In Which Level Of Education Kothari Commission Recommended To Languages?


In Which Level Of Education Kothari Commission Recommended To Languages
Languages – The Commission recommended adopting a three-language formula at state levels. It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states. It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states.
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Which Commission has recommended three-language formula?

According to the National Education Policy of 1968, the three-language formula means that a third language (apart from Hindi and English), which should belong to Modern India, should be used for education in Hindi-speaking states.In the states where Hindi is not the primary language, regional languages and English, along with Hindi shall be used.This formula was altered and amended by Kothari Commission (1964–66) so as to accommodate regional languages and mother tongues of the group identities. Also Hindi and English remained at the two ends of the line. The First Language that students should study Mother tongue or the regional language. The Second Language:

In Hindi-speaking states, this would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India.In Non-Hindi states, this will be English or Hindi

The Third Language:

In Hindi-speaking states, this would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one that is not chosen as the second language.In Non-Hindi states, this will be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one that is not chosen as the second language.

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Which Commission in 1948 accepted the importance of English language in our curriculum?

Radhakrishanan Commission accepted the importance of the English language in our curriculum in 1948. The Secondary Education Commission popular as Mudaliyar Commission came in 1952 based on the educational philosophy of Mahatama Gandhi which was aimed at national development under the chairmanship of Dr.
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What are the suggestions made by Kothari Commission?

Major Recommendations Of Kothari Commission on Education – The Kothari commission report was submitted on 29th June 1966 to M.C.Chagla, the then minister of education. The report consists of 4 volumes in which 19 chapters are dealt with. Some of the key recommendations of Kothari Commission are discussed below:

  1. In order to increase the enrollment percentage, it recommended free and compulsory education for children of the age group 6 to 14 years,
  2. A new pattern of the educational structure was recommended by the Kothari Commission which was commonly known as 10+2+3. According to it, the structure of education in the country should be as follows,
    • Pre-school stage : Here education should be for 1 to 3 years
    • Primary education stage: The 7 to 8 years of primary education are to be divided into 4 or 5 years of the lower primary stage and 3 or 2 years of the higher primary stage.
    • Lower secondary education stage : 3 or 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 years of vocational education.
    • Higher secondary education stage: 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 years of vocational education.
    • Higher education stage: 3 years or more for the first-degree course followed by courses of varying durations for the second or research degrees.
  3. It suggested two types of secondary schools: The high school which provides a 10 years course and the higher secondary school providing 11 or 12 years of courses.
  4. The Kothari Education Commission stressed making the study of science, and social and national service an integral part of education, right from primary education to university education.
  5. It recommended the use of regional languages as a medium of education at all stages of education.
  6. The common school system of public education was recommended by the Commission in order to provide equal opportunities for children across the country.
  7. It recommended that part-time education should be provided on a large scale at the lower and higher secondary stages, in both general and vocational courses.
  8. The commission insisted on fixing the age of admission as not less than 4 years.
  9. The commission suggested that work experience should be made compulsory for vocational as well as general education at higher levels.
  10. In order to improve the standards of education, the Kothari Education Commission recommended the implementation of nationwide programs,
  11. In order to achieve universal enrolment and retention, the Commission recommended the schools improve their structure and facilities, It also insisted on the establishment of libraries at all educational institutions.
  12. Establishment of a State Education department for every state, in order to deal with all the matters such as development, implementation, inspection, etc related to the education of that particular state.
  13. It recommended the establishment of the National Board of Education to advise the Union Government on all matters relating to school education.
  14. The recommendations of Kothari Commission included a proposal for a three-language formula that is to be followed at the lower secondary stage of education. According to that formula, a child should be taught the following languages:
    1. Regional language or Mother Tongue
    2. National Language of the Union i.e. Hindi
    3. Anyone modern Indian or European language which is neither a part curriculum nor the medium of education.
  15. It recommended the Center initiate scholarship programs for women students in colleges and universities.
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Also, check the Hunter education commission here.
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Which language formula was given by Kothari?

Three language formula is suggested by Option 3 : Indian Education Commission 1964-1966 Free 120 Questions 120 Marks 120 Mins The correct answer is Kothari Commission, Key Points

The formula is enunciated in the 1968 National Policy Resolution. Which provided for the study of Hindi, English, and regional language of the respective States, In the NEP 2020, it was decided to push for the three-language formula, to promote multilingualism and national unity. Three-Language Formula (Kothari Commission 1968)

First language: It will be the mother tongue or regional language. Second language: In Hindi-speaking states, it will be other modern Indian languages or English.

