How Many Person Were There In Indian Education Commission?

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How Many Person Were There In Indian Education Commission
Structure – The commission, under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, was the sixth commission in India post independence and the first commission with comprehensive terms of reference on education. It was composed of a member secretary, an associate secretary and fifteen members.
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How many members were there in the Indian education commission 1882?

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://14.139.60.153/handle/123456789/1277

Title: Report of the Indian Education Commission. Appointed by the Resolution of the Government of India dated 3rd February 1882
Authors:
Keywords: Commission Report Resolution of the Government of India hunter Commission Report
Issue Date: 1882
Publisher: Government Printing, Calcutta
Abstract: On the 3rd February 1882, the Government of India appointed an Education Commission, with a view to enquiring into the working of the existing system of Public Instruction, and to the further extension of that system on a popular basis. The Commission consisted of the twenty-one members and a secretary. A certain number of members were selected from each of the Presidencies and Provinces, excepting. Burma and Assam; and care was taken, in their selection, that they should fairly represent the various races and classes interested in Indian education.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1277
Appears in Collections: Commission and Committee Reports – INDIA

Items in NIEPA Digital Archives are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
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How many members were there on Kothari Commission?

Results of Kothari Commission Recommendations –

The education system at the national level was aligned in 10+2+3 pattern, as recommended by the Kothari Commission. One of the most important recommendations of the Kothari Commission was the National Policy on Education. The Bill was passed in the Parliament under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. It has been reported that even the National Policy on Education in 1986 (which was formulated under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi), was influenced by recommendations of Kothari Commission. As per recommendations of Kothari Commission, the education sector in India was stratified into national bodies, state bodies and Central Board.

Kothari Commission – UPSC Notes:- Central Advisory Board of India decided to set up two commissions, University education commission (1948) to report on the status of Indian university education and Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) to deal with secondary education.

  • In accordance with the recommendations of Kothari commission, the National education policy of 1968 was formulated.
  • It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states.
  • It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states.
  • The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English.

The Kothari Commission was appointed by the Central government to look into the educational aspects and revamp the sector in order to set guidelines for the pattern of education in India. The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission.

It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. Kothari Commission was formed on 14 July 1964 under the Chairmanship Daulat Singh Kothari. He was the then chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC). Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the page.

Related Links : Kothari Commission (1964-66) – Facts, Objectives, Recommendations
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How many members were there in University Education commission?

Mohit Puri / University Education Commission

  • 1. Objectives
  • 1.1 To make students aware about University Education Commission
  • 1.2 To enable them to get knowledge about its various recommendations and observations
  • 2. Introduction
  • 3. Sub Headings of the topic (Content)

3.1 Appointment of the Commission.

  1. 3.2 Members of the Commission
  2. 3.3 Terms of Reference
  3. 3.4 Major Observations and Recommendations
  4. 3.5 Conclusion
  5. 1.1 Introduction

As an academic, philosopher, and statesman, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) was one of the most recognized and influential Indian thinkers in academic circles in the 20th century. The Radhakrishnan was named chairman of the University Education Commission.

  • After Independence the first action of a great significance to be taken by the Government of India in the field of education was the appointment of the University Education Commission under the Chairmanship of Dr.S.
  • Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar and former Vice- Chancellor of Banaras University, who rose to become the second President of India.

After independence on August 15, 1947, Radhakrishnan was requested to Chair the University Education Commission. The Radhakrishnan Committee’s suggestions helped mould the education system for India’s needs to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements and extensions that may be desirable to suit present and future requirements of the country” The Commission’s 1949 Report assessed the state of university education and made recommendations for its improvement in the newly independent India.

  • 1.2 Appointment of the Commission
  • The members of the Commission were appointed by the Government of India to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements and extensions that may be desirable to suit present and future requirements of the country.
  • 1.3 Members of the Commission
  • The following were appointed as members of the Commission:-

1. Dr.S. Radhakrishnan, M.A., D. Litt., LL.D., Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at the University of Oxford, (Chairman).2. Dr. Tara Chand, M.A., D. Phil. (Oxon.), Secretary and Educational Adviser to the Government of India,3. Dr. (now Sir) James F.

  1. Duff, M.A.
  2. Cantab.), M. Ed.
  3. Manchester ), LL.D.
  4. Aberdeen ), Vice-Chancellor, University of Durham,4. Dr.
  5. Zakir Hussain, M.A., Ph.D., D. Litt.
  6. Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi )-(now Vice-Chancellor, Muslim University, Aligarh ).5. Dr. Arthur E.
  7. Morgan, D.Sc., D.
  8. Eng., LL.D., Former President, Antioch College, First Chairman, Tennessee Valley Authority, President, Community Service Inc.6.

Dr.A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, D.Sc., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.C.O.G., F.A.S.C., Vice-Chancellor, University’ of Madras,7. Dr. Meghnad Saha, D.Sc.F.R.S., Palit professor of Physics Dean, Faculty of Science; and President, Post-Graduate Council of Science, University of Calcutta.8.

