Open School System Is Which Type Of Education?


Open School System Is Which Type Of Education
What is the open school system in India? Open School System Is Which Type Of Education The term “open schooling” refers to learning that is flexible in terms of schedule, teaching roles, location, ways of access, instructional methods, and other aspects of the learning process. In an ever-evolving embodiment of modern communication technologies, the open school system in India takes a flexible approach to curriculum selection, pace, and study location.

  1. The distance mode allows this educational system to be open and adaptable, which is the system’s most essential feature.
  2. This system allows students to study at home, at work, or anywhere else that is convenient for them without having to attend regular classes.
  3. The system assists students who have failed their class 10th and 12th exams by allowing them to retake the board exam the same year.

The origin and emergence of the open school system in India is arguably the most significant event in the country’s educational history. The National Open School (NOS) was formed in 1989, following the CBSE-sponsored open school project that began in 1979.

  • The National Open School was renamed the (NIOS) in 2002.
  • Students can register for secondary and senior secondary school courses through this board.
  • Its primary motto is “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan,” which translates to “education to all.” However, in a multilingual multicultural country like India, NIOS alone cannot meet the needs and variances of all regions.

Many other state boards, such as, DSOS, BBOSE, and others, have come into existence to address this regional diversity and to “reach the unreached.” They provide similar services to NIOS at a far lower cost. Open School System in India focuses on :

Removing barriers to learning and making school education available to everyone, regardless of race or gender. Increasing the breadth and equality of access. Ensuring openness of access. Improving the teaching and learning experience. Ensuring that the secondary and senior secondary curriculum is relevant to the demands of various communities. Ensuring the promotion of lifelong learning, as well as education and training.

Objectives of Open School System :

To provide a non-formal, cost-effective alternative to formal secondary and senior secondary education. To supplement and relieve pressure on the conventional school system. To encourage flexible learning by giving students the freedom to choose where, when, what, and how they learn. To provide a “second chance” education to those who have had to stop their formal education or who have been unable to enroll in conventional schools due to social, economic, or other factors. To democratize school education by allowing vast parts of the population, particularly disadvantaged groups such as those living in remote and rural areas, as well as working persons such as women and other adults, who seek to gain or upgrade their knowledge and skills. To enrich people’s lives by providing ongoing and life-long education. To provide an innovative high school-level education system that is flexible and open in terms of learning methods and pace, course combinations, enrollment eligibility, age of entry, examination administration, and program operation to promote learning and encourage excellence in new fields of learning.

: What is the open school system in India?
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What is the meaning of open educational?

Definition of open education – The European Commission’s definition of open education is: “a way of carrying out education, often using digital technologies. Its aim is to widen access and participation to everyone by removing barriers and making learning accessible, abundant, and customisable for all.
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What is an example of open learning?

10.1.1 Open education as a concept – Open education can take a number of forms:

education for all : free or very low cost school, college or university education available to everyone within a particular jurisdiction, usually funded primarily through the state; open access to programs that lead to full, recognised qualifications, These are offered by national open universities or more recently by the OERu; open access to courses or programs that are not for formal credit, although it may be possible to acquire badges or certificates for successful completion. MOOCs are a good example; open educational resources that instructors or learners can use for free. MIT’s OpenCourseware, which provides free online downloads of MIT’s video recorded lectures and support material, is one example; open textbooks, online textbooks that are free for students to use; open research, whereby research papers are made available online for free downloading; open data, that is, data open to anyone to use, reuse, and redistribute, subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share.

Each of these developments is discussed in more detail below, except for MOOCs, which are discussed extensively in Chapter 5,
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What is the education model of open university?

Open university School with minimal entry requirements This article is about the general concept. For the institution in the UK, see, For other uses of the term, see, The Open University in Belfast An open university is a with an, with minimal or no,
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What are the characteristics of open educational resources?

Important Features of OER –

OER can either be in the public domain, or under a more lax intellectual property license. OER can be revised, remixed, added upon, translated, and then shared again to meet different needs. OER can take many forms, such as: syllabi, lesson plans, videos, software, tests, teaching techniques, group activities, writing prompts, textbooks, learning modules, experiments, simulations, and course designs. There are no platform restraints.

Source: The Review Project
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What do you mean by non formal education?

Introduction – Non-formal education refers to education that occurs outside the formal school system. Non-formal education is often used interchangeably with terms such as community education, adult education, lifelong education and second-chance education.

It refers to a wide range of educational initiatives in the community, ranging from home-based learning to government schemes and community initiatives. It includes accredited courses run by well-established institutions as well as locally based operations with little funding. As non-formal education is diverse, this element has many aspects in common with other elements, particularly Lifelong learning.

For the purposes of these guidelines, this element focuses on non-formal education for children and young people outside the regular school system. However, CBR personnel need to be aware that non-formal education reinforces marginalization and stigmatization, so if possible it should not be offered as the only educational option for children with disabilities.
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How does school of open learning work?

