School Curriculum Selects Its Content From Where?

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School Curriculum Selects Its Content From Where
School curriculum selects its content from our culture.
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What is the content of the school curriculum?

Curriculum Contents Curriculum content simply means the totality of what is to be taught in a school system. The content component of teaching learning situation refers to the important facts, principles and concepts to be taught. These contents must be in line with the learning experiences and there must be clear cut objective to be achieved by the end of each respective lesson.

It can be in form of knowledge, skills, attitude and values that learners are exposed to. Content involves subject matter drawn on the basis of problems, themes or topics cutting across traditional subjects. Learning experience refers to any interaction course, programme or other experience in which learning takes place, whether it occurs in traditional academic setting (schools classrooms) or non-traditional academic setting (outside of school locations, outdoor environment or whether it include traditional educational interactions (students learning from teachers and professors)or nontraditional interactions (student learning through games and interactive software applications).

According to Tyler learning experiences are the interactions between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can react. It is an activity which may be planned by the class or teacher but perform by the learner for the purpose of achieving some important learning objectives There are various types of activities that can be performed by the learners in the study of various school subjects to enhance learning.

  1. Validity: The content of the curriculum is valid if it promotes the outcome that it is intended to promote. It is also the authenticity of the subject matter or content selected, to make sure the topics are not obsolete, for this to be achieve, there should be a regular check on the curriculum content and replace it if necessary.
  2. Self sufficiency: This criterion helps learners attain maximum self sufficiency at the most economical manner or content selection. This is done when the students or learners are given the chance to experiment, observe and carryout field study.

Significance: The content is significant if it is selected and organized for the developed of learning activities, skills, processes and attitude that will help in solving the problem of the country. It also develops the three domain of learning namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills and considers the cultural aspect of the learners particularly, if your learners come from different cultural background and races then the content must be cultural sensitive.

  1. Interest: This criterion is true to be learned centred curriculum. The interest of the students should be considered in selecting content because students learn best if the subject matter is meaningful to them. It becomes meaningful if they are interested in it. But if the curriculum is subject centred, teachers have no choice but to finish the facing schedule religiously and teach only what is in the book, this may explain why many fail in subject sometimes.
  2. Learnability: The content should be what the students can learn and should be within their experience. Teachers should apply theories on psychology of learning in order to know their subject are presented, sequenced an organized to maximize the learning capacity of the students
  3. Utility: This is the usefulness of the content in solving problems now and in future. It is more important in skill or procedural. Knowledge, whereby learners can put what they have learnt into practice life activities

Consistency with Social Realities: This means that content should be chosen based on the facy that they relates to our present social needs economic and political situation. Content must be acceptable to the culture and belief system of the people.

: Curriculum Contents
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Where did curriculum originated from?

Definitions – Stemming from the Latin verb “currere,” meaning to run, the noun curriculum verbally translates as “racecourse.” Historically, the word curriculum has been used to describe the subjects taught during the classical period of Greek civilization.
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Which curriculum approach where the content is based on knowledge and experiences?

Topical Approach, where much content is based on knowledge, and experiences are included; 2. Concept Approach with fewer topics in clusters around major and sub-concepts and their interaction, with relatedness emphasized; 3.
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What are the key components of curriculum content?

Any curriculum consists of several components: objectives, attitudes, time, students and teachers, needs analysis, classroom activities, materials, study skills, language skills, vocabulary, grammar and assessment.
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Who designs the curriculum?

Also called instructional coordinators, curriculum designers work with teachers, organizations, and clients to create and implement educational programs. They can work in schools, offices, universities and other organizations, and may require specialized subject knowledge and skills.
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Is curriculum a content or body of knowledge?

Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted is outlining what needs to be transmitted to be able to begin learning. This model benefits by indicating the relative importance of its topics and may or may not be taught in a specific order.
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Does curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is?

Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary, and desirable.

Schools and school systems grow and develop in proportion to their ability to respond to change and adapt to changing conditions. Society and its institutions continuously encounter problems to which they must respond.

Curriculum both reflects and is a product of its time.

The curriculum responds to, and is changed by, factors such as social forces, philosophical positions, psychological principles, accumulating knowledge, and educational leadership at its moment in history.

Curriculum changes made at an earlier period of time can exist concurrently with newer curriculum changes.

Curriculum revision rarely starts and ends abruptly. Changes can coexist and overlap for long periods of time. Usually curriculum is phased in and phased out on a gradual basis.

Curriculum change depends on people to implement the change.

People who will implement the curriculum should be involved in its development. When individuals internalize and own the changes in curriculum, the changes will be effective and long-lasting.

Curriculum development is a cooperative group activity.

Significant and fundamental changes in curriculum are brought about as a result of group decisions. Any significant change in the curriculum should involve a broad range of stakeholders to gain their understanding, support, and input.

Curriculum development is a decision-making process in which choices are made from a set of alternatives.

