Icds Programme Is Related To Which Level Of Education?
The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme providing for supplementary nutrition, immunization and pre-school education to the children is a popular flagship programme of the government.
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- 1 What are the aims and objectives of ICDS?
- 2 WHO launched ICDS scheme?
- 3 How many ICDS Centres are there in India?
- 4 Who started Anganwadi?
- 5 Who are the beneficiaries of ICDS?
What is education ICDS?
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When was Icds established in India?
|INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES (ICDS) SCHEME
| Children in the age group 0-6 years constitute around 158 million of the population of India (2011 census). These Children are the future human resource of the country. Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing various schemes for welfare, development and protection of children. Launched on 2nd October, 1975, the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme is one of the flagship programmes of the Government of India and represents one of the world’s largest and unique programmes for early childhood care and development. It is the foremost symbol of country’s commitment to its children and nursing mothers, as a response to the challenge of providing pre-school non-formal education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning capacity and mortality on the other. The beneficiaries under the Scheme are children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers. Objectives of the Scheme are:
to improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years; to lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child; to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout; to achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and to enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
| Services under ICDS The ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services, viz.
Supplementary Nutrition Pre-school non-formal education Nutrition & health education Immunization Health check-up and Referral services
The last three services are related to health and are provided by Ministry/Department of Health and Family Welfare through NRHM & Health system. The perception of providing a package of services is based primarily on the consideration that the overall impact will be much larger if the different services develop in an integrated manner as the efficacy of a particular service depends upon the support it receives from the related services. For better governance in the delivery of the Scheme, convergence is, therefore, one of the key features of the ICDS Scheme. This convergence is in-built in the Scheme which provides a platform in the form of Anganwadi Centres for providing all services under the Scheme.
| The delivery of services to the beneficiaries is as follows:
AWW assists ANM in identifying the target group.
1 AWc 2 AWCs 3 AWCs
Thereafter in multiples of 800 1 AWC For Mini-AWC
For Tribal/Riverine/Desert, Hilly and other difficult areas/ Projects
For Mini-AWC 150-300 1 Mini-AWC Anganwadi on Demand (AOD ) Where a settlement has at least 40 children under 6 years of age but no AWC
|Children (6 months to 72 months)
|Severely malnourished Children (SAM) (6 months- 72 months)
|Pregnant women and lactating mothers
Launched in 1975 in 33 Blocks (Projects) with 4891 AWCs. Gradually expanded to 5652 Projects with nearly 6 lakh AWCs by the end of 9th Plan. Cureently 7076 Projects and 14 lakh AWCs have been apporved. This includes a provision of 20,000 AWCs ‘on demand’. All 14 lakh AWCs have been sanctioned to the States/UTs As on 31.03.2015 13.46 lakh AWCs are Operational.
Revised Financial Norms (w.e.f 22.10.2012) Financial Norms of Supplementary Nutrition were revised w.e.f.22.10.2012 to be rolled out in phased manner under the Restructured ICDS. Revised Financial Norms for Supplementary Nutrition under ICDS.
|Existing norms per beneficiary
|Revised cost Norms per beneficiary per day (as per phased roll-out)
|Children (6 months to 72 months)
|Severely malnourished Children (6 months- 72 months)
|Pregnant women and lactating mothers
The revised rates followed the roll out of restructured ICDS in a phased manner ie.200 high burden districts in 2012-13, 200 districts in 2013-14 and remaining districts in 2014-15. Financial progress during the XI and XII Plan Period With wider spread of the Scheme, Plan Allocation, which stood at Rs.44,400 crore for the Eleventh Plan has been increased to Rs.1,03,003 crores for the Twelfth Plan. For the 3rd year of the Twelfth Plan i.e. for 2014-15, an amount of Rs.16581.82 crores has been released to States/UTs as on 31.03.2015 against Originally Budget allocation (BE) of Rs.18195.00 crore. However, the allocation for ICDS at Revised Estimate (RE) stage has been pegged at Rs.16312.00 crores. Thus, the utilization as on 31.03.2015 under ICDS against RE is 100.12. This includes an amount of Rs.9869.91 crore for ICDS (General & Training) and Rs.6711.91 crore for Supplementary Nutrition component under ICDS Scheme released during 2014-15. An amount of Rs.5001.73 crore has been released to various States/UTs during 2015-16 as on 31.07.2015.
|Budget Allocation (BE)
|Budget Allocation (RE)
|Percentage w.r.t RE
|(Rs. in Crores)
|2015-16 (as on 31.07.2015)
This includes savings from other scheme during the year
Repositioning the AWC as a “vibrant ECD centre” to become the first village outpost for health, nutrition and early learning – minimum of six hours of working, etc. Construction of AWC Building and revision of rent including up-gradation, maintenance, improvement and repair. Strengthening Package of Services – strengthening ECCE, focus on under-3s, Care and Nutrition Counselling service for mothers of under-3s and Management of severe and moderate underweight. Improving Supplementary Nutrition Programme with revision of cost norms Management of severe and moderate underweight – identification and management of severe and moderate underweight through community based interventions, Sneha Shivirs, etc. Strengthening training and capacity as well as technical human resource, etc.