In non-Hindi-speaking states, it will be Hindi or English.

Third Language: In Hindi-speaking states, it will be English or a modern Indian language.

In the non-Hindi-speaking state, it will be English or a modern Indian language.

Hence, three language formula is suggested by Indian Education Commission 1964-1966. National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission Additional Information

The Kothari Commission was appointed by the Government of India to overhaul the Indian Education sector, It was formed on 14 July 1964, It was formed under the Chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, He was the then chairman of the University Grants Commission (UGC). It was dissolved on 29 June 1966, Kothari Commission was the sixth commission in India, post-independence, but it was the first commission mandated to comprehensively deal with India’s education sector, In a span of 21 months, the Commission had interviewed 9000 people who were working as scholars, educators and scientists. The Report was submitted by the Kothari Commission on 29th June 1966 to M.C.Chagla, the then minister of education,

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Which Commission recommended English language?

Which Committee recommended to adopt English as the official Option 1 : Lord Macaulay Committee

In the report of the Lord Macaulay Committee, Lord Macaulay emphasized the promotion of European literature and science through English medium to the people of India. The introduction of English Education was a significant event of Lord William Bentinck’s administration who appointed a committee headed by Lord Macaulay to make recommendations for the promotion of education. This recommendation was wholeheartedly accepted by William Bentinck who passed The Government Resolution in 1835, which made English as the official and literary language of India. In the same year, William Bentinck laid the foundation of the Calcutta Medical College. English was made the official language for the government and courts as well as it was also adopted as the official medium of instruction on February 2, 1835.

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What is the structure of secondary education according to Kothari Commission?

The 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education was recommended by which of the following commissions?A) Mudaliar CommissionB) Kothari CommissionC) Operation BlackboardD) None of these Answer Verified Hint: Dr.D.S. Kothari recommended the commission of the 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education and this Commission was appointed in 1964.

Complete answer: Kothari Commission may be a National Education Commission (1964-1966). This commission has been found out by the government of India in order that all aspects of the educational sector are often examined in India to grow a general pattern of education and to advise policies and guidelines so that India’s education can be developed.Under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, this commission was formed on 14 July 1964.

On 29th June 1966, its objectives and the important recommendations had been submitted. After independence, Kothari Commission was the sixth commission in India but related to education it was the first commission. There were a Core group of 20 members in the Kothari Commission.

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A consultation from a panel of 20 overseas consultants had been taken in this commission, who were based out of the USA, UK, Japan, France, Sweden. The Commission had interviewed 9000 people who were working as scholars, educators, and scientists in a span of 21 months. First, the report was submitted to M.C.Chagla on 29th June 1966 and then to the minister of education.The main objective of the Kothari Commission is to supply policies and guidelines for the event of education in India and to look at every aspect of the Indian education sector.

It promotes regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English. This commission improves education at the university level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories, and funds.Under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, the bill was passed in the Parliament.

Some objectives of this commission increase Productivity, Promoting National and Social Integration, Modernization, and Education, Developing moral, social, and spiritual values. This commission deals with general problems and also deals with Education at different stages and in different sectors.It consists of supplementary papers.

It took 100 days to submit the final report and the report was divided into four sections. Pre-primary education should also be given before General education. The time span of Higher education should be fixed for two years. There should be a postgraduate course after the degree course.
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Who started to give education in English language in India?

On this day in 1835, Lord Macaulay successfully westernised education in India; English was made the official language for the government and courts, and was adopted as the official medium of instruction. – Macaulay v/s traditional languages : Ever wondered why we use UK English in India? Thomas Babington, better known as Lord Macaulay, is the man who brought the English language and British education to India. His highly debatable introduction of the English language and the approach to minimalise the use of traditional languages makes an interesting read.
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Which Commission made the study of English language compulsory in India?

Free CT 1: CDP (Growth & Development) 10 Questions 10 Marks 10 Mins English was introduced in India in the colonial period. The focus was maintained to strengthen British rule. Important Points The attempts of Macaulay were directed systematically towards mitigating the alienness of the colonizers, on one hand, and establishing socio-cultural superiority of the colonizers to Indians on the other hand.

The thrust of Macaulay was to systematically drive away from the fear and to inculcate the feeling that the presence of colonizers is to the advantage of the natives. After Macaulay, the reform movement was spearheaded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who emphasized the need for the English language for social awakening. Macaulay’s minutes contributed significantly and English was announced as an official language in India. By introducing the English language for the education of the Indian masses, Macaulay’s opinion was that the public mind of India may expand under the English system, and through the English language, it may educate the people into a capacity for better government.

