behaviors that determine how your team members interact and make decisions. Needless to say, a company’s culture carries a lot of importance. A Deloitte survey found that 94 percent of executives and 88 percent of employees believe a distinct workplace culture is important to business success.

SHRM also identifies that the types of workplace cultures companies build are more important than the workplace location itself, adding that remote work has posed a number of challenges in maintaining organizational culture. In order to foster a culture that adequately supports your team and your business goals, you first need to understand where you’re starting from.

Yet, pinpointing your current organizational culture can be tough. Let’s take a look at four different types of corporate culture so that you can figure out where you currently are, and where you want to end up.
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What is an example of a cultural element?

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture: Culture – set of patterns of human activity within a community or social group and the symbolic structures that give significance to such activity. Customs, laws, dress, architectural style, social standards and traditions are all examples of cultural elements.
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What is the most important element of culture explain?

Values and Beliefs – The first, and perhaps most crucial, elements of culture we will discuss are values and beliefs, Value does not mean monetary worth in sociology, but rather ideals, or principles and standards members of a culture hold in high regard.

  1. Most cultures in any society hold “knowledge” (education) in high regard.
  2. Values are deeply embedded and are critical for learning a culture’s beliefs, which are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.
  3. Individual cultures in a society have personal beliefs, but they also shared collective values.

To illustrate the difference, U.S. citizens may believe in the American Dream—that anyone who works hard enough will be successful and wealthy. Underlying this belief is the American value that wealth is important. In other cultures, success may be tied less to wealth and more to having many healthy children.

Values shape a society by suggesting what is good and bad, beautiful and ugly, sought or avoided. Consider the value that the U.S. places upon youth. Children represent innocence and purity, while a youthful adult appearance signifies sexuality. Shaped by this value, individuals spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic products and surgeries to look young and beautiful.

The U.S. also has an individualistic culture, meaning people place a high value on individuality and independence. In contrast, many other cultures are collectivist, meaning the welfare of the group takes priority over that of the individual. Fulfilling a society’s values can be difficult.

Marital monogamy is valued, but many spouses engage in infidelity. Cultural diversity and equal opportunities for all people are valued in the U.S., yet the country’s highest political offices have been dominated by white men. Values often suggest how people should behave, but they don’t accurately reflect how people do behave.

Values portray an ideal culture, the standards society would like to embrace and live up to. But ideal culture differs from real culture, In an ideal culture, there would be no traffic accidents, murders, poverty, or racial tension. But in real culture, police officers, lawmakers, educators, and social workers constantly strive to prevent or address these issues.

American teenagers are encouraged to value celibacy. However, the number of unplanned pregnancies among teens reveals that the ideal alone is not enough to spare teenagers the potential consequences of having sex. One of the ways societies strive to maintain its values is through rewards and punishments.

When people observe the norms of society and uphold its values, they are often rewarded. A boy who helps an elderly woman board a bus may receive a smile and a “thank you.” A business manager who raises profit margins may receive a quarterly bonus. People sanction unwanted or inappropriate behaviors by withholding support, approval, or permission, or by implementing sanctions.

  • We may think of ‘sanction’ as a negative term, but sanctions are forms of social control, ways to encourage conformity to cultural norms or rules.
  • Sometimes people conform to norms in anticipation or expectation of positive sanctions.
  • Receiving good grades, for instance, may mean praise from parents and teachers.

Sanctions can also be negative. A boy who shoves an elderly woman aside to board the bus first may receive frowns or even a scolding from other passengers. A business manager who drives away customers will likely be fired. Breaking norms and rejecting values can lead to cultural sanctions such as earning a negative label like ‘lazy’ or to legal sanctions, such as traffic tickets, fines, or imprisonment.

Utilizing social control encourages most people to conform regardless of whether authority figures (such as law enforcement) are present. Values are not static. They change across time and between groups as people evaluate, debate, and change collective social beliefs. Values also vary from culture to culture.

For example, cultures differ in their values about what kinds of physical closeness are appropriate in public. It’s rare to see two male friends or coworkers holding hands in the U.S. where that behavior often symbolizes romantic feelings. But in many nations, masculine physical intimacy is considered natural in public. Figure 3.5 In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. How would US citizens react to these two soldiers? (Credit: Geordie Mott/Wikimedia Commons)
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What are the elements of culture discuss in 500 words?

Basic Elements of culture includes ideas, beliefs, values, customs which make it a whole configuration. Culture is transmitted form one generation to another. Each culture has some basic elements. A group of words or ideas having common meaning and is shared to a social situation is called language.
View complete answer

What are the three main elements of culture?