Examples of decisions curriculum developers must make include what to teach, what philosophy or point of view to support, how to differentiate for special populations, what methods or strategies to use to deliver the curriculum, and what type of school organization best supports the curriculum.

Curriculum development is an ongoing process.

Continuous monitoring, examination, evaluation, and improvement of curricula are needed. No curriculum meets the needs of everyone. As the needs of learners change, as society changes, and as new knowledge and technology appear, the curriculum must change.

Curriculum development is more effective if it is a comprehensive process, rather than a “piecemeal” process.

Curriculum development should not be a hit or miss proposition, but should involve careful planning and be supported by adequate resources, needed time, and sufficient personnel.

Curriculum development is more effective when it follows a systematic process.

A set of procedures, or models, for curriculum should be established in advance, and be known and accepted by all who are involved in the process. The model should outline the sequence of steps to be followed for the development of the curriculum.

Curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is.

Most curriculum planners begin with existing curriculum. Oliva advises planners to “hold fast to that which is good.”

From: Oliva, Peter F. Developing the curriculum: Sixth edition. NY: Longman 2003, pp 28-41.

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What theory is curriculum content based?

What is Content-Based Instruction? – Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is “an approach to second language teaching in which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllabus” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.204).

In other words, CBI involves integrating the learning of language with the learning of content simultaneously; here, content typically means academic subject matter such as math, science, or social studies. In CBI, the language is utilized as the medium for teaching subject content (Mohan, 1986). The language learning objectives are achieved through content learning.

The syllabi in most CBI courses are derived from content areas, and vary widely in detail and format. In a word, CBI is a method of teaching language and content in tandem. CBI requires better language teachers. Language teachers must be knowledgeable in content areas and be able to elicit knowledge from students.

In addition, language teachers have such responsibility as to keep context and comprehensibility foremost in their instruction, to select and adapt authentic materials for use in class, to provide scaffolding for students’ linguistic content learning, and to create learner-centered classrooms (Stryker & Leaver, 1993).

CBI requires better learners as well. Students are hypothesized to become autonomous and independent in CBI, so that they are conscious of their own learning process and can take charge of their learning. Furthermore, students are expected to support each other in collaborative modes of learning.

Finally, students need to make commitment to this new approach to language learning (Stryker & Leaver, 1993). Typically, the materials in CBI are used with the subject matter of the content course. It is recommended that “authentic” materials are identified and utilized. There are two implications of authenticity.

One implication is that the materials are similar to those used in native-language instruction; the other relates to the use of newspaper and magazine articles and any other media materials “that were not originally produced for language teaching purposes” (Brinton et al., 1989).

Some realia such as tourist guidebooks, technical journals, railway timetables, newspaper ads, or TV broadcasts are also recommended by many CBI practitioners (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). CBI in language teaching has been widely used in a variety of different settings since 1980s such as English as Specific Purpose (ESP) Programs for Students with limited English Proficiency (SLEP), Language for Specific Purposes (LSP), immersion programs, and ESL/EFL Language Programs.

Since CBI refers to an approach rather than a method, no specific techniques or activities are associated with it. At the level of procedure, teaching materials and activities are selected according to the extent to which they match the type of program.
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What is a content based approach in a curriculum framework?

Methodology – CBI is considered more a philosophy than a methodology. There is no single formula for this type of instruction but there are certain models of CBI which are used worldwide to achieve a holistic and global approach to foreign language learning.

In essence, CBI implies integration of language learning and content learning. Hence, in a CBI course the focus of learning is not on learning of a language in isolation, but rather learning of language through the study of subject matter. A CBI curriculum is based on a subject matter core, uses authentic language and texts, and is guided by learner needs.

This means that the curriculum is based on a certain subject matter and communicative competence is acquired in the context of learning about certain topics in that subject area. This falls under the top down approach to language learning where, unlike the bottom up approach, a learner first learns the overall meaning of a text and then attends to the language features.
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What is concept approach to curriculum content?

Concept-based Teaching and Learning – UWCSEA | International school in Singapore How did you learn at school? Did you focus on countless dates and facts to write that history paper? Did you memorise formulae in mathematics and hope the exam had a relevant question? How much did you remember after the exam? How much do you remember now? At UWCSEA, students learn through the school’s concept-based curriculum, an approach to education that puts conceptual understanding and rigorous intellectual development at the forefront of their educational experience.

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But what is a concept-based curriculum? What are the advantages of this approach? What does the teaching and learning look like? And how will this approach help prepare students for an unknown future? Carla Marschall, Director of Teaching and Learning at UWCSEA East, along with leaders and subject specialists from both campuses, has been developing the UWCSEA version of a concept-based curriculum for a number of years.

She defines the curriculum as one “that is organised around concepts and conceptual understandings.” In a concept-based curriculum, students are introduced to concepts and conceptual understandings as they engage in knowledge and skill learning. This creates a three-dimensional curriculum with intellectual depth that asks students to consider the “So what?” of their learning.