B. Management Reforms
Decentralized planning, management and flexible architecture introduction of Annual Programme of Implementation Plan (APIP) and flexibility to States for innovations. Ensuring convergence at all the levels including the grassroot level. Strengthening governance – including PRIs, Civil Society & institutional partnerships with norm of up to 10% projects to be implemented in collaboration with such agencies. Strengthening of ICDS Management Information System (MIS). Using Information, Communication Technology (ICT) – web enabled MIS and use of mobile telephoney and others. Deploying adequate human and Financial Resources with revision of some of the existing norms in components, training, etc. introducing new items,– pool of untied/flexi fund (for promoting voluntay action, local innovations, Anganwadi-cum-creche, addl worker and link worker, provision for children in special needs etc)
C. Institutional Reforms
ICDS in Mission Mode with missions at National, State and District levels. Introducing APIPs and MoUs with States/UTs. Technical and management support for ICDS at various levels hitherto not available. Delivery of quality services with measured inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. Mission to report to the Prime Minister’s Council at National leveland to the CM’s council at the State level on Nutrition, Child Development including early learning, etc. State Child Development Society will be set up at the State level with powers to set up its District Units. Fund transfer of the ICDS Mission will be channeled through the Consolidated Fund of the State. However, in the event the State fails to transfer the funds within 15 days, it will be liable to pay interest on the amount on the pattern of releases for the Finance Commission funds; Nutrition Counsellor cum Additional Worker in 200 high burden districts and link workers in others district will be on demand by State Government approved through APIPs by EPC. District Mission Unit would be set up as per the phasing plan of the ICDS Mission. Besides, District ICDS Cells to continue to operate as per existing norms and District Cells to be set up in those districts where the Cell is not existing; Constitution of a Mission Steering Group (NMSG) and Empowered Programme Committee (EPC) at National and State levels for effective planning, implementation, monitoring and supervision of ICDS Mission; Creation of a separate ICDS Mission Budget head to allow flexibility and integration within the child development and nutrition sectors and for convergent action with wider determinants of maternal and child under-nutrition. The ICDS Mission targets would be to attain three main outcomes namely; i) Prevent and reduce young child under-nutrition (% underweight children 0-3 years) by 10 percentage point; (ii) Enhance early development and learning outcomes in all children 0-6 years of age; and (iii) Improve care and nutrition of girls and women and reduce anaemia prevalence in young children, girls and women by one fifth. Annual Health Survey (AHS) and District Level Household Survey (DLHS) to be used as baseline for measuring the outcomes of ICDS mission. To strengthen training and capacity building. Revision of rent for AWC building up to Rs.750, Rs.3000 and Rs.5000 per month per unit for Rural/Tribal, Urban and Metropolitan cities respectively, revised norms for pre-school education (PSE) kits @ Rs.3000 per AWC p.a and Rs.1500 per mini-AWC p.a.; revised cost norms for two uniforms @ Rs.300 each per annum per worker subject to overall budgetary allocations and piloting of Crèche services in 5% of the AWCs.
THE ICDS TEAM: The ICDS team comprises the Anganwadi Workers, Anganwadi Helpers, Supervisors, Child Development Project Officers (CDPOs) and District Programme Officers (DPOs). Anganwadi Worker, a lady selected from the local community, is a community based frontline honorary worker of the ICDS Programme,
- She is also an agent of social change, mobilizing community support for better care of young children, girls and women.
- Besides, the medical officers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM) and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) form a team with the ICDS functionaries to achieve convergence of different services.
Role & responsibilities of AWW, ANM and ASHA: Role and responsibilities of AWW, ANM & ASHA have been clearly delineated and circulated to States/UTs under the joint signature of Secretary, MWCD and Secretary, MHFW, vide D.O. No.R.14011/9/2005-NRHM –I (Pt) dated 20 January 2006.
STATUS of ANGANWADI WORKERS AND HELPERS: Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) & Anganwadi Helpers (AWHs), being honorary workers, are paid a monthly honoraria as decided by the Government from time to time. In addition to the honoraria paid by the Government of India, many States/UTs are also giving monetary incentives to these workers out of their own resources for additional functions assigned under other Schemes.
FACILITIES/ BENEITS EXTENDED TO AWWs & AWHs:- By the Govt. of India
Honorarium: At the beginning of the Scheme in 1975, the Anganwadi Worker was paid honorarium of Rs.100/- per month (Non-Matriculate) and Rs.150/- per month (Matriculate) and Helper was paid Rs.35/- per month. Govt. has increased their honorarium from time to time, as indicated below:
|Non-Matriculate With 5 year exp
|Matriculate With 5 year exp
|Non-Matriculate With 10 year exp
|Matriculate With 10 year exp
|1500 2250 w.e.f 4.7.13
Honorarium of Helper:
ul> Leave: Paid absence of 180 days of maternity leave. Insurance cover: Govt. of India introduced `Anganwadi Karyakartri Bima Yojana’ to Anganwadi Workers/Anganwadi Helpers w.e.f.1.4.2004 under Life Insurance Corporation’s Social Security Scheme. The amount of premium of Rs.80/- payable by AWWs and AWHs has also been waived of w.e.f.1.4.2007 to 31.3.2017. Under this Bima Yojana, a free add on scholarship is available for the children of the members who are covered under the scheme. Scholarship of Rs.300/- per quarter for students of 9th to 12th standard would be provided. Scholarship is limited to two children per family.
Award: In order to motivate the Anganwadi Workers and give recognition to good voluntary work, a Scheme of Award for Anganwadi Workers has been introduced, both at the National and State Level. The Award comprises Rs.25,000/- cash and a Citation at Central level and Rs.5000/- cash and a Citation at State level.
Selection process for conferment of Awards to Anganwadi Workers for the years 2011- 12, 2012-13 & 2013-14 have been completed. The Award conferment function is schedules to be held on 10.11.2015 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.
Uniform: Government has made a provision for a Uniform (saree/suit @ Rs.300/- per saree per annum) and a name badge to Anganwadi Workers and Helpers;
By State Governments/ UT Administrations:-
To recruit at least 25% of Supervisors under ICDS Scheme from AWWs with 10 years’ experience of satisfactory service; To Engage 25% of AWWs from amongst the Anganwadi Helpers who have put in minimum 10 years of satisfactory service and also possess the requisite qualifications (age, education etc.) as laid down by the concerned States for selection of AWWs. To set up Anganwadi Workers and Helpers Welfare Fund at the State/UT level out of the contribution from Workers/Helpers and State/ UT Governments; To set up Grievances Redressal Machinery at the State/UT and Districts level for prompt redressal of their grievances.
Natural death Rs.30,000 Accidental benefit Death/ Total permanent disability Rs.75,000 Partial permanent disability Rs.37,500
|Critical illness claim settled up to 31.06.2015
|Scholarships settled up to 31.06.2015
DFID (Department for International Development, Govt. of United Kingdom): Provides technical assistance to ICDS in three States (Odisha, MP and Bihar) and also at the central level to support restructured ICDS. Delloite India is supporting DFID as Technical Support Agency (TSA) by providing field level technical assistance.