From the above, we can conclude that Macaulay Minute made the study of the English language compulsory in India. Additional Information Lets’ look at the other given options:

Wood’s Despatch : It has a very important place in the history of Indian education. This despatch was declared on 19th August 1854 under the chairmanship of Sir Charles Wood. Sir Charles Wood was the president of the Board of Control. This despatch deals with the various aspects of the Indian education system-

​ To impart western knowledge and extension of western culture. To create educated, reliable, and efficient public servants. To provide greater attention to vernacular schools. To raise the moral character of native Indians. To secure the economical development of the U.K by providing raw materials from the Indian market.

Kothari Commission : The recommendations of the Commission cover almost all aspects and all stages of education.

The commission suggested urgent reforms needed in education to transform it, to endeavor to relate it to the life, needs, and aspirations of the people, and thereby to make it a powerful tool of social, economic, and cultural transformation necessary for the realization of our national goals. For this purpose, education should be developed to increase productivity, achieve social and national integration, accelerate the pace of modernization, and strive to build character by cultivating social, moral, and spiritual value

Sergeant Report : The report had maintained that in a period of not less than 40 years, the standard of Indian education will be made equivalent to that of England. It had made certain policy decisions, the implications of which may have far-reaching consequences. They may be outlined below- ​

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Pre-primary education for children between 3 to 6 years of age. Universal, compulsory, and free primary or basic education for all children between the ages 6—11 (junior basic) and 11—14 (senior basic). High school education for six years for selected children between the years 11—17. Degree course for three years beginning after the higher secondary examination for selected students Technical, commercial, agricultural, and art education for full-time and part-time students, girls schools are to teach domestic science. The liquidation of adult illiteracy and the development of the public library system in about 20 years. Full provision for the proper training of teachers. Educational provision is made for physically and mentally handicapped children. The organization of compulsory physical education. Provision be made for social and recreational activities. The creation of employment bureaus. The creation of a department of Education in the center and in the states. The use of mother tongue is to be used as the medium of instruction in all high schools.

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What is the recommendation of Secondary Education Commission on language?

Recommendation # 1. Organisational Pattern of Secondary Education: – 1. The commission has observed, “We have to bear in mind the principle that secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period, the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter on the responsibilities of life and take up some useful vocations.

  • Therefore, the commission recommended the following new educational structure for secondary education after 4 or 5 years of primary or Junior Basic Education:
  • (i) A middle or Junior Secondary or Senior Basic stage which should cover a period of 3 years;
  • (ii) A Higher Secondary stage which should cover a period of four years.
  • 2. Abolition of Intermediate Classes :

The commission recommended for abolition of intermediate classes. The senior intermediate class (XIIth class) should be combined with the degree class and the junior intermediate class (XIth class) with the high school class.3. Diversification of Courses : For diversification of courses, multi-purpose schools should be established as agricultural schools, technical schools, commercial schools etc., to enable the students to acquire education according to their interests, aims and diverse abilities.4.

  1. 5. Technical Education :
  2. (i) Technical schools should be set up in large numbers either separately or as part multi-purpose school and these schools should be located near industries and should function in close co-operation with the industry concerned.
  3. (ii) Suitable legislation should be passed making it compulsory for the industry to provide facilities to students for particular apprenticeship training.
  4. (iii) Industrial Education Cess should be levied and the” proceeds of this Cess should utilized for the development of technical education.
  5. 6. Other Type of Schools :

(i)Public schools should continue to exist for sometime say for about five years. During this time, organization of these public schools should be in consonance with the general pattern of education.

  • (ii) A number of residential schools should be established more particularly in certain rural areas to provide greater opportunities for teacher–pupil contact and for development recreational and extra-curricular activities.
  • (iii) A large number of schools should be established to meet the needs of handicapped children.
  • 7. Education of Girls:

The commission did not like having a different type of education for girls. But it recommended for the study of Home Science in all girls’ schools. State Govt. should make effort to open girl schools wherever there is demand for them.8. Study of Languages : (i) Three languages should be taught in the schools.

  1. The medium of instruction at the secondary stage should be either the mother tongue or the regional language.
  2. Ii) At the middle school stage, every student must be taught at least two languages.
  3. Hind and English should be taught after the junior basic stage of education on the condition that no two languages should be introduced in the same year.

At the high school a higher secondary stage, the student must be taught at least two languages, one of which being the mother tongue or the regional language. (iii) Hindi should be made a compulsory subject of study in the school course due to the following reasons; Official language of the centre, languages of correspondence, an means of promoting national unity and integrity.
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