  • A concept is a mental construct drawn from a topic or a process that transfers across time, place and situation (Erickson, Lanning & French, 2017).
  • A concept has the following features: it is timeless, universal, abstract, can be represented by one or two words, and its examples share common attributes.

Transferability is also an important aspect of a concept and we’ll return to that idea shortly. Marschall explains, “Concepts are all around us. They help us to categorise, reduce complexity and make sense of our world. Think about the idea of a family.

There are many individual families, and each may look very different to another. Some may have one parent, some may have two parents, some may include extended family. But they all have aspects in common, such as working together for a common purpose. When we teach students concepts, we give them a powerful sense-making tool that allows them to understand new contexts they encounter.” Let’s look at an example.

In Humanities, our students may study inequality, the uneven distribution of resources, rights or cultural access. Building students’ understanding of this concept as they encounter a case study, for example, indigenous rights in Brazil, sets the stage for deep learning and allows students to transfer their understanding.

  • When students look at a new case study, for instance water access in sub-Saharan Africa, they are able to identify how inequality in this new situation looks similar or different.
  • They are able to use factual knowledge to access the conceptual level of thinking.
  • By looking for connections across knowledge or skill learning, students form conceptual understandings, which are statements of relationship that link two or more concepts.

The power of a concept-based curriculum is that it allows students to transfer their understanding to new contexts and situations. Each time students encounter a new context, they build on and deepen their understandings around each concept. Teaching to the conceptual level also enables UWCSEA to work flexibly with the curriculum.

  • Because concepts transfer across situations, our teachers can invite students to explore a conceptual understanding by introducing examples that resonate best with the individual student.
  • This ensures that each student can make sense of new circumstances now and in the future by building from their prior knowledge.

“The power of a concept-based curriculum is that it allows students to transfer their understanding to new contexts and situations. When students have a deep understanding of concepts, they are able to see beyond the facts of individual case studies and form generalisations about them.” Carla Marschall, Director of Teaching and Learning, UWCSEA East Stuart McAlpine, former Director of Teaching and Learning at UWCSEA East explained in 2018, “Our goal is for all our students to be able to transfer their learning to new situations and contexts.

  1. Given the UWC mission, it is vital that students are able to recognise patterns and make sense of complexity.
  2. Ensuring that our students have developed conceptual understandings, in addition to their knowledge and skill learning, enables this.” Through a number of teaching strategies, students are supported in engaging critically with knowledge and skills to draw out big ideas, or conceptual understandings.

Learning engagements teachers utilise include:

introduce questions that have relevance beyond that specific knowledge and skill that students are learning. deepen students’ understanding of individual concepts, for example through sorting activities. ask students to recognise and describe how concepts look in context, for instance by reading a text or having an outdoor experience. invite students to form and justify their own understandings. facilitate transfer, by requiring students to test their understandings in novel situations.

Student agency goes hand-in-hand with a concept-based approach. Through learning engagements, students ask questions, engage in dialogue, and analyse and synthesise ideas to form understandings. Diversity of thinking is promoted through discussion, giving students a platform to voice their unique ideas.

  1. Engaging in concept mapping, students reflect on significant concepts from the unit, such as systems, intended and unintended consequences, economic growth and waste.
  2. Using their unit learning to find relationships among concepts, students create a visual representation of their thinking.
  3. Using this teaching strategy, students connect concepts to form their own conceptual understandings.

Students take an active role in this strategy, making decisions about the placement of concepts and the relationships that exist between them. In this video, you can see and hear concept mapping in action as Grade 7 students on Dover Campus make sense of ideas at the end of a Humanities unit on Sustainable Development and Systems Thinking: Knowledge and skill learning plays an important role in the UWCSEA concept-based curriculum.

By purposefully introducing knowledge and skill, students can reach the conceptual level of thinking and form their own understandings. Sometimes, memorisation is required so students can engage in higher-order thinking, such as looking for patterns or generalising. For example, by learning the multiplication tables, a child is able to form conceptual understandings about how to compute larger numbers efficiently.

Ellie Alchin, Director of Teaching and Learning at UWCSEA Dover explains, “Knowledge and skills are very important in a concept-based curriculum. Students require a factual or a skills-based grounding in order to form understandings that are going to be accurate and transferable.

If they lack this grounding because they haven’t learned enough content, or they haven’t acquired enough skills, then students will produce understandings which are inaccurate or overgeneralised.” “The key difference is in the purpose of the learning: instead of engaging in repetition and memorisation for its own sake, students use knowledge and skill learning to develop transferable conceptual understandings.

ELLIE ALCHIN, DIRECTOR OF TEACHING AND LEARNING, UWCSEA DOVER Let’s take a look at this further within UWCSEA’s Mathematics curriculum. Ted Cowen, High School Vice Principal and Mathematics teacher on East Campus points out, “Mathematics is already a conceptual language made up of myriad concepts.