WFP (World Food Programme): Provides technical assistance to the Ministry at the central level and also provides technical support in ICDS implementation.
CARE India: Supporting the Ministry in strengthening ICDS MIS.
Selection of moderate and severe undernourished children (preferably not more than 15 per AWC / cluster) Orientation of mothers and caregivers of selected children Weight monitoring of the selected children Deworming of these children Ensure IFA and complete immunization for these children 12 day hands-on practice sessions for mothers and care givers to promote improved feeding and child care practices. Recording of weight on first day, 12th day and after 18 days Theme based education using IEC on feeding, health, hygiene and psychosocial care on each of the 12 days, using mother child protection card package. Health check-up and referral services. 18 days home based practices. Repeat of session for each child till child becomes normal. Monitoring progress – child-wise, AWC-wise as well as at the block and district levels.
The session requires the support of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare the ANM / doctor under the NHM carries out health checkup of all the underweight children enrolled for Sneha Shivirs., the ANM or a doctor assigned by the NHM decides on type of referral or treatment facilities required as well as linking the child to the appropriate health care / facility based treatment.
The requirement of funds for SNP; Centre and State contribution would be almost double. The Anganwadi Worker with the help of New Growth Chart would be able to assess correctly severely underweight children and number of such children would increase in each Anganwadi Centres. The number of normal children would also increase in all the Anganwadi Centres. The new charts would now help us in comparing growth of our children within projects, districts, states & also other countries.
According to the recent review under the Secretary, WCD, and the information provided by the States, the new WHO Growth Chart has been implemented in 6666 ICDS Projects and 12,71,889 Anganwadis. The joint MCPC card has been completed in 6621 Projects and 10,12,153 Anganwadi centres. The States have been impressed upon to ensure compliance of the roll out of New WHO Growth Chart & MCPC card.
|No. of operational projects
|No. of operational AWCs
|No. of Supplementary nutrition beneficiaries
|No. of pre-school education beneficiaries
|Achievement during X Plan
|330.33 lakh (88.06%)
|134.25 lakh (80.60%)
|Achievement during XI Plan
|267.06 lakh (37.85%)
|57.41 lakh (19.08%)
Note: States/ UTs are required to provide Supplementary Nutrition to all eligible children (6 months to 6 years) and pregnant women & lactating mothers and pre-school education to all the eligible children (3-6 years), hence no targets are set. * Sanctioned by GOI. NA : Not available
4.59 lakh new AWCs/mini-AWCs became operational during XI Plan as compared to 2.99 lakh AWCs/ mini-AWCs during X Plan. The number of operational AWCs/ mini-AWCs increased from 13,04,611 in March 2012 to 13,46,186 in March 2015. Number of beneficiaries for supplementary nutrition increased from 705.43 lakh at the end of X Plan to 972.49 lakh at the end of XI Plan meaning thereby an increase of 37.85% and further increased to 1022.33 lakh in March 2015. Number of beneficiaries for pre-school education increased from 300.81 lakh at the end of X Plan to 358.22 lakh at the end of XI meaning thereby an increase of 19.09% and further increased to 365.44 lakh in March 2015
As on 31st March 2015, 7072 projects and 13,46,186 AWCs are operational across 36 States/UTs, covering 1022.33 lakh beneficiaries under supplementary nutrition and 365.44 lakh 3-6 years children under pre-school component.
What method is used in ICDS?
ICDS program is the reflection of the Government of India to effectively improve the nutrition and health status of underprivileged section of the population through direct intervention mechanism. The program covers 27.6 million beneficiaries with supplementary nutrition.
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What are the aims and objectives of ICDS?
Anganwadi Services (Umbrella Integrated Child Development Services Scheme) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme implemented by States/UTs with the following objectives:-
To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group of 0-6 years; To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child; To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropouts; To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
Under Anganwadi Services, a package of six services, namely, (i) Supplementary Nutrition; (ii) Pre-school Non-formal Education; (iii) Nutrition & Health Education; (iv) Immunization; (v) Health Check-up; and (vi) Referral Services has been provided to all eligible beneficiaries, namely, children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers through the platform of Anganwadi Centres across the country.
|Children (below six years)
|Pregnant Women & Lactating mothers
*As on 30.06.2021) From time to time Government has taken many steps for strengthening Anganwadi Services. These include revision of cost norms of supplementary nutrition, provision of construction of Anganwadi Centres under Convergence with Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), provision of drinking water and sanitation facilities under Swacchta Action Plan (SAP) etc.
- There have been sustained engagements with State Governments for review and improvement including recent interactions to discuss different implementation related issues to strengthen services.
- Further, streamlined guidelines were issued on 13.01.2021, covering several aspects such as quality assurance, roles and responsibilities of duty holders, procedure for procurement, integrating AYUSH concepts and Data management and monitoring through “Poshan Tracker” for transparency, efficiency and accountability in delivery of Supplementary Nutrition has been issued.
This information was given by the Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani, in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today. Click here to see Annexure ***** AS
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WHO launched ICDS scheme?
|Integrated Child Development Services
|2 October 1975 ; 47 years ago
Integrated Child Development Services ( ICDS ) is a government program in India which provides nutritional meals, preschool education, primary healthcare, immunization, health check-up and referral services to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
The scheme was launched in 1975, discontinued in 1978 by the government of Morarji Desai, and then relaunched by the Tenth Five Year Plan. Tenth five-year plan also linked ICDS to Anganwadi centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed with frontline workers. In addition to improving child nutrition and immunization, the programme is also intended to combat gender inequality by providing girls the same resources as boys.
A 2005 study found that the ICDS programme was not particularly effective in reducing malnutrition, largely because of implementation problems and because the poorest states had received the least coverage and funding. During the 2018–19 fiscal year, the Indian federal government allocated ₹ 16,335 crore (US$2.0 billion) to the programme, which is 60% of the funding for the programme while the states allocated the remaining 40%.