1. Facilitates Distance Learning – DU School of Open Learning facilitates distance learning for students who wish to pursue their degree from their homes while focusing on the preparation for competitive or other exams. It gives the students the opportunity to learn from their own space at their own pace.
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What is open vs closed learning?

CWU Learning Commons An open mindset is how much you believe you could be wrong and how seriously you take other’s ideas or suggestions. A closed mindset is how much you believe you are right and how often you avoid new perspectives.
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What is open learning and distance education?

DISTANCE EDUCATION (DE) – is an umbrella term which describes all the teaching-learning arrangements in which the learner and the teacher are separated by space and time. In fact, it is a mode of delivering education and instruction to learners who are not physically present in a traditional setting of classroom.

Transaction of the curriculum is effected by means of specially prepared materials (learning materials) which are delivered to the learners at their doorstep through various media such as print, audio/videotapes, Internet and World Wide Web, etc. Also, a technological medium replaces the inter-personal communication of conventional classroom-based education that takes place between the teacher and the learners.

Communication between the institution, teacher, and learners is mainly through electronic media (telephone, chat sessions, email, website, etc) and also through postal correspondence and limited face to face contact sessions held at Study Centres that are set up by the DE institutions as close to the learners’ homes as possible
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What is an open vs closed learning environment?

Introduction – The beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on physical health have been well-documented among all age groups ( Booth et al., 2012 ; Hills et al., 2015 ), and an increasing number of researchers have recently paid great attention to investigating further associations between exercise and cognitive function ( Lin et al., 2018 ; Pedersen, 2019 ; Stern et al., 2019 ).

  • Cognitive functions refer to mental processes of obtaining knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses, including perception, attention, visual and spatial processing, language, memory, executive functions, etc.
  • Lezak et al., 2012 ).
  • Executive function, also termed cognitive control, refers to higher-order, self-regulatory cognitive processes that aid in the monitoring and control of thought and action ( Carlson, 2005 ).

It encompasses working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, planning and problem solving, etc. ( Diamond, 2013 ). Executive function plays a crucial role in daily life and it has attracted much attention in current research. Although existing evidence has shown that physical fitness and exercise have important relationships with various aspects of cognitive functions ( Kramer and Erickson, 2007 ; Aberg et al., 2009 ; Chaddock et al., 2011 ), studies tend to suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise are larger and more evident for executive function ( Kramer and Erickson, 2007 ; Chaddock et al., 2011 ).

For example, a higher level of physical fitness has been associated with better executive function and academic performance in children and adolescents ( Huang et al., 2015 ; Marques et al., 2018 ; Westfall et al., 2018 ). Physical exercise intervention programs can enhance children’s executive function performances as measured by inhibition and cognitive flexibility tasks ( Hillman et al., 2014 ).

Additionally, people who exercised regularly have demonstrated slower cognitive declines and a lower risk of developing dementia ( Middleton et al., 2010 ; Zotcheva et al., 2018 ). Well-designed randomized controlled trials have also provided compelling evidence that physical exercise interventions can improve executive function and spatial memory in older adults ( Kramer et al., 1999 ; Erickson et al., 2011 ).

  1. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that different types of physical exercise may exert differential influences on cognitive function and mental health ( Tsai et al., 2012 ; Tsai and Wang, 2015 ; Chekroud et al., 2018 ).
  2. Yet, there remains some controversy regarding what types of physical exercises may be more effective for improving cognitive function.

Recently, studies have suggested that the extent of improvements in cognitive function through physical exercise may be related to the motor movement characteristics of the activities involved ( Guo et al., 2016 ; Chang et al., 2017 ; Cho et al., 2017 ).

According to the effects of environment on motor skills, motor skills can be divided into open and closed skills ( Knapp, 1967 ). Open skills are performed in a dynamic and changing environment, while closed skills take place in a predictable and static environment ( Galligan, 2000 ). Accordingly, exercise modes can be classified into open skill exercise (OSE) and closed skill exercise (CSE) ( Di Russo et al., 2010 ; Dai et al., 2013 ; Tsai and Wang, 2015 ; Tsai et al., 2016, 2017 ).

OSEs (e.g., table tennis, tennis, squash, basketball, or boxing) involve unpredictable environments, active decision making, and ongoing adaptability in which participants must alter responses to randomly occurring external stimuli ( Brady, 1995 ; Di Russo et al., 2010 ; Wang et al., 2013a ).

  • OSEs are predominantly perceptual and externally paced.
  • In contrast, CSEs (e.g., running, swimming, cycling, golf, or archery) are performed in a relatively stable and predictable environment in which motor movements follow set patterns.
  • CSE skills tend to be self-paced, as there are fewer cognitive demands and decision-making requirements ( Brady, 1995 ; Di Russo et al., 2010 ; Wang et al., 2013a ).