  1. Examples include the concept of function, or the notion of inputs and outputs.” However, teaching in Mathematics has traditionally focused on facts and algorithms, and on the procedural knowledge required to work out similar problems.
  2. Such traditional teaching has assumed that students understand mathematical concepts implicitly, rather than teaching them explicitly.

Instead, we help students draw concepts from this knowledge and skill teaching and form transferable understandings. This allows them to engage in mathematics with intention and meaningfully problem solve in new contexts. One of the strengths of the concept-based curriculum is that our teaching transcends time, place and situation.

  1. By organising learning around concepts and conceptual understandings, and building a strong foundation in knowledge and skills, we provide an intellectually rigorous and challenging educational experience for our students.
  2. Highlighting the benefit to students, Marschall explains, “Information is growing exponentially and there’s no way that our students will be able to absorb all the information that is being produced.

So with our curriculum, there’s an advantage for students to develop concepts and conceptual understandings that transfer. When they see new examples of those conceptual understandings, reflected in content created in 10 years or 20 years, they’ll be able to make sense of the world.

  1. That’s something that the learning of discrete facts or skills just can’t do.” The UWCSEA concept-based curriculum gives students agency and ownership over their thinking.
  2. Students take an active role in constructing and critiquing conceptual understandings with their peers.
  3. We encourage students to think about the implications of their learning and how this applies to the world around them.

This empowers them to become independent, critical thinkers. The capacity to understand concepts and to bring them together to form conceptual understandings gives students an immense cognitive advantage in their current and future studies. The IB is moving towards concept-based approaches across subject areas.

For instance, the IB Diploma exams in do not simply test knowledge, but ask students to think conceptually and demonstrate understanding in their exam responses. Armed with conceptual understanding across the five elements of the, our students are better prepared for their transition to university and the world of work.

If we want to educate individuals to embrace challenge and take responsibility for shaping a better world, then we need a flexible curriculum that teaches students to think deeply and to engage with the world beyond the classroom. The UWCSEA concept-based curriculum is helping students develop as changemakers who use their understanding to make a difference now and in the future.
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What are the 4 C’s of curriculum?

The 4Cs: Creativity, Critical Thinking, Communication and Collaboration in Schools.
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What are the four 4 basic components of curriculum?

Learning goals • Instructional materials • Instructional methods • Assessment – School Curriculum Selects Its Content From Where This wheel-shaped graphic illustrates the relationships between UDL’s four main curricular components. At the center of the wheel is a hub labeled “Learning Goals.” It reads, “A description of what students are expected to learn.” Surrounding this hub are “Instructional materials: The media and tools used for teaching content,” “Instructional methods: The manner in which the content is taught,” and “Assessments: The methods for measuring student learning.” By applying the UDL principles to each of these components, the teachers at Sycamore Middle School hope to meet the learning needs of all students in the general education classroom.

As the illustration above depicts, learning goals are central to the UDL process. Teachers must know what they expect the students to learn before addressing the other curricular components. David Rose describes the interconnected relationships between the four main curricular components (time: 0:49).

Transcript: David Rose From a UDL perspective, we think of four components to a curriculum: the goals, the methods, the materials, and the assessment. They are very closely interrelated in that the goal is the primary thing with which a lesson begins and the others line up to achieve that goal.

  1. Choose the methods, choose the materials, and choose the method of assessment that will allow you to achieve the goals.
  2. UDL is very focused on both how is the student doing, and how are the goals, the methods, materials, all of that working.
  3. Are they leading to excellent progress on the part of the student? Though, for the sake of clarity, the application of UDL to these components will be discussed separately on the following pages, in practice these components are interconnected (e.g., the instructional materials and methods that a teacher uses should be tied to the learning goal, which will in turn be reflected in the assessments).

: To meet the needs of the widest range of students, what should teachers consider when planning their instruction?
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What are the 7 pillars of curriculum design?

The curriculum should be designed on the basis of the following principles: > Challenge and enjoyment > Breadth > Progression > Depth > Personalisation and choice > Coherence > Relevance.
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What is the most important part of curriculum?

“Every Journey Begins With The First Step.” The curriculum development process systematically organizes what will be taught, who will be taught, and how it will be taught. Each component affects and interacts with other components. For example, what will be taught is affected by who is being taught (e.g., their stage of development in age, maturity, and education).

issue/problem/need is identified ( issue what ), characteristics and needs of learners ( target audience who ), changes intended for learners ( intended outcomes /objectives what the learners will be able to do ), the important and relevant content ( what ), methods to accomplish intended outcomes ( how ), evaluation strategies for methods, content, and intended outcomes ( What works? ).

The CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL on the next page ( Figure 1 ) shows how these components relate to each other and to the curriculum development process. It begins when an issue, concern, or problem needs to be addressed. If education or training a segment of the population will help solve the problem, then curriculum to support an educational effort becomes a priority with human and financial resources allocated.