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How many ICDS Centres are there in India?
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
- IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
- CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
- WRIT PETITION (C ) NO.196 OF 2001
IN THE MATTER OF :
- People’s Union for Civil Liberties Petitioner
- Union of India and others Respondents
- AFFIDAVIT ON BEHALF OF RESPONDENT No.1,
- UNION OF INDIA,REPRESENTED BY MINISTRY OF WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
- I, K. Rajeswara Rao, Director, Government of India, Ministry of Women and Child Development, Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi, do hereby solemnly affirm and state as under:-
1. I state that I am Director, Ministry of Women and Child Development, Union of India, and as such conversant with the facts and circumstances of the present case on the basis of information derived from record.2. It is most respectfully submitted that the present affidavit is being filed in compliance with the directions contained in the order-dated 13.12.2006 passed by this Hon’ble Court.
This Hon’ble Court, by order dated 13.12.2006, issued the following directions to the Union Government in relation to the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme: ” (i) Government of India shall sanction and operationalize a minimum of 14 lakh AWCs in a phased and even manner starting forthwith and ending December 2008.
In doing so, the Central Government shall identify SC and ST hamlets/habitations for AWCs on a priority basis. (ii) Government of India shall ensure that population norms for opening of AWCs must not be revised upward under any circumstances. While maintaining the upper limit of one AWC per 1000 population, the minimum limit for opening of a new AWC is a population of 300 may be kept in view.
- Further, rural communities and slum dwellers should be entitled to an “Anganwadi on demand” (not later than three months) from the date of demand in cases where a settlement has at least 40 children under six but no Anganwadi.
- The universalisation of the ICDS involves extending all ICDS services (Supplementary nutrition, growth monitoring, nutrition and health education, immunization, referral and pre-school education) to every child under the age of 6, all pregnant women and lactating mothers and all adolescent girls.
Up to date statistic report to be filed by the different States, Union Territories and the Central Government.” 3. It is respectfully submitted that the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme was introduced in 33 Blocks (Projects) in 1975. It was gradually expanded to 5652 Projects till the end of IX Five Year Plan.
The scheme was approved for implementation in X Five Year Plan within the existing 5652 Projects with no expansion activity in view of resource constraints. A copy of the ICDS Scheme is annexed as Annexure R-1,4. It is respectfully submitted that the ICDS Scheme is a Centrally-sponsored Scheme wherein the Union Government is responsible for programme, planning and infrastructure costs and States are responsible for programme implementation.
Till 2004-05, States were also responsible for providing supplementary nutrition, as per nutritional and financial norms of the Scheme out of States’ own resources. Financial norms of supplementary nutrition were revised vide order dated 19.10.2004 and it was also decided that from the year 2005-06, the Government of India would provide central assistance to States/UTs for supplementary nutrition also to the extent of 50% of the actual expenditure incurred or 50% of the cost norms, whichever is less.
- Grant-in-aid, for supplementary nutrition, accordingly, is being released since the last financial year.
- A copy of the nutritional and financial norms is annexed as Annexure R-2.5.
- It is respectfully submitted that the ICDS Scheme envisages that, on an average, there will be one Anganwadi Centre for population of 1000 in a rural/urban project and one for population of 700 in a tribal project, with suitable adjustments, wherever necessary, in the light of local conditions.
The scheme further provides for coverage of more than one village with small population by one Anganwadi Centre and for more than one Anganwadi Centre in a village with larger population.6. It is respectfully submitted that in compliance with the directions of this Hon,ble Court contained in order dated 29.4.2004, as regards increasing of the number of Anganwadi Centres as to cover 14 lakh habitations, Union of India represented by Ministry of Women and Child Development had filed affidavit dated 1.11.2004, in which, inter alia, it was submitted that the figure of 14 lakh habitations/settlements mentioned in the order of the Supreme Court appears to have been taken from the survey conducted by the Department of Drinking Water Supply for the purpose of providing safe drinking water under its various schemes.
- It was further stated that this data appears to be based on the All India Survey conducted by the Department of Drinking Water Supply in 1991 (revalidated in 1994) and consolidated in 1999.
- It was also submitted in the affidavit that the Department of Drinking Water Supply has taken a population of 250 (50 households of five persons each) for identifying the number of habitations/ settlements for supply of safe drinking water.
These norms are different from the existing population norms for setting up of an AWC (700 for tribal areas and 1000 for other areas), stipulated under the ICDS Scheme. It is pertinent to point out that, subsequently it was noted that the figure of 14 lakh Anganwadi Centres has been mentioned in the 5th Report of the Commissioner to the Supreme Court and has been arrived at by ‘extrapolation’ of data available in the 6th All India Educational Survey carried out by the National Council for Educational Research & Training (NCERT) in 1993.
The figure of I4 lakh habitations is mentioned once again in the 6 th Report of the Commissioner dated 19th July, 2006.7. It is respectfully submitted that there has been a significant progress in the implementation of the ICDS Scheme during the last three years pursuant to this Hon’ble Court’s directions in terms of both, increase in the number of operational projects and Anganwadi Centres and coverage of beneficiaries.
The number of operational projects and Anganwadi Centres have increased from 4903 and 600391, as on 31.3.2003 to 5724 and 781208 respectively, as on 30.09.2006. The number of Supplementary Nutrition beneficiaries and pre-school education beneficiaries have increased from 387.84 lakh and 188.02 lakh, as on 31.3.2003 to 654.65 lakh and 271.28 lakh respectively, as on 30.09.2006.
- In compliance with the directions of the Hon’ble Court, a detailed status report as on 30.09.2006 indicating number of operational Projects/AWCs, number of beneficiaries etc.
- Is annexed herein and marked as Annexure-R – 3.8.It is respectfully submitted that under the ICDS Scheme, Government of India bears 100% administrative expenditure and on supplementary nutrition, 50% expenditure is borne by Central Government and other 50% by the State Governments/UTs.