In the context of this conceptual framework, researchers have investigated the associations of OSE and CSE with cognitive function among participants in different age groups. Some studies have shown that OSE participants performed better in some aspects of executive function (e.g., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) than CSE participants ( Giglia et al., 2011 ; Dai et al., 2013 ; Wang et al., 2013a ).

  • In contrast, some studies reported that the cognitive effects of OSE and CSE did not differ ( Chang et al., 2017 ; Chueh et al., 2017 ; Becker et al., 2018 ).
  • Despite the rapid expansion of interest in this topic, there has been no systematic review of existing literature that has critically evaluated the differential effects of OSE versus CSE on cognitive function across the lifespan.
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Given a lack of clarity regarding suspected differences in the benefits of these exercise modes for benefiting cognitive function, we undertook the current systematic review of intervention (including acute exercise and chronic exercise) and observational research to date.
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Is Open University a formal education?

Open university is an agency of Non-formal education.
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What is a model of education?

Educational models are the foundation from which all learning takes place. While educational models vary from country to country, there’s one thing they all have in common. The commonality is they dictate how teachers teach and students learn. An educational model encompasses all the different educational theories that are accepted as meaningful and the approved teaching methods being used within the classroom.

  1. Educational models are designed as a guide to determine how schools operate, the curriculum they focus on, and pedagogy in general.
  2. If your educational model is built on a national curriculum with flexible timetables and teacher choice in regards to delivery, you would have a very different experience teaching or learning than you would with an educational model that’s based largely on reaching age-related benchmarks and assessing students with standardized testing.

Understanding the educational model of a country is important because it illustrates both the goals and priorities of that government. By comparing educational models between various countries, you can tell which country has a very high standard of education with an emphasis on competitiveness among students and which countries promote teamwork and collaboration.

As a global leader, the educational model of the United States is often studied and debated. That’s because so many educational leaders, politicians, teachers, parents, and students feel a the current educational model of the US is outdated. Going by data alone, the United States is falling behind many other countries in both academics and innovation.

The educational model in the United States: · Is heavily influenced by the 18th-century public school education system in Prussia under Frederick the Great. · Is often referred to as a Factory-Model of education. · Provides free and compulsory primary and secondary education to all children.

· Groups students by chronological age rather than abilities or interests, · Incorporates mandatory standardized testing for certain grade levels and subject areas · Influences school building design reflected in the fact that most schools have similar-sized classrooms on either side of long corridor-like hallways.

· Includes a school calendar with a long summer break to escape the intense heat of summer in non-air-conditioned buildings, While there are some exceptions, namely private schools, specialized charter schools, and virtual schools, 90% of American students attend public schools that strictly follow the current outdated educational model.
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How open educational resources are helpful for online learners?

Unlike traditional resources such as print textbooks OER can be edited, modified, and maintained by students throughout the course of the semester. The digital nature of OER means students can highlight, add notes, comments to their course material to enhance engagement. OER can be accessed both on campus and remotely.
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What are the characteristics of educational?

MEANING DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION – UNIT STRUCTURE 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Nature and Meaning of Education 1.2.1 Meaning of Education 1.2.2 Definition of Education 1.2.3 Nature of Education 1.3 Scope and Functions of Education 1.3.1 Scope of Education Relation with other Disciplines Areas of Education ` Types of Education 1.3.2 Functions of Education 1.4 Characteristics of Education 1.5 Summary 1.6 Exercise 1.7 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to: • define the term education and derive its meaning • explain meaning and describe the nature of education • understand the scope of education • discuss the various functions of education • formulate and verify the characteristics of education 1.1 INTRODUCTION Human life is the best creation of God, has got two aspects: the biological and the socio-cultural.

Biological aspect is found in plant and animal life. But the socio-cultural aspect is the rare distinction of human life alone. It is only man who is capable of being educated. Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research.

Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship.

Hence, through education, he tries to seek new ideas and new ways of life. It is again through education that he promotes his intelligence and adds his knowledge with which he can move the world for good or for evil, according to his wishes. Thus, he attempts to understand himself in relation to the world about him and to transmit that knowledge succeeding generations.

1.2 NATURE AND MEANING OF EDUCATION 1.2.1 Meaning of Education The word “education” is traced to different sources of derivation. According to the one view the word education is derived from Latin word “educo” means ‘I lead out’ here E means ‘out of’ while ‘duco’ means ‘I lead’ in other words it means ‘I lead out of darkness into light’ and here ‘I’ denotes the teacher.

  1. The hindi word Vidya or vidyā (Sanskrit: विद्या) primarily means science, learning, philosophy, knowledge, and scholarship, any knowledge whether true or false.
  2. Its root is vid (Sanskrit: विद्), which means “to reason upon”, knower, finding, knowing, acquiring or understanding.
  3. There is another view that the word ‘education’ is derived from the word ‘educare’, meaning ‘to rear’ ‘to bring up’ ‘to nourish’.