Learning Objectives – 3.1. What Is Culture?

  • Differentiate between culture and society.
  • Distinguish between biological and cultural explanations of human behaviour.
  • Compare and contrast cultural universalism, cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, and androcentrism.
  • Examine the policy of multiculturalism as a solution to the problem of diversity.

3.2. Elements of Culture

  • Understand the basic elements of culture: values, beliefs, and norms.
  • Explain the significance of symbols and language to a culture.
  • Describe the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
  • Distinguish material and nonmaterial culture.

3.3. Culture as Innovation: Pop Culture, Subculture, and Global Culture

  • Distinguish two modes of culture: innovation and restriction.
  • Discuss the distinction between high culture, pop culture, and postmodern culture.
  • Differentiate between subculture and counterculture.
  • Understand the role of globalization in cultural change and local lived experience.

3.4. Culture as Restriction: Rationalization and Commodification

  • Describe culture as a form of restriction on social life.
  • Explain the implications of rationalization and consumerism.

3.5. Theoretical Perspectives on Culture

Discuss the major theoretical approaches to cultural interpretation.

View complete answer

What is the most important element of culture explain?

Values and Beliefs – The first, and perhaps most crucial, elements of culture we will discuss are values and beliefs, Value does not mean monetary worth in sociology, but rather ideals, or principles and standards members of a culture hold in high regard.

Most cultures in any society hold “knowledge” (education) in high regard. Values are deeply embedded and are critical for learning a culture’s beliefs, which are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. Individual cultures in a society have personal beliefs, but they also shared collective values.

To illustrate the difference, U.S. citizens may believe in the American Dream—that anyone who works hard enough will be successful and wealthy. Underlying this belief is the American value that wealth is important. In other cultures, success may be tied less to wealth and more to having many healthy children.

Values shape a society by suggesting what is good and bad, beautiful and ugly, sought or avoided. Consider the value that the U.S. places upon youth. Children represent innocence and purity, while a youthful adult appearance signifies sexuality. Shaped by this value, individuals spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic products and surgeries to look young and beautiful.

The U.S. also has an individualistic culture, meaning people place a high value on individuality and independence. In contrast, many other cultures are collectivist, meaning the welfare of the group takes priority over that of the individual. Fulfilling a society’s values can be difficult.

  • Marital monogamy is valued, but many spouses engage in infidelity.
  • Cultural diversity and equal opportunities for all people are valued in the U.S., yet the country’s highest political offices have been dominated by white men.
  • Values often suggest how people should behave, but they don’t accurately reflect how people do behave.

Values portray an ideal culture, the standards society would like to embrace and live up to. But ideal culture differs from real culture, In an ideal culture, there would be no traffic accidents, murders, poverty, or racial tension. But in real culture, police officers, lawmakers, educators, and social workers constantly strive to prevent or address these issues.

  1. American teenagers are encouraged to value celibacy.
  2. However, the number of unplanned pregnancies among teens reveals that the ideal alone is not enough to spare teenagers the potential consequences of having sex.
  3. One of the ways societies strive to maintain its values is through rewards and punishments.

When people observe the norms of society and uphold its values, they are often rewarded. A boy who helps an elderly woman board a bus may receive a smile and a “thank you.” A business manager who raises profit margins may receive a quarterly bonus. People sanction unwanted or inappropriate behaviors by withholding support, approval, or permission, or by implementing sanctions.

  1. We may think of ‘sanction’ as a negative term, but sanctions are forms of social control, ways to encourage conformity to cultural norms or rules.
  2. Sometimes people conform to norms in anticipation or expectation of positive sanctions.
  3. Receiving good grades, for instance, may mean praise from parents and teachers.

Sanctions can also be negative. A boy who shoves an elderly woman aside to board the bus first may receive frowns or even a scolding from other passengers. A business manager who drives away customers will likely be fired. Breaking norms and rejecting values can lead to cultural sanctions such as earning a negative label like ‘lazy’ or to legal sanctions, such as traffic tickets, fines, or imprisonment.

  • Utilizing social control encourages most people to conform regardless of whether authority figures (such as law enforcement) are present.
  • Values are not static.
  • They change across time and between groups as people evaluate, debate, and change collective social beliefs.
  • Values also vary from culture to culture.

For example, cultures differ in their values about what kinds of physical closeness are appropriate in public. It’s rare to see two male friends or coworkers holding hands in the U.S. where that behavior often symbolizes romantic feelings. But in many nations, masculine physical intimacy is considered natural in public. Figure 3.5 In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. How would US citizens react to these two soldiers? (Credit: Geordie Mott/Wikimedia Commons)
View complete answer