  1. The next step is to form a curriculum develop-ment team.
  2. The team makes systematic decisions about the target audience (learner characteristics), intended out-comes (objectives), content, methods, and evaluation strategies.
  3. With input from the curriculum development team, draft curriculum products are developed, tested, evaluated, and redesigned -if necessary.
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When the final product is produced, volunteer training is conducted. The model shows a circular process where volunteer training provides feedback for new materials or revisions to the existing curriculum. An Example: 1n the case of population education, a need rural out-of-school youth with information on how population relates to the total environment as well as their personal lives. Figure 1 Figure 2 PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 2 on the previous page) further illustrates how the 12 essential steps progress from one to the next. It also shows the interaction and relationships of the four essential phases of the curriculum development process: ( I) Planning, (II) Content and Methods, (III) Implementation, and (IV) Evaluation and Reporting.

It is important to acknowledge that things do not always work exactly as depicted in a model! Each phase has several steps or tasks to complete in logical sequence. These steps are not always separate and distinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently. For example, the curriculum development team is involved in all of the steps.

Evaluations should occur in most of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what does not and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is imple­mented. Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to design learning activities before learner outcomes and content are described and identified.

Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes are described. In the experience of the author, and confirmed by other curriculum specialists, the following curriculum development steps are frequently omitted or slighted. These steps are essential to successful curriculum development and need to be emphasized.

Essential Curriculum Development Steps Needing Emphasis

Needs assessment : if not conducted, wonderful curriculum could be developed, but the appropriate needs of the target audience may not be met. Involving youth : the target audience and volunteers (or staff) who will be the implementors of the curriculum must be involved (i.e., they participate as full members of the curriculum development team). Recruiting and training volunteer facilitators: competent and skilled curriculum implementors are critical (the printed word cannot teach experiential group process, it doesn’t provide feedback). Evaluating and reporting on the impact of the curriculum : is critical for securing human and financial support from key policy decision makers and for assessing whether the curriculum has achieved the intended outcome.

Two types of evaluation are included in the Phases and Steps illustration: (1) Formative provides feedback during the process of developing the curriculum, and (2) Summative answers questions about changes (impact) that have occurred in learners because of their learning experiences.

Summative evaluation provides evidence for what works, what does not work, and what needs to be improved. In every step of the curriculum development process, the most important task is to keep the learner (in this case, youth) in mind and involve them in process, For example, the curriculum team members, who have direct knowledge of the target audience, should be involved in con­ducting the needs assessment.

From the needs assessment process, the problem areas are iden­tified, gaps between what youth know and what they need to know are identified, and the scope of the problem is clarified and defined. The results may prompt decision makers to allocate resources for a curriculum development team to prepare curriculum materials.

  • A brief description of each of the curriculum development steps is described below.
  • After reviewing these descriptions, you should have a very clear idea of how the steps occur in each of the phases and what each step includes.
  • Nobody plans to fail but failure results from a failure to plan.” The planning phase lays the foundation for all of the curriculum development steps.

The steps in this phase include: (1) Identify Issue/Problem/Need ↪ (2) Form Curriculum Development Team ↪ (3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
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Why is content important in curriculum?

School Curriculum Selects Its Content From Where Education content comes in so many forms. Essays, stories, assignments, and assessments all come together to reach students. Why? Because the main purpose of education content is to assist in high-quality instruction. The content a student is given is the vessel to their comprehension and mastering of a skill.

It’s also the way educators communicate with students. In short, students need content to learn and educators rely on it to teach. According to the Association of American Publishers, education professionals need resources that are “engaging, effective, and diverse.” Publishers and product creators have the responsibility to find content that meets all these needs.

Missing one of these elements actually hinders student learning. The great part is that this is preventable. The answer is to know what type of content is needed, and why. Some professional standards to follow when choosing content are grade-level appropriateness, readability, adaptability, differentiation, and timeliness.

  1. Although this list is not exclusive, it does provide basic criteria for successful educational content.
  2. Also, when choosing content education professionals need to include equal representation.
  3. This means equal multicultural, multilingual, gender, and author origin representation across content.
  4. Equal representation in texts bridges cultural gaps between teachers and students.

Once the bridge is formed, student academic performance can increase. However, depending on where and how the content is used, the expectations and requirements change. Content that is thorough and extensive enough for curriculum use would not be appropriate for an assessment.
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Does curriculum include content?