This meaning implies that the child is lacking and she is to be brought up with certain preconceived ideas. for which, she is to be fed with knowledge in proper way so that, child or student can utilize his innate power to achieve his ends in other words, it means that the child is to be brought up according to certain aims and ends in view.

The modern educationalists, the child is not to accept imposition, but has to observe, think and draw conclusions for him. Therefore, education means ‘to lead out’, ‘to lead forth’, or ‘to unfold the hidden talents of man’. It is very much the art of developing and cultivation the various powers of mind, physical, mental and moral.

However, it should be noted clearly that nothing can be drawn, unless something is put before hand, means the growth of the child will not take automatically, it needs certain knowledge and experience, so we have to give him knowledge and experience before we expect to draw out the best in the child.

  • Hence, education can be looked upon a process of providing desirable knowledge and experience to the child so as to develop his inner powers to the maximum possible extent.
  • In other words, ‘education’ means both the acquisition of knowledge and experience as well as the development of skills, habits, and an attitude which helps a person to lead a full and worthwhile life in this universe.

It is in fact, a process of training the individual through various experiences of life, so as to draw out the best in him. According to Mahatma Gandhi, “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man- Body, mind and spirit.

  • It is one of the means whereby man and women can be educated.
  • Literacy in itself is no education.” All-round means, Man is neither mere intellect nor the gross animal body, nor the gross animal body, nor the heart or soul alone.
  • A proper and harmonious combination of all these is required for the making of the whole man.

The modern tendency is to regard education as a bipolar (two-way) process involving interplay of educator (teacher) and educand (student) during which the educator’s personality acts on the educand to modify his/her development. The educator consciously and deliberately tries to develop the educand along definite lines by modifying his/her behaviour.

According to Dewey, education is the process of living through the continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities. Dewey also states that education is a psychological and sociological process.

Psychological aspect involves the study of the child’s urges and powers. It furnishes the material and gives the starting point for education. Sociological aspect emphasises participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race. This socialisation begins at birth and continuously shapes and affects the individual’s personality and thinking.

So, we can rightly say that the role of the educator is to shape and modify the personality of the educand according to the needs and demand of the society. Education is the process of development of an individual from infancy to maturity and so we can rightly say that life is education and education is life.

In the narrower sense, education includes inly those deliberately planned and chosen influences which effect changes to bring about better adjustment of human nature with surroundings. Education should make an individual self-reliant and selfless. Education is higher and finer than mere instructions.

Instruction includes communication knowledge or acquisition of useful skill. Instruction is an essential educational instrument.1.2.2 DEFINITION OF EDUCATION Formally, education can be defined as (in Oxford dictionary): • The action or process of educating or of being educated a stage of such a process.

• The knowledge and development resulting from the process of being educated a person of little education. • The field of study that deals mainly with methods of teaching and learning in schools. Definition of Education by Indian philosophers and ancient Indian scripts: • Education is something, which makes a man self-reliant and self-less.

  • Rigveda • Education is that whose end product is salvation.
  • Upanishada • Education means development of self-contentment.
  • Annada • Education is the process of the individual mind getting to its full possible development it is a long school, which lasts a life time.
  • Zakir Hussain • Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.

-Vivekananda 1.2.3 NATURE OF EDUCATION According to John Dewey, Education is the process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Based on this ideology, nature of education is as follows: • Education is life-long process- Education is life long process because every stage of life of an individual is important from educational point of view.

• Education is a systematic process- It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation. • Education is development of individual and the society- It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society. Education should be relevant to life situations.

• Education is modification of behaviour- Human behaviour is modified and improved through educational process. It brings about integrated development of individuals. • Education is a training- Human senses, mind, behaviour, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.

  1. Education is instruction and direction- It directs and instructs an individual to fulfil his desires and needs for exaltation of his whole personality.
  2. Education is life- Life without education is meaningless and like the life of a beast.
  3. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.

• Education is continuous reconstruction of our experiences- As per the definition of John Dewey education reconstructs and remodels our experiences towards socially desirable way. • Education is a power and treasure in human being through which he is entitled as the supreme master on the earth.

  • Education is a tripolar process- It includes interrelation between the Educator (teacher), the Educand (student) and the Society.
  • Therefore, the role of education is countless for a perfect society and man.
  • It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1) The three poles of the education system are Teacher- Pupil- Society. Justify their position.2) Formally define the term Education and state its meaning in the Indian context. 1.3 SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION 1.3.1 SCOPE OF EDUCATION Scope means range of view, outlook, field or opportunity of activity operation and application.

Education has a wider meaning and application. The facets of the scope of education are as follows: • Relation with other disciplines • Areas of Education • Types of Education Relation with Other Disciplines 1. Education and Philosophy: Philosophy of education covers aims of education, nature of education, importance of education, function of education.

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It’s very old and essential part of education.2. Education and Psychology: Main aim of education is the development of child. Psychology helps to understand the child better and development of child with respect of physical, mental, emotional, social adjustment, individual difference, personality, thinking, reasoning, problem solving.3.