It is further submitted that there is a considerable increase in the budgetary allocation under the ICDS Scheme from 3696.50 crore to 4543.14 crore. During 2007-08, a budgetary provision for ICDS Scheme has been proposed to be Rs.5293.oo crore. Copies of the statements indicating funds released and the expenditure incurred under the Schemes of ICDS (General) and ICDS(SNP) are annexed herewith marked as Annexure-R-4.9.It is respectfully submitted that as per the commitment of the Government of India to universalize ICDS, keeping in view the direction of the Hon’ble Court dated 29.04.2004 and as reflected in the National Common Minimum Programme (herein after referred to as ‘NCMP’) Government of India, in 2005-2006 as part of first phase of expansion, sanctioned 466 additional ICDS Projects and 1.88 lakh Anganwadi Centres under first phase of expansion of the ICDS Scheme.
This expansion was based on the existing population norms of the Scheme. A copy of the statement indicating the State-wise number of additional ICDS Projects/AWCs sanctioned during 2005-06 is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure-R-5.10. It is respectfully submitted that, in furtherance of the steps being taken to achieve the goal of universalizing the ICDS Scheme, it was considered necessary to revise the existing population norms for sanction of an ICDS Project/ Anganwadi Centres,
An Inter-Ministerial Task Force was set up to review the existing population norms and recommend revised norms for setting up a Project/ Anganwadi Centres under the ICDS Scheme. The Inter-Ministerial Task Force submitted its reports in May 2005 recommending revised population norms as under: Rural/Urban Projects: Population AWC 500-1500 1 AWC 150-500 1 Mini Anganwadi Tribal Projects: 300-1500 1 AWC 150-300 1 Mini Anganwadi 11.
- It is respectfully submitted that the revised norms were circulated to all States/UTs seeking additional requirement of Projects/ Anganwadi Centres as per these norms.
- Based on the requirements received, 173 additional Projects, 107274 additional AWCs and 25961 Mini-AWCs were approved, on 7th December 2006, by Government of India, under the 2 nd phase of expansion of the ICDS Scheme.
With this expansion, the total number of sanctioned ICDS Projects, Anganwadi Centres (AWCs), and Mini Anganwadi Centres has gone up to 6291, 10.53 lakh and 36847 respectively. Taken together, the total number of sanctioned AWCs and Mini-AWCs is around 10.90 lakh now.12.
It is respectfully submitted that in view of the fact that the total number of sanctioned AWCs in the country were still falling short to meet with the goal of Universalisation of ICDS as directed by this Hon’ble Court and as envisaged in NCMP, the Central Government decided to further relax the population norms recommended earlier by the Task Force.
The matter was, accordingly, deliberated in the meetings of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force which also took cognizance of this Court’s order of 13.12.2006 in this regard. The relaxed norms recommended by the Inter-Ministerial Task Force have received the approval of the competent authority and are being circulated to the State Governments for inviting fresh proposals for setting up Anganwadi Centres/Mini- Anganwadi Centres from them.
– It is submitted that action for further expansion of ICDS Scheme would be taken once the proposals from the State Governments are received. A copy of the comparative statement indicating the population norms recommended by the Inter-Ministerial Task Force in its Report of 2005 and 2007 is given at Annexure-R-6.13.
It is respectfully submitted that this Hon’ble Court, in order dated 13.12.2006, has inter-alia, directed that Government of India shall ensure that the upper limit of population norms (1000) for opening of AWCs must not be revised upward under any circumstances.
While maintaining the upper limit of one AWC per 1000 population, the minimum limit for opening of a new AWC is a population of 300 may be kept in view. It is submitted that the Government of India has taken decision to relax the population norm for making the Anganwadi Centers effective in its functioning.
In this regard a decision has been taken to reduce the upper limit from 1000 population to 800.Since there is a wide gap between the maximum limit and minimum limit of population norm as a consequence or reduction from 1000 to 800, the minimum population norm have been fixed at 300 in non-tribal, hilly, desert, difficult areas while for other areas it has been fixed at 400.
It is respectfully submitted that this would in no way effect the implementation of ICDS Scheme as per the directions of this Hon’ble Court. However, it is submitted that this decision would be implemented subject to compliance with the legal requirement in some states in which elections have been announced and would be made uniformly applicable throughout the country.14.
It is respectfully submitted that this Hon’ble Court, in order dated 13.12.2006, has inter-alia, directed that, rural communities and slum dwellers should be entitled to an “Anganwadi on demand” (not later than three months) from the date of demand in cases where a settlement has at least 40 children under six but no Anganwadi.
- In effectuating this direction of the Hon’ble Court, the Government of India has been advised to frame effective safeguards to facilitate the sanction of ‘Anganwadi on Demand’.
- For this purpose the following safeguards have been advised to be borne in mind while scrutinizing the application/demand for opening an Anganwadi Centre, keeping in view the services being provided in the existing AWCs/Mini-AWCs and the framework of the ICDS Scheme, Demand for opening an Anganwadi Centre/Mini Anganwadi Centre should be made by filing an application furnishing the relevant particulars, including details of population, area to be covered by the proposed Anganwadi Centre to the District Programme Officer appointed under ICDS Scheme.
The District Level Programme Officer shall verify the correctness or veracity of the particulars and furnish its comments/recommendations to the State Government and for this purpose, the District Programme Officer shall take the assistance of the block level officers viz.
- Child Development Project Officer appointed in each block under the Scheme.
- The comments/recommendations of District Programme Officer shall be sent to the State Government within a specified time frame.
- The State Government, if satisfied, would forward the proposal for sanction to the Central Government within a specified time frame.
The Central Government on receipt of the recommendation from the State Government and after conducting necessary scrutiny as it deems fit, shall sanction the Anganwadi Centre/ Mini Anganwadi Centre within a stipulated time frame subject to availability of resources in the budget of a particular year.15.