Definitions of Curriculum Definitions of Curriculum

A brief answer is hard to give as curriculum can be both written and unwritten. Essentially, curriculum is what the school is attempting to teach, which might include social behaviors as well as content and thinking skills. A course of study that will enable the learner to acquire specific knowledge and skills. A curriculum consists of the “roadmap” or “guideline” of any given discipline. Both the philosophy of teaching of the instructors as well as of the educational institution serve as two of the principles upon which a curriculum is based. A curriculum is the combination of instructional practices, learning experiences, and students’ performance assessment that are designed to bring out and evaluate the target learning outcomes of a particular course. A detailed plan for instruction set by policy-makers. A selection of information, segregated into disciplines and courses, typically designed to achieve a specific educational objective. As applied to education, curriculum is the series of things that students must do and experience by way of developing abilities to do the things well that adults do in life; and to be in all ways the people that they should be as adults. Curriculum encompasses a variety of technical and non technical courses that are required to complete a specific degree. Curriculum includes everything that takes place, and everything that does not take place, within the purview of the school. Curriculum is a framework that sets expectations for student learning. It serves as a guide for teachers, a roadmap if you will, that establishes standards for student performance and teacher accountability. Curriculum is a group of courses offered in a particular field of study. Curriculum is a set of courses (offered by an educational institution) that are required to complete an area of specialization. Curriculum is a set of courses that comprise a given area or specialty of study. I see curriculum as the framework of content or ingredients that relate to that given area of study. Curriculum often conjures up words such as format, guidelines, content of “what to teach,” and “what the student needs to learn.” I see curriculum in both formal and informal ways, i.e., as a body of related information that an educator needs to convey, but with latitude in the strategies that an educator may use to convey the information. Curriculum is all of the courses of study offered ( science, math, reading, etc.) and those guidelines for teaching and learning set forth for a particular educational institution. Curriculum is any criteria, element, aspect, that aids in children’s learning. Curriculum is specifically what you teach within each discipline and at each level. Curriculum is the “floor plan” or blueprint for what is going to be taught/learned/experienced, in the academic classroom over a period of time. Curriculum is the delivery component of an institutions’ educational mission, values, and theory of learning. It should follow in-depth discussions regarding “what a student should learn” and “how a student can best learn.” Curriculum is the expectations for what will be taught and what students will do in a program of study. It includes teacher-made materials, textbooks, and national and state standards. Curriculum is the gathered information that has been considered relevant to a specific topic. It can always be changed or added to in order to become relevant to the times. Curriculum is the goals, assessments, methods, and materials used to teach a particular skill or subject. I include thinking under “skill.” Curriculum is the guidelines by which different content matters are taught and assessed. Curriculum is the outline of concepts to be taught to students to help them meet the content standards. Curriculum is what is taught in a given course or subject. Curriculum refers to an interactive system of instruction and learning with specific goals, contents, strategies, measurement, and resources. The desired outcome of curriculum is successful transfer and/or development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Everything that is written, taught and tested in an educational program of study. General course design or syllabus, including goals and standards for proficiency. Guidelines for course instruction with attention to content, teaching style and academic standards. I feel that curriculum is anything which is planned and designed to sequentially improve students’ knowledge and skills. I guess curriculum represents the courses offered for any educational program. The curriculum’s design is based on what past/current educators believe is important for students to know. Importance may be based on content that is covered in the course which is (1) competitive with other institutions (2)usable in the future career, or (3) what the school/faculty feel is an interesting topic to cover. I’m sure there are other reasons for importance but none come to mind at this time. I suppose that my definition would speak not only to the objectives of the school program and the means by which those goals are to be reached, it would also include the philosophical construct underlying the goals and methods. For example, late in my career as a math teacher I became very interested in having the students “feel” mathematics. I wanted the students to experience the “why’s” and “how’s” that would build a higher level of understanding. In my view, curriculum is more than just what is done, it’s WHY it’s done ? on a deeper level than just to cover the text or get the kids to pass the DSTP. I think of curriculum in two ways. One: the organized method of placing nursing and related courses to meet the goal of successful completion of the nursing program competencies. The other view I have about curriculum is organizing courses around a faculty adopted conceptual framework. The faculty develop concepts and subconcepts. From this framework the course objectives/ competencies and learning activities are developed. There is a logical progression of learning. In a spectrum from abstract to concrete, curriculum lies in the fuzzy middle. The curriculum is sandwiched between abstract standards (usually content-based) and super-practical lesson plans and activites. Curriculum embodies the “what” and, explicity or implicitly, the “how” of teaching. Although usually containing “what” is to be taught, curriculum directly suggests or indirectly implies how it should be taught. For example, a curriculum with an inordinate amount of targets and content to be taught is more likely to be taught in a traditional (discussion or lecture-centered) approach than in a constructivist (pedagogy) approach. Officially, curriculum is the formal delineation of what is to be taught and how it is to be taught. Beyond that, however, there lots of questions and caveats regarding the formal, written curriculum as compared to the curriculum as actually delivered in the classroom. Is there, for example, a difference between what a school’s official curriculum and another “hidden curriculum” representing what the system or the teacher “really” wants students to learn? If there is no formal curriculum document but students are still learning good things from teachers, is it meaningful to say that there is a de facto curriculum that has somehow come about to fill the void? To what extent is methodology a matter of formal curriculum and to what extent is it a matter of individual teacher academic freedom? On a concrete level, curriculum is that list of “stuff” we ask students to do to demonstrate learning and outcomes. It’s also the list of “stuff” that we want to tell them. On a less concrete-but even more important-level, curriculum is the philosophy that drives us to create the “stuff” above. That is, I think that curriculum is, at its best, a collection of “stuff” that is derived from carefully thinking about the big picture. What do we want students to know and how will it be relevant to them once they’re gone? If it’s not relevant to them, then the question is whether they became better thinkers. And if they are better thinkers, then I’d wager that the “stuff” was driven by the principles behind it (and not the other way around) Personally I think curriculum is a kind of design, setup, offering, or arrangement of subjects and courses. Scope and sequence or essential concepts and content that required in educational programs. Curriculum includes methods and materials used in delivery of essential content. Technically “curriculum” may be considered the “what” of an education-however it is I think intertwined with the “how” or the pedagogy/theory (of method) as well. The course an academic program follows. The curriculum is the program of instruction. It should be based on both standards and best practice research. It should be the framework that teachers use to plan instruction for their students. The dictionary definition of “curriculum” is the following: all the courses of study offered at a university or school. I totally don’t agree with that. This would be a good definition for someone who is not in education to understand. I believe that it is more specific In my line of work objectives, performance indicators, philosophies and ways to approach these objectives are all aspects under the scope and sequence of a curriculum. the structure and/or materials used to convey information to students. The written curriculum is a plan of what is to be taught. It is a focus for what teachers do. Dr. Fenwick English, Purdue University, believes there are three types of curriculum: written, taught, and tested. They must be the same. What we teach, both written and unwritten