Education and Sociology: A child lives in the society so it is important for him to know about the society, the nature of society, type of society, interdependence between culture and society.4. Education and History: It is also important to know background, origin, development, growth and aspect of the subjects.

And also, education system method of teaching during ancient period, medieval period, British period and modern period.5. Education and Economics: For the growth of business and market the world class economical education is important for each and important.6.

Education and Political Science: Political systems have influenced the theory and practices of education from the very beginning. The influence of politics has been instrumental in educating people to fight against exploitation, injustice and to protect their Human Rights as an individual, citizen and a consumer.7.

Education and Population Studies: Viewing at the undesirable growth of population, an awareness is created through population education.8. Education and Environmental Studies: Ecological balances have drawn the attentions of intelligence today. So, looking at the environmental problems study of environment education has great importance. Areas of Education Till now we have seen the relation of education with various disciplines and have enriches the concept of education and understood the role of education in each field of study.

The following are the areas of study under education.1. Educational Philosophy: Philosophy is an integral part of our life. Philosophy provides the fundamental principles and education implements these principles in the area of Educational Philosophy.2. Educational Sociology: School is a miniature society.

The teacher is a social engineer who attempts to bring about the social change through her students and their parents with whom the teacher has a constant interaction. Through Educational Sociology, one can understand how the public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.

  1. It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing education.3.
  2. Educational Psychology: Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.4.
  3. Method of Teaching: In ancient time the pupil were passive listeners but now they actively participate with the teacher in the process of education.

So the skill and proficiency of different teaching methods needs to be developed.5. History of Education: It records the stages in the development of education in relation to different aspects and the role of revolutionary teachers and philosophers who have contributed in shaping the education system of the entire world.6.

  1. Comparative Education: It is the comparison of education systems and educational policies of different countries with a view to facilitating the educational comparison of the structure, operation, aims, methods, practices of different countries.7.
  2. Educational Management: Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategize, and implement structures to execute an education system.8.

Educational Technology: Educational technology is the use of both physical hardware, software, and educational theoretic to facilitate learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Types of Education Educational thinkers, scholars and philosophers have divided education into different into different types and categories.

  1. Among those the most popular division is types based on institution.
  2. According to this division education can be of following types: 1.
  3. Formal Education Formal education is the type of education which is provided in certain institutions like school, college, universities etc.
  4. Formal education is designed with fixed aims and objective and provided according to the curriculum.

It has fixed time table, examination system and discipline. It is provided in accordance with the rules and regulations of the concerned school and college. The characteristics are as follows: • It is pre-determined and pre planned. • It is time bound and regulated by routine.

• It is space bound i.e., institutional. • It is age bound. • It follows systematic curriculum. • It is imparted by qualified teachers. • It observes strict discipline. • It is methodical in nature.2. Informal Education Informal education or incidental education is one which occurs automatically in the process of living.

It is received by one by living with others, such as cycling, horse riding, fishing etc. Family is one of the most important agencies of informal education as we learn many things from its members. The main characteristic of informal education are as follows: • It is incidental and spontaneous.

It is not pre planned and deliberate. • It is not confined to any institution. • There is no prescribed syllabus and time table. • It is not time bound and age bound. • There are many agencies of informal education. • It is also known as out of school education.3. Non-formal Education Non-formal education is any organized systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the established formal system.

Non-formal education is provided at the convenient place, time and level of understanding or mental growth of children and adult. The main characteristics are: • Non-formal education is open ended and non-competitive • Non-formal education is structured and planned but outside the sphere of formal education • It is consciously and deliberately organized and implemented • It is programmed to serve the need of the homogeneous groups • It possesses flexibility in design of the curriculum and process and evaluation • In non-formal education teacher pupil relationship is much more intimate • Attendance in non-formal education is voluntary • In non-formal education many students are working persons 1.3.2 FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION The following are the functions of Education: 1) To complete the socialization process: One of the main social objective of education is to complete the socialization process.

With the emergence of nuclear families, the role of school and other institutions in the socialization process has increased considerably. The school trains the child to develop honesty, consideration for others and ability to distinguish between right and wrong. Socialization process also enables the child to co-operate with others and to grow as a good citizen by respecting the laws framed by the society.

Socialization is achieved through textbooks and learning experiences intended to develop social skills.2) To transmit the cultural heritage: All societies are proud to uphold or highlight their cultural heritage and ascertain that the culture is preserved and transmitted through social organization to future generation.

All types of education and all agencies of education have to carry out the function of cultural transmission in an earnest way by teaching the elements of culture like literature, history, art, philosophy, etc.3) Formation of social personality: Personality of individual members in a society shares some common features of the culture.