It is respectfully submitted that, this Hon’ble Court, by order dated 13.12.2006, has directed that Government of India shall sanction and operationalize a minimum of 14 lakh AWCs in a phased and even manner starting forthwith and ending December 2008. In doing so, the Central Government shall identify SC and ST hamlets/habitations for AWCs on a priority basis.
It is submitted that in pursuance of the aforesaid direction, all the States/UTs have been requested, vide letter No.14-1/2004-CD-I (Vol. II) dated 10.1.2007, to furnish a list of un-covered habitations, along with population, which would require additional Anganwadi Centres(AWCs)/Mini-AWCs.
In doing so they have also been requested to identify SC and ST hamlets/habitations for setting up AWCs and also requested to ensure that no habitation/settlement with predominantly SC/ST/Minority population is left out. A copy of the said letter dated 10th January 2007 is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure R-7 ( Colly.).16.
It is respectfully submitted that, for the purposes of arriving at the number of habitations/settlements so as to universalize the Scheme, data from different surveys has been shared with the States/UTs. This data includes (i) State-wise number of villages (total number 71406) with SC population of 40% and above (as per census 2001) furnished by Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, (ii) State-wise number of rural habitations having Primary Stage Schooling Facilities ( total number 12.31 lakh) as per the 7th All India Educational Survey carried out by the Government of India, Department of School Education and Literacy in the year 2003 and (iii) State-wise details of habitations in the country (total number 15.99 lakh) as per National Habitation Survey conducted by the Government of India, Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development in 2003,
It may be noted that the total number of rural habitations is 12.31 lakh as per the 7th All India Educational Survey (2003) and 15.99 lakh as per survey conducted by the D/o Drinking Water Supply in 2003. It is further submitted that, in view of the variations in total number of habitations/settlements in different surveys referred to above, the exact number of AWCs required to be set up to cover all habitations is yet to be arrived at.
It is respectfully submitted that the existing guidelines of the -ICDS Scheme envisage that in selection of Projects in rural areas, priority be given, inter-alia, to areas predominantly inhabited by tribes, particularly backward tribes and Scheduled Castes.
- These guidelines were reiterated to all States/UTs, vide letter No.4-2/2005-CD-I dated 4.7.2005 and 7.2.2005.
- A copy of the letter dated 4.7.2005 is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure – R-8( Colly.),
- It is respectfully submitted that in the recent expansion (1st and 2nd phase) of the Scheme during the year 2005-06 and 2006-07, States/UTs have been impressed upon to comply with this direction of this Court.
The administrative sanctions have been issued to States/UTs with a condition that for location of AWCs (a) Villages pre-dominantly inhabited by population belonging to SC/ST and minority community should be given priority and (b) within a village also location of an AWC, as far as feasible, should be in the areas inhabited by population from SC/ST and minority community.19.
It is respectfully submitted that, the ICDS Scheme envisages delivery of a package of six services viz., Supplementary Nutrition, Immunization, Health Check-up, Referral Services, Pre-school Education and Nutrition/Health Education. Of the six services, three viz. immunization, health check-up and referral services are health related and are delivered through the public health infrastructure i.e.
Health Sub-Centres, Primary Health Centres etc.& Community Health Centres etc. under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. It has been the endeavor of the Government of India to ensure that delivery of these health related services is made through effective convergence with the Reproductive & Child Health component of National Rural Health Mission administered by the Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.20.
- It is respectfully submitted that, the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the Government of India contains commitment to universalize the ICDS Scheme.
- The relevant portion of NCMP is reproduced below: “The UPA will also universalize the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme to provide a functional Anganwadi in every settlement and ensure full coverage for all children” This commitment has been reiterated in the Budget Speech of the Finance Minister delivered while presenting budget for the 2007-08 to Parliament on 28.02.2007.
Relevant para of the speech is quoted below: “Government is committed to expand the scheme in order to cover all habitations and settlements during the Eleventh Plan and to reach out to pregnant women, lactating mothers and all children below the age of six” 21.
- It is respectfully submitted that, it would be the endeavor of the Government of India to approve the proposal for the third phase of expansion of the ICDS Scheme by the fourth quarter of the next financial year and operationalise these Projects/AWCs/Mini AWCs by December 2008.22.
- It is respectfully submitted that, the this Hon’ble Court vide its order dated 7 th October, 2004 has, inter alia, directed that ” the contractor shall not be used for supply of nutrition in Anganwadis and preferably ICDS funds shall be spent by making use of Village Community, Self-Help Groups and Mahila Mandals for buying of grains and preparation of meals”.
Though, this direction is to the States and Union Territories, the certain important issues require due consideration before the matter is adjudicated upon finally. This direction of the Hon’ble Court read with order dated 28 th November, 2001, is being interpreted by the Commissioner of the Hon’ble Court, as a mandate from this Hon’ble Court to provide to children between 3-6 years of age locally procured and prepared cooked meals at the Anganwadi Centre.
- It is respectfully submitted that as per the ICDS Scheme, the type of food (milk, pre-processed or semi-processed food or food prepared on the spot from locally available food stuff) will depend upon local availability, type of beneficiary, location of the project, administrative feasibility etc.
- In the light of this guideline under the Scheme, the State Governments/Union Territories have the flexibility to select the type of food to be given to the beneficiary as part of the supplementary nutrition.
The ICDS Scheme, ever since its inception in 1975, aims at providing “supplementary nutrition” and not “meal” to the targeted beneficiaries. Further, the provision of supplementary nutrition under ICDS scheme is for supplanting the nutrition gap between Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and actual Average Dietary Intake (ADI) of children in the targeted age group.
The nutrition requirement under the ICDS Scheme is different from the requirement under Mid Day Meal Scheme where meal is provided to primary school children between the age group of 6-14 years. A copy of the comparative statement of supplementary nutrition and financial norms under ICDS Scheme and Mid Day Meal Scheme a copy of the Letter dt 25.9.2006 of the Commissioner to the supreme court of India is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure –R-9 and Annexure 9A.23.
It is respectfully submitted that, the distinction between “Supplementary Nutrition” and “Meal” both in terms of nutritional and financial terms has also to be borne in mind. As of now, the ICDS Scheme envisages provision of Supplementary Nutrition, and not a full meal, to the beneficiaries of the Scheme.