Dr. Karm. Narayan Bahl D. Sc (Panj.), D. Phil, and D. Sc.(Oxon), Professor of Zoology, University of Lucknow,9. Dr. John J. Tigert, M.A. (Oxon.) LL.D., Ed.D., D.C.L., D. Litt., L.H.D., formerly Commissioner of Education of the United States, and President Emeritus of the University of Florida.10. Shri Nirmal Kumar Sidhanta, M.A.

(Cantab.),Professor of English and Dean, Faculty of Arts, University of Lucknow, (Secretary).

  1. 1.4 Terms of Reference
  2. Terms of Reference-The terms of reference of the Commission were to consider and make recommendations in regard to-
  3. (i) The aims and objects of university education and research in India,
  4. (ii) The changes considered necessary and desirable in the constitution, control, functions and jurisdiction of universities in India and their relations with Governments, Central and Provincial.
  5. (iii) The Finance of universities.
  6. (iv) The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching and examination in the universities and colleges under their control.
  7. (v) The courses of study in the universities with special reference to the maintenance of a sound balance between the Humanities and the Sciences and between pure science and technological training and the duration of such courses.
  8. (vi) The standards of admission to university courses of study with reference to the desirability of an independent university entrance examination and the avoidance of unfair discriminations which militate against Fundamental Right 23 (2).
  9. (vii) The medium of instruction in the universities.
  10. (vii) The provision for advanced study in Indian culture, history, literatures, languages, philosophy and fine arts.
  11. (ix) The need for more universities on a regional or other basis.
  12. (x) The Organisation of advanced research in all branches of knowledge in the universities and Institutes of higher research in a well-co-ordinate fashion avoiding waste of effort and resources.
  13. (xi) Religious instruction in the universities.
  14. (xii) The special problems of the Banaras Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University, the Delhi University and other institutions of an all-India character.
  15. (xiii) The qualifications, conditions of service, salaries, privileges and functions of teachers and the encouragement of original research by teachers.
  16. (xiv) The discipline of students, hostels and the Organisation of tutorial work and any other matter which is germane and essential to a complete and comprehensive enquiry into all aspects of university education and advanced research in India.
  17. 1.5 Major Observations and Recommendations :
  18. I Aims of Education
  19. The aims of education are
  20. · To teach that life has a meaning.
  21. · To awaken the innate ability to live the life of soul by developing wisdom.
  22. · To acquaint with the social philosophy which should govern all over institutions, educational as well as economic and political?
  23. · To train for democracy.
  24. · To train for self development
  25. · To develop certain values like fearlessness of mind, strength of conscience and integrity f purpose.
  26. · To acquaint with cultural heritage of its generation
  27. · To enable to know that education is a life-long process.
  28. · To develop understanding of the present and the past.
  29. · To impart vocational and professional training.
  30. II Functions of Universities
  31. The commission laid the emphasis on the following functions of education in the view of the economic and political changes of the country.

1. Creating individuals with a change of spirit. It is for the universities to create knowledge and train mind of men who would brings together the two material resources and human energies. If our living standards are to be raised radical change of spirit is essential 2.

  1. Preparing individual who seek guidance from the past but give up fatal obsession of the perfection of the past.
  2. The universities are the intellectual sanctuaries of the inner life of the nation.
  3. They must train intellectual pioneers, seeking guidance from the past but providing dynamics to realise new dreams.3.

Developing individual who understand the significance of an integrated way of life. The universities must develop the qualities of synthesizing the knowledge – a ‘Samanavaya’ of the different items of the knowledge 4. Developing men of the wisdom. Our ancient teachers tried to teach subjects and impart wisdom.

  • Their ideal was wisdom along with knowledge,
  • We cannot be wise without some basis of knowledge though we may easily acquire knowledge and devoid of wisdom.
  • To use the word of Upanishad, we may knower of the text (mantravati) and not knower of self (atmavti).
  • No amount of factual information would make a ordinary men into educated or virtuous men unless something is awakened in them, an innate ability to live the life of the soul 5.

Developing individuals who understand the aims of the social order. The universities must develop a concept of the social order in the students. They must also develop value of democracy, justice and liberty, equality and eternity – ideals of the Indian society 6.

Producing students who can adjust to society and bring about new changes. Education is the mean by which society perceptual itself. In 1852 Newman defined the function of the university thus, “if a practical end must be assigned to a university course, then I say it is training member of the good society.” No system of the education could be directed to weakening of the state that maintains it.

But the education is also an instrument for social changes.7. Preparing leaders. Training leadership in the profession and in the public life is one of the central aim of the university education, which is difficult to realise. President Truman remarks, “Our nation policies must be administered by men of the board experiences, mature outlook and sound judgment.” If it is the function of universities to train men and woman for wise leadership, they must enable young men and women to read with insight.8.