Along with the process of transmitting culture, education also contributes to the formation of social personality. Formation of social personality helps man to adjust with his environment and flourish himself in co-operation with others.4) Reformation of attitude: In the developmental process, child may have incorporated some undesirable attitudes, beliefs and disbelief, localities, prejudices, jealousy, hatred, etc.

It is the duty of the education to reform the undesirable attitudes and other negative aspects by means of removing the wrong beliefs, illogical prejudices and unreasoned localities from the child’s mind. A collective effort by the school and home will bring out spectacular results in the matter of reforming attitudes.5) Education for occupational placement-an instrument of livelihood: Now a day, this is regarded as the first and foremost function of education by a large section of people.

This function is related to the practical aim of education and receiving more attention due to the diversified needs of the society. Education should prepare students not only to foresee the future occupational position but also enable them to attain it in an impressive way.

  • The relevance of this function is evident from the importance we are giving to vocational training.6) Conferring of status: It is understood that an individual’s status in the society is determined by the amount and type or kind of education he has received.
  • In the current situation, the kind of knowledge one is gaining is important than the amount.

For example, a graduate nurse or a diploma nurse can flourish anywhere in the world compared to a person holding Ph.D. in a traditional subject.7) Education encourages the spirit of competition: Healthy competition is essential for the growth of a democratic society.

Healthy competition can be manifested in the form of quality products and services. From the school level itself students should realize the need for engaging in healthy competition in order to lead a better life. Unfortunately, our present education system is fostering unhealthy competition.8) Education trains in skills that are required by the economy: Economy and education always enjoy a bilateral relationship for example.

The number of well-functioning hospitals is directly related to the number of qualified and competent nurses passing out from the nursing institutes. More patients will be admitted to a hospital which is providing quality nursing care. This will lead to more money transactions and ultimately results in the economic development of the nearby areas of the hospital.9) Foster participant democracy: In participant democracy, ordinary citizen is aware about his rights and duties and participates actively in the democratic process.

Literacy is essential to nurture participant democracy and literature is the product of education. Thus, education fosters participant democracy.10) Education imparts values: Education help the students to realize the role of values in leading a good life as a social being. Through various activities education imparts values such as co-operation, team spirit, obedience, etc.11) Education acts as an integrative force: Education acts as an integrative force in society by communicating values that unite different sections of society.

By and large students learn social skills from the educational institutions. In India, through education we are teaching the concept of ‘unity in diversity’ as a part of developing this integrative force.12) Values and orientation which are specific to certain professions are also provided by education: This function deals mainly with the professional education.

For example, in nursing institutes, nursing students are educated in a particular way to meet the health needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1) Differentiate between the three types of Education.2) Explain the relation of Education with other disciplines.3) How does Education encourage spirit of competition? 1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION Education is a process of continuous reconstruction of experience.

Education exhibits a wide characteristic among which the most important are: 1. Education is a social process: Education occurs only in social environment and without it no one can acquire experiences. As we know experience is the most important ingredient of education and it can only be perceived in social environment, so it is a social process.2.

Interrelationship of life and education: The different situations and strange incidents that occurs in our life and education, both of them influences our life to a great extent. Therefore, we can call life is as education and education is as life.3. Education is development: Education is directly or indirectly in the all-round development of child.

The aim of education is the development of child to its fullest extent. So, education is development and development itself life.4. Education is the root cause of creativity: Education gives new experiences to individuals and helps them to create new things.5.

Education is the reconstruction of experience: Man acquire different experiences in different situations. In due course of time some of these were excluded and some were converted and new experiences fills the empty spaces. In human life this conversion and reconstruction of experiences is termed as education.6.

Education plays significant role in social conservation: Every society has its own rites and rituals, ethics, morality, language, culture, beliefs, etc. Education helps the society to conserve them.7. Education is an Art: Education is an art. It develops the inherent qualities of child in beautiful way like Arts.

Teaching is also an Art. Therefore, the teacher helps the students good and healthy personality under his guidance.8. Education is a socializing process: Every society has its own moral values. With the help of education people can develop these moral values. Therefore, it is termed as socializing process.9.

Education brings about desirable change in human behaviour: Education brings change of human behaviour in a desired way. Good and ethical behaviour makes us a good person and helps in our development.10. Education is the power to make adjustment in new situations: Education gives us strength to solve the difficult problems that we have faced in our life.

  • CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1) Write the characteristics of Education.2) Justify, ‘Education is an Art’.
  • 1.5 SUMMARY From the above definitions, it is now clear that since the ancient times to the modern times of John Dewey, Swami Vivekananda and Mahatma Gandhi, various educationists have defined education in various ways.
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The field of education is so vast and varied that to give a specific definition of education about which all educationists agree is very difficult. We see that some educationists have defined only one aspect of education whereas the others emphasize its other phases.

  1. The reason of this difference of opinions is that different educationists, most of whom are philosophers, have different views about the aim of life.
  2. The different meanings and definitions of education as given above lead us to the conclusion that education should have a comprehensive definition.
  3. Thus, education may be defined as a purposive, conscious or unconscious, psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process, which brings about the development of the individual to the fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy maximum happiness and prosperity.