Logistic and Financial support required for preparation of hot cooked meal in various Anganwadi Centres also needs to be looked into while taking a decision in the matter. Views of State Governments/UT Administrations are being obtained before taking a final decision in the matter as the direction of the Court under consideration is primarily for the States/UTs only.24.
It is respectfully submitted that, as per Tenth Five Year Plan Document (Volume II), Sectoral policies and Programme ( Food and Nutrition Security) of Planning Commission ( para 3.3.87), the on the spot cooked food feeding programme has several disadvantages, such as :
- The children especially those in the age group of 6 months to 36 months cannot consume the entire amount of food provided because of a smaller stomach capacity;
- Even if older children do eat the food provided in the Anganwadi, this acts mainly as a substitute, and not an addition, to home food;
- The most needy segment viz. children in the critical 6-36 month age group and women, may not be able to come to the Anganwadi daily and receive the food;
- Cooking in poor hygienic conditions and keeping left-over food may result in bacterial contamination of food.
- Under-nourished children, even those in the 3-6 years age group, if given double ration, cannot consume all the food at one sitting in the Anganwadi;
A copy of the relevant extract of the Tenth Five Year Plan Document (Volume II), Sectoral policies and Programme ( Food and Nutrition Security) of Planning Commission is annexed as Annexure-R-10.25. It is respectfully submitted that, as per the existing design of the programme, children below the age two years, pregnant women and lactating mothers are not required to come to the Anganwadi Centre every day.
Instead, ‘Take Home Ration’ (herein after referred to as ‘THR’) has to be provided to this category of beneficiaries. The idea behind this is that the children in this age group are very young and therefore need not come to the Anganwadi Centre every day. Same is the case with pregnant ladies and lactating mothers.
A copy of the guidelines regarding ‘THR’ is annexed herewith and marked as Annexure-R-11.26. It is respectfully submitted that pursuant to the direction directions of this Hon’ble Court contained in the order of 7.10.2004, instructions were issued to the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations that supplementary nutrition under the ICDS Scheme shall not be confined to children, pregnant women and lactating mothers from low income group (BPL) families.
A copy of the said instructions dated 29.11.2005 is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure-R-12.27. it is respectfully submitted that, this Hon’ble Court in order dated 28.11.2001 has given the following directions with regard to the coverage of adolescent girls under ICDS Scheme (para 6(i) 9b) ‘We direct the State Governments/Union Territories to implement the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) in full and to ensure that every ICDS disbursing centre in the country shall provide ‘Each adolescent girl to get 500 calories and 20-25 grams of protein’.
It is the case of the Union of India that there has been full compliance of its obligations, if any, under the Scheme. However, if any of the States gives a specific instance of non-compliance, the Union of India will do the needful within the framework of the Scheme.
- 28. It is respectfully submitted that the responsibility for providing supplementary nutrition under Kishori Shakti Yojana (herein after referred to as ‘KSY’) rests with the State Governments and the same was reiterated to all States/UTs vide Ministry’s letters dated 21.2.2002 and 22.10.2002.
- SY, though a separate scheme is operated through ICDS platform i.e.
Anganwadi Centre. It is further submitted that vide para 2 (f) of the affidavit filed on behalf of Government of India by Department Food & Public Distribution on 13.1.2004, in response to the fourth report of the Commissioners, it was clarified that the responsibility for providing supplementary nutrition to all the beneficiaries, including adolescent girls, rests with the state governments, as per the framework of the scheme.
- It is further submitted that, vide letter dated 9 th September, 2003, it was further clarified that Adolescent Girls were not covered under the ICDS scheme till 1991 when Adolescent Girls Scheme was introduced in 507 ICDS blocks in the country.
- It was also clarified that provision of supplementary nutrition to two Adolescent Girls per Anganwadi Centre are implicit in the new KSY Blocks and the number of Adolescent Girls for supplementary nutrition per AWC would depend upon the intervention selected by States out of the menu indicated in the KSY guidelines.
Only these identified girls, and not all the adolescent girls, are eligible for supplementary nutrition during their period of attachment with Anganwadi Centre. A Copy of the letter dated 9 th September, 2003 along with the guidelines is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure –R-13 (Colly).29.
- It is submitted that in the year 2005-06, KSY has been expanded from 2000 to 6118 ICDS projects.
- It is further submitted that, the provision for KSY in the budget of the Central Government is around Rs.60 crore (Rs.59.46 crore) in 2006-07.
- Further, the requirement of funds for providing supplementary nutrition as per nutrition norms, to all the 8,5 crore Adolescents Girls (11-18years) would be Rs.5865 crore (approx.).
That in view of the steep rise in funding that would be involved, the issue needs further examination in consultation with the State Governments. A copy of the statement indicating state-wise funds released/utilized and % expenditure incurred under KSY during last 3 years is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure-R-14.30.
It is respectfully submitted that to address the problem of under-nutrition among Adolescent Girls, the Planning Commission, in the year 2002-03, launched the Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG), on a Pilot Project basis in 51 districts in the country. Under this Scheme, 6 kg. of food-grains were given to under nourished Adolescent Girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
The scheme has been continued in 2006-07 also on pilot project basis only with the modification that pregnant women & lactating mothers are not covered as these are targeted under ICDS scheme also. A proposal for expansion of NPAG to all the districts and its merger with KSY, with a financial implication of Rs.1600 crore, was moved to the Planning Commission but the same, was not agreed to by the Planning Commission in the Annual Plan 2006-07.
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Who started Anganwadi?
Integration with other official schemes – The Integrated Child Development Services scheme did not have provision for the construction of AWC buildings as this was envisaged to be provided by the community except for the North Eastern States. For them, financial support was provided for construction of AWC buildings since 2001-02 at a unit cost of ₹175,000.
As part of the strengthening and restructuring the ICDS scheme, the government approved a provision of construction of 200,000 Anganwadi centre buildings at a cost of ₹450,000 per unit during XII Plan period in a phased manner with a cost-sharing ratio of 75:25 between centre and states (other than the NER, where it will be at 90:10).