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: Definitions of Curriculum
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What is a curriculum content description?

What are the content descriptions? The content descriptions specify what teachers are expected to teach. They include the knowledge, skills and understanding for each learning area as students progress through schooling.
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What is the concept of curriculum in school?

Definitions of Curriculum Definitions of Curriculum

A brief answer is hard to give as curriculum can be both written and unwritten. Essentially, curriculum is what the school is attempting to teach, which might include social behaviors as well as content and thinking skills. A course of study that will enable the learner to acquire specific knowledge and skills. A curriculum consists of the “roadmap” or “guideline” of any given discipline. Both the philosophy of teaching of the instructors as well as of the educational institution serve as two of the principles upon which a curriculum is based. A curriculum is the combination of instructional practices, learning experiences, and students’ performance assessment that are designed to bring out and evaluate the target learning outcomes of a particular course. A detailed plan for instruction set by policy-makers. A selection of information, segregated into disciplines and courses, typically designed to achieve a specific educational objective. As applied to education, curriculum is the series of things that students must do and experience by way of developing abilities to do the things well that adults do in life; and to be in all ways the people that they should be as adults. Curriculum encompasses a variety of technical and non technical courses that are required to complete a specific degree. Curriculum includes everything that takes place, and everything that does not take place, within the purview of the school. Curriculum is a framework that sets expectations for student learning. It serves as a guide for teachers, a roadmap if you will, that establishes standards for student performance and teacher accountability. Curriculum is a group of courses offered in a particular field of study. Curriculum is a set of courses (offered by an educational institution) that are required to complete an area of specialization. Curriculum is a set of courses that comprise a given area or specialty of study. I see curriculum as the framework of content or ingredients that relate to that given area of study. Curriculum often conjures up words such as format, guidelines, content of “what to teach,” and “what the student needs to learn.” I see curriculum in both formal and informal ways, i.e., as a body of related information that an educator needs to convey, but with latitude in the strategies that an educator may use to convey the information. Curriculum is all of the courses of study offered ( science, math, reading, etc.) and those guidelines for teaching and learning set forth for a particular educational institution. Curriculum is any criteria, element, aspect, that aids in children’s learning. Curriculum is specifically what you teach within each discipline and at each level. Curriculum is the “floor plan” or blueprint for what is going to be taught/learned/experienced, in the academic classroom over a period of time. Curriculum is the delivery component of an institutions’ educational mission, values, and theory of learning. It should follow in-depth discussions regarding “what a student should learn” and “how a student can best learn.” Curriculum is the expectations for what will be taught and what students will do in a program of study. It includes teacher-made materials, textbooks, and national and state standards. Curriculum is the gathered information that has been considered relevant to a specific topic. It can always be changed or added to in order to become relevant to the times. Curriculum is the goals, assessments, methods, and materials used to teach a particular skill or subject. I include thinking under “skill.” Curriculum is the guidelines by which different content matters are taught and assessed. Curriculum is the outline of concepts to be taught to students to help them meet the content standards. Curriculum is what is taught in a given course or subject. Curriculum refers to an interactive system of instruction and learning with specific goals, contents, strategies, measurement, and resources. The desired outcome of curriculum is successful transfer and/or development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Everything that is written, taught and tested in an educational program of study. General course design or syllabus, including goals and standards for proficiency. Guidelines for course instruction with attention to content, teaching style and academic standards. I feel that curriculum is anything which is planned and designed to sequentially improve students’ knowledge and skills. I guess curriculum represents the courses offered for any educational program. The curriculum’s design is based on what past/current educators believe is important for students to know. Importance may be based on content that is covered in the course which is (1) competitive with other institutions (2)usable in the future career, or (3) what the school/faculty feel is an interesting topic to cover. I’m sure there are other reasons for importance but none come to mind at this time. I suppose that my definition would speak not only to the objectives of the school program and the means by which those goals are to be reached, it would also include the philosophical construct underlying the goals and methods. For example, late in my career as a math teacher I became very interested in having the students “feel” mathematics. I wanted the students to experience the “why’s” and “how’s” that would build a higher level of understanding. In my view, curriculum is more than just what is done, it’s WHY it’s done ? on a deeper level