In short, education is the development of individual according to his/her needs and demands of society, of which he/she is an integral part. 1.6 EXERCISE 1. Discuss and differentiate between the three forms of education.2. Elaborate on the different areas of Education with appropriate examples.3.

Discuss and define the scope of education with relevant examples.4. What is the meaning of education? Define Education using the bases of Indian Philosophers.5. “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.” was said by: a. Swami Vivekananda b. John Dewey c. Mahatma Gandhi d.

Zakir Hussain 6. Which of the following is not a part of tripolar process of Education: a. Education b. Educand c. Educator d. Society 7. Which of the following is not a type of process to impart education: a. Formal b. Informal c. Casual d. Non-Formal 8. Which of the following statements is not true for education: a.

Education is an Art b. Education is not a socializing process c. Education is development d. Education is a cause of creativity 1.7 REFERENCES Main References:, Safaya, R N and B.D. Shaida (1998). Development of Educational Theory and Practice. Delhi: Dhanpat Rai and Sons. Aggarwal J C (2010). Theory and Principles of Education (13th Edition).

New Delhi: Vikas Publishing house. Bhatia, K K and C.L.Narang (1998). Principles of Education. Ludhiana: Prakash Brothers Publishers. Taneja,V R (1997). Educational Thought and Practice. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers. Internet References:, Meaning, Aims and Process of Education.
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What are the two difference between formal and non-formal education?

-formal education includes adult basic education, adult literacy education or school equivalency preparation. In non-formal education, someone (who is not in school) can learn literacy, other basic skills or job skills.
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What’s the difference between formal and non-formal education?

The main difference between formal and informal education is that formal learning is mainly ‘classroom-based education’, provided by trained teachers and informal learning is mainly ‘practical based education’ acquired by real-life experiences.
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What is an example of a non-formal education?

Formal, non-formal and informal learning – Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants (LIAM) Educational systems exist to promote formal learning, which follows a syllabus and is intentional in the sense that learning is the goal of all the activities learners engage in.

Learning outcomes are measured by and other forms of assessment. Adult migrants engage in formal learning when they take a course in the language of their host community. If the course is based on an analysis of their needs, it will follow a syllabus that specifies the communicative to be achieved by successful learners.

The nature and scope of that repertoire should be reflected in whatever forms of assessment accompany the course. Non-formal learning takes place outside formal learning environments but within some kind of organisational framework. It arises from the learner’s conscious decision to master a particular activity, skill or area of knowledge and is thus the result of intentional effort.

But it need not follow a formal syllabus or be governed by external accreditation and assessment. Non-formal learning typically takes place in community settings: swimming classes for small children, sports clubs of various kinds for all ages, reading groups, debating societies, amateur choirs and orchestras, and so on.

Some non-formal learning arrangements become increasingly formal as learners become more proficient; one thinks, for example, of graded exams in music and other performing arts. Adult migrants engage in non-formal language learning when they participate in organised activities that combine the learning and use of their target language with the acquisition of a particular skill or complex of knowledge.

  1. Informal learning takes place outside schools and colleges and arises from the learner’s involvement in activities that are not undertaken with a learning purpose in mind.
  2. Informal learning is involuntary and an inescapable part of daily life; for that reason, it is sometimes called experiential learning,

Learning that is formal or non-formal is partly intentional and partly incidental: when we consciously pursue any learning target we cannot help learning things that are not part of that target. Informal learning, however, is exclusively incidental. These definitions and distinctions help us to understand the complexity of successful language learning.

When children acquire their first language they do so not because they are taught. Their learning is an incidental result of their participation in family life, and the linguistic skills they develop and the concepts they master reflect the social practices of their immediate environment. Similarly, adults are said to learn a second or subsequent language “naturalistically” when they do so by living among speakers of the language and interacting with them on a daily basis.

Their emerging communicative repertoire is shaped not by a conscious learning agenda but by their attempts to satisfy their social and material needs. These are both examples of informal learning. In either case informal learning may be supported by non-formal learning: intentional learning that is prompted, for example, by the explanations parents give to their children and adult learners receive from those with whom they interact.

  1. When children learn to read and write in their first language, they generally do so as part of their formal education and as a result of conscious effort; and when adult migrants attend a course in the language of their host community, they are aiming to achieve a prescribed level of proficiency.
  2. In both cases, however, intentional learning is usually accompanied by incidental learning; and the effects of incidental learning in formal educational contexts are reinforced by informal and non-formal learning in the world outside.

The literacy of young children benefits from their out-of-school engagement in the reading they undertake for pleasure or in pursuit of a special interest, and the proficiency of adult migrants in the language of the host community is likely to be enhanced when they have opportunities to interact informally with other speakers of the language.