Further, construction of AWC has been notified as a permissible activity under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA). The construction of AWC buildings can be taken up in convergence with MNREGA. Planned renaming of few schemes under new umbrella term i.e.
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How many types of ICD are there?
During the procedure – A health care provider will insert an IV into your forearm or hand and may give you a medication called a sedative to help you relax. You will likely be given general anesthesia (fully asleep). During surgery to implant the ICD, the doctor guides one or more flexible, insulated wires (leads) into veins near the collarbone to the heart using X-ray images as a guide.
The ends of the leads attach to the heart. The other ends attach to a device (shock generator) that’s implanted under the skin beneath the collarbone. The procedure to implant an ICD usually takes a few hours. Once the ICD is in place, your doctor will test it and program it for your specific heart rhythm needs.
Testing the ICD might require speeding up the heart and then shocking it back into a regular rhythm. Depending on the problem with the heartbeat, an ICD could be programmed for:
Low-energy pacing. You may feel nothing or a painless fluttering in your chest when your ICD responds to mild changes in your heartbeat. A higher energy shock. For more-serious heart rhythm problems, the ICD may deliver a higher energy shock. This shock can be painful, possibly making you feel as if you’ve been kicked in the chest. The pain usually lasts only a second, and there shouldn’t be discomfort after the shock ends.
Usually, only one shock is needed to restore a regular heartbeat. Some people might have two or more shocks during a 24-hour period. Having three or more shocks in a short amount of time is called an electrical or arrhythmia storm. If you have an electrical storm, you should call 911 or seek emergency medical help to see if your ICD is working properly or if you’re having irregular heartbeats.
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Who are the beneficiaries of ICDS?
Beneficiaries of Supplementary Nutrition Programme under ICDS increase by nearly 8% over the last four years The number of beneficiaries for supplementary nutrition under ICDS scheme of Ministry of Women and Child Development have increased from 956.12 lakh to 1030.14 lakh and Number of beneficiaries Scheme is a centrally sponsored Scheme being implemented by the State Governments/UT Administrations.
The scheme aims at holistic development of children below 6 years of age, pregnant women and lactating mothers by providing a package of six services comprising (i) Supplementary nutrition; (ii) Immunization; (iii) Health check-up; (iv) Referral services; (v) Pre-school non-formal education; and (vi) Nutrition & health education are provided to the targeted beneficiaries i.e.
all children below 6 years, Pregnant and Lactating Mothers. Three of the six services namely Immunisation, Health Check-up and Referral Services are delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. The Supplementary Nutrition (SNP) is given to the children (6 months – 6 years) and pregnant women & lactating mothers under the ICDS Scheme.
While continuing the ICDS Scheme during the XII Plan, Government of India approved the Restructuring and Strengthening of ICDS Scheme. The goals and target of restructured and strengthened ICDS are (i) to prevent and reduce young child under nutrition by 10 % points in 0-3 years and enhance early development and learning outcomes in all children below six years of age (ii) improved care and nutrition of girls and women and to reduce anaemia prevalence in young children, girls and women by 1/5th and (iii) achieve time bound goals and outcomes with results based monitoring of indicators at different levels.
Consequent to restructuring and strengthening of the ICDS Scheme, the existing package of services under the Scheme were reformatted. Care & Nutrition counselling and Health Services for children in the age group of 0-6 years and Pregnant and Lactating mothers, have been included in the core package of ICDS services.
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What materials are used for an ICD?
Abstract – The treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias has changed over the last 10 years. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), once used only as a last resort therapy, have now become the treatment of choice. This change occurred before the first results of randomized studies on ICD therapy in patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias were published by the end of 1997.
Technological advances of ICD therapy, in particular the development of transvenous leads, were to a large extent responsible for this change. Modern leads are characterized by their multilumen design that incorporates straight wires and coiled conductors into a single electrode body. Conductors and insulation are sheathed with additional insulation layers.
The most frequently used insulating materials are silicone, polyurethane, and fluoropolymers. Lead failures are an important complication of ICD therapy. Fractured conductors, compression, creeping, or insulation defects from abrasion can cause such lead dysfunctions.
Chronically implanted leads will inevitably have an increased risk of failure due to defects despite all technological advances. In the light of improving survival figures in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias and increasing numbers of ICD implantations, lead failures are becoming a clinical problem of ever increasing importance.
Therefore, the question of which lead types necessitate extraction when a certain failure occurs and which leads can be left in place. Despite continuous improvements in lead extraction systems and growing experience in their use, the extraction of any pacemaker or ICD lead is associated with some risk of complications.
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How many people are in one block of ICDS?
A block is supposed to cover a population of 100,000.
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What is ICDS exam in West Bengal?
Overview of ICDS WB Anganwadi Recruitment 2022-23 –
|Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), West Bengal
|ICDS WB Anganwadi Recruitment 2022
|No. of Vacancies
|Not yet announced
|Anganwadi Supervisor, Helper, Teacher, Worker, etc.
|Online / Offline
|West Bengal, India
|ICDS WB official website
What is ICDS in West Bengal?
Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) –
Name of the services :
Supplementary Nutrition Immunization Health Check – up Referral services Nutrition and Health Education Non-formal Education ( Pre- School ) for children of age group of 3-6 years
Eligibility : 1. Children of age group up to 06 years 2. Pregnant Women & Nursing Mothers How to apply : As per survey by respective Anganwadi Worker of the area. Whom to contact for queries/clarification/grievance : Concerned Child Development Project Officer (CDPO) of 45 Nos. ICDS Projects. For Contact Details of CDPOs please see : Annexure – A Statistical achievement of last FY : Total 702718 nos. Beneficiaries under ICDS Scheme took take home ration for the month of March -2021. Total 2711 nos. Anganwadi Centres are running in own building / Sishu Alloys in this district. Referral website link of Department http://wbcdwdsw.gov.in/ http://icdswb.in/