than just to cover the text or get the kids to pass the DSTP. I think of curriculum in two ways. One: the organized method of placing nursing and related courses to meet the goal of successful completion of the nursing program competencies. The other view I have about curriculum is organizing courses around a faculty adopted conceptual framework. The faculty develop concepts and subconcepts. From this framework the course objectives/ competencies and learning activities are developed. There is a logical progression of learning. In a spectrum from abstract to concrete, curriculum lies in the fuzzy middle. The curriculum is sandwiched between abstract standards (usually content-based) and super-practical lesson plans and activites. Curriculum embodies the “what” and, explicity or implicitly, the “how” of teaching. Although usually containing “what” is to be taught, curriculum directly suggests or indirectly implies how it should be taught. For example, a curriculum with an inordinate amount of targets and content to be taught is more likely to be taught in a traditional (discussion or lecture-centered) approach than in a constructivist (pedagogy) approach. Officially, curriculum is the formal delineation of what is to be taught and how it is to be taught. Beyond that, however, there lots of questions and caveats regarding the formal, written curriculum as compared to the curriculum as actually delivered in the classroom. Is there, for example, a difference between what a school’s official curriculum and another “hidden curriculum” representing what the system or the teacher “really” wants students to learn? If there is no formal curriculum document but students are still learning good things from teachers, is it meaningful to say that there is a de facto curriculum that has somehow come about to fill the void? To what extent is methodology a matter of formal curriculum and to what extent is it a matter of individual teacher academic freedom? On a concrete level, curriculum is that list of “stuff” we ask students to do to demonstrate learning and outcomes. It’s also the list of “stuff” that we want to tell them. On a less concrete-but even more important-level, curriculum is the philosophy that drives us to create the “stuff” above. That is, I think that curriculum is, at its best, a collection of “stuff” that is derived from carefully thinking about the big picture. What do we want students to know and how will it be relevant to them once they’re gone? If it’s not relevant to them, then the question is whether they became better thinkers. And if they are better thinkers, then I’d wager that the “stuff” was driven by the principles behind it (and not the other way around) Personally I think curriculum is a kind of design, setup, offering, or arrangement of subjects and courses. Scope and sequence or essential concepts and content that required in educational programs. Curriculum includes methods and materials used in delivery of essential content. Technically “curriculum” may be considered the “what” of an education-however it is I think intertwined with the “how” or the pedagogy/theory (of method) as well. The course an academic program follows. The curriculum is the program of instruction. It should be based on both standards and best practice research. It should be the framework that teachers use to plan instruction for their students. The dictionary definition of “curriculum” is the following: all the courses of study offered at a university or school. I totally don’t agree with that. This would be a good definition for someone who is not in education to understand. I believe that it is more specific In my line of work objectives, performance indicators, philosophies and ways to approach these objectives are all aspects under the scope and sequence of a curriculum. the structure and/or materials used to convey information to students. The written curriculum is a plan of what is to be taught. It is a focus for what teachers do. Dr. Fenwick English, Purdue University, believes there are three types of curriculum: written, taught, and tested. They must be the same. What we teach, both written and unwritten

: Definitions of Curriculum
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Why is content important in curriculum?

School Curriculum Selects Its Content From Where Education content comes in so many forms. Essays, stories, assignments, and assessments all come together to reach students. Why? Because the main purpose of education content is to assist in high-quality instruction. The content a student is given is the vessel to their comprehension and mastering of a skill.

It’s also the way educators communicate with students. In short, students need content to learn and educators rely on it to teach. According to the Association of American Publishers, education professionals need resources that are “engaging, effective, and diverse.” Publishers and product creators have the responsibility to find content that meets all these needs.

Missing one of these elements actually hinders student learning. The great part is that this is preventable. The answer is to know what type of content is needed, and why. Some professional standards to follow when choosing content are grade-level appropriateness, readability, adaptability, differentiation, and timeliness.

Although this list is not exclusive, it does provide basic criteria for successful educational content. Also, when choosing content education professionals need to include equal representation. This means equal multicultural, multilingual, gender, and author origin representation across content. Equal representation in texts bridges cultural gaps between teachers and students.

Once the bridge is formed, student academic performance can increase. However, depending on where and how the content is used, the expectations and requirements change. Content that is thorough and extensive enough for curriculum use would not be appropriate for an assessment.
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