  • These considerations prompt two questions.
  • First, how can those responsible for organising language courses for adult migrants ensure that their learners have opportunities to use the language outside the classroom and thus benefit from informal/non-formal learning? One obvious answer is to arrange cultural visits and social activities that bring the learners into informal contact with members of the host community.

Another is to encourage learners to participate in social activities, or to arrange such activities specifically for their benefit. Secondly, if adult migrants who have learnt the language of their host community “naturalistically” are required to demonstrate proficiency in that language in order to secure a residence permit or citizenship, can their informal/non-formal learning be recognised without requiring them to take a test? Any attempt to answer this question must consider alternative forms of assessment (the OECD has explored the recognition of non-formal and informal learning by adults in a ).

At a time when many Council of Europe member states are receiving large numbers of adult refugees, the distinctions between formal, non-formal and informal learning help us to formulate radical and cost-effective responses to questions that have previously been answered in traditional ways. Instead of organising, for example, in the short term it makes much better sense, and is certainly more affordable, to involve volunteers in the organisation of social activities that promote non-formal and informal language learning.

If appropriately designed and efficiently implemented, such activities can provide migrant learners with a sound basis for participating in formal language courses at a later stage if that is judged to be desirable or necessary. DL : Formal, non-formal and informal learning – Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants (LIAM)
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What are the subjects in school of open learning?

The school of open learning delhi offers seats in five UG programmes which are – B.Com Hons, BA English Hons, B. Com, BA Political Science Hons and BA programme.
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How do I apply for school of open learning?

Online Registration Go to the official website of the School of Open Learning, Delhi University. Click on the ‘New Applicant Sign Up’ to create a new account by clicking on the ‘New Registration’ tab. Then, enter the required details in the ‘Create New Account’ page.
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Is Sol degree valid in foreign countries?

ANSWER (1) Yes its totally valid in other universities also.
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What is meant by open educational resources?

Open Educational Resources

Open Educational Resources (OER) are learning, teaching and research materials in any format and medium that reside in the public domain or are under copyright that have been released under an open license, that permit no-cost access, re-use, re-purpose, adaptation and redistribution by others.Open license refers to a license that respects the intellectual property rights of the copyright owner and provides permissions granting the public the rights to access, re-use, re-purpose, adapt and redistribute educational materials.The, adopted by UNESCO’s General Conference at its 40th session on 25 November 2019, is the first international normative instrument to embrace the field of openly licensed educational materials and technologies in education.

To support Member States implementation of the 2019 Recommendation on OER, UNESCO established the OER Dynamic Coalition. The OER Dynamic Coalition aims to support networking and sharing of information to create synergies around the 5 areas of action of the recommendation: (i) building capacity of stakeholders to create, access, re-use, adapt and redistribute OER; (ii) developing supportive policy; (iii) encouraging inclusive and equitable quality OER; (iv) nurturing the creation of sustainability models for OER, and (v) facilitating international cooperation.2019 UNESCO Recommendation on Open Educational Resources (OER) Supporting universal access to information through quality open learning materials The ICT Competency Framework for Teachers Harnessing OER Project Digital skills development for teachers Recommendation on Open Educational Resources (OER) UNESCO OER Dynamic Coalition Membership Form UNESCO contributes to SDG 4 on quality education for all. Gender equality, enshrined in SDG 5 and a key enabler to achieve all other SDGs. SDG 9 calls for the enhancement of scientific research and innovation especially in developing countries. SDG 10 calls for reducing inequalities. UNESCO contributes to ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms. SDG 17 calls for partnerships for the Goals. out of which 13 SIDS and 4 Associate Member States participated in OER events in 2022. online events have been organised to raise awareness and strengthen capacity on the OER Recommendation since its adoption. members of the OER Dynamic Coalition 36% women involving 25 Member States. : Open Educational Resources
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How do you qualify for open education?

What are OER? – The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation provides the following definition of open educational resources: “OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.

  • Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.” In other words, “OER” is a very broad term.
  • We apply it towards anything that helps students master course concepts.

The key distinguishing factor is the copyright status of the material. If the course content is copyrighted under traditional, all-rights-reserved copyright, then it’s not OER. If it resides in the public domain, or carries Creative Commons or similar open copyright status, then it is OER.
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What is open education in the Philippines?

Open Educational Resources The DepEd Open Educational Resources (OER) is an innovative pathway to connect the disconnected schools with its prime role to support the requirements of the K-12 Curriculum. It focuses on the ICT Assisted Teaching and ICT Assisted Learning whereas the customization of localized materials is made possible to deliver quality, accessible, relevant and liberating education for all even for schools without strong internet facilities.

  1. The OERs are designed in such a way to cater the needs for interactivity, digitization and delivery of 21st Century Skills to make learners future ready.
  2. This is the beginning of revolutionzing education in the Philippines to teach minds, touch hearts and transform lives of learners.
  3. Welcome to the new era of learning.

This is Digital Rise. : Open Educational Resources
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