  1. Developing men of the character.
  2. We are building a civilisation, not a factory or worship.
  3. The quality of the worship not depends on the material, equipment or the political machinery but on the character of the men.
  4. The major task of the education is the improvement of the character.9.
  5. Developing appreciation of culture unity of India,
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India is like palimpsest in which new character do not entirely efface the old. In a single social pattern fragments of the different age are brought together. It would be impossible to think of an Indians where no Mugals are ruled, where no Taj was built, no Macaulay wrote his minute on education.

  • Indian culture is like a living organism growing riches and content primitive culture are marked by extreme conservatism where social group follow the same path of the custom and convention with irrational persistence.
  • Living cultures are dynamics and maintain their culture pattern by continuous effort of the individual and social discipline.10.

Developing individuals capable of understandings the spiritual heritage of the past. The chief source of the spiritual nourishment for nay people must be its own past perpetually rediscovered and renewed. A society without knowledge of the past which made it would be lacking g in depth band dignity.

We must be critical and selective and use the past to illuminate the present. We should not blindly give up the great value of our past nor should we cling to belief simply because they are ancient.11. Developing skill for the needed personnel. The universities must prepare personnel to meet increase demand for every type of the activity, i.e., administration, commerce, industry, politics.12.

Developing scientists and technological personnel. The universities must enable the country to attain in as short a time as possible, freedom from want, disease and ignorance, by the application and development of the scientific and technical knowledge.

  • India is rich in natural resources and her people have intelligence band energy are throbbing with renewed life and vigor.
  • It is the universities to prepare such personnel.13.
  • Developing individual with such values and skill of cultural cooperation.
  • The setting for development of the world culture though the cross fertilization of the culture is ready.

The world has become, through the speedy of the transpiration and communication and economic independence, a single body. We must secure for recognition and acceptance of the oneness of the world i9n the thinking of the people. Growth in mutual understanding arises from the recognition that the different cultures are dialects of the one language of the spirit.

  1. the standard of admission to the university courses should correspond to that of the present intermediate examination that is after the completion of twelve years of the study at a school and an intermediate college ; ( this has been done by the introduction of 10+2+32 pattern)
  2. in each province a large number of well equipped and well staff intermediate colleges ( with class IX to XII or IV to XII) be establish;

3. in order to divert students to different vocation after 10 to 12 years of schooling, a large number of occupational institutes be open; 4. Refreshers to be organized by the universities for high school and intermediate college teacher.

  • 5. To avoid overcrowding at universities and colleges, the maximum number in the arts and science faculty of teaching universities be fixed at 3,000 and in affiliated college at 1500
  • 6. the number of working days be substantially increased to ensure minimum of 180 in the year, exclusive of the examination days; with three terms, each of about 11 week duration
  • 7. lectures be carefully planned and supplemented by tutorials, library work and written exercise;
  • 8. there be no prescribed text book for any courses of study;

9. Attended at lectures be compulsory for undergraduate student as a present, and that private candidate of only certain categories be allowed to appear for public examinations. An experiment should, however, be made with evening college for working people;

  1. 10. tutorial instruction be developed in all institution imparting university education in the following manner:-
  2. a. students should be report to tutors in group not exceeding 6 in number;
  3. b. tutorial should be made available to undergraduate both pass and honours;
  4. c. tutorial should stimulate the mental development of the students and should not become mere coaching for examinations;
  5. d. if tutorial are to succeed, the teaching staff should be improve in quality;
  6. 11. universities libraries be greatly improved by;
  7. 1. larger annual grants;
  8. 2. the introduction of the open access system;
  9. 3. longer hours of the works;
  10. 4. better organization; and
  11. 5. a well trained staff which should include reference assistants; and

The laboratories should be improved in building, fittings, equipment, workshops and technicians.,

  • I V Teacher Emoluments
  • Recognizing the importance of the teaching profession the commission recommended the following grades:
  • University Teachers

1. Professor Rs.900-500-1350 2. Reader Rs.600-300-900 3. Lecturer Rs.300-25-500 4. Fellows or Instructions Rs.250-25-500 5. Research fellows Rs.250-25-500

  1. University teacher should give the community punctuality, efficiency and devotion to duty in relation to their teaching work and new ideas and newer methods in relation to their research work.
  2. Scales of pay for affiliated colleges with post graduate classes
  3. Principal Rs.800-400-1000
  4. Senior lecturers (two in each college) Rs.500-25-800
  5. Lecturer Rs.200-15-310-20-400-25-500
  6. Scales of pay for affiliated colleges with no post graduate classes
  7. Principal Rs.600-45-800
  8. Senior lecturer (two in each college) Rs.400-25-600
  9. V Courses of Study

Knowledge should be considered as a whole. While drawing up the courses. Link between various aspects should not keep in view. There should be a connecting bond between the general academic and vocational education. The principles and practices of general education must become an integral part of course at the intermediate and degree stage.

  • Courses at the degree level
  • Apart from a course in general education following courses is to be taken up by students:
  • · Federal language or if that happens to be mother tongue, a classical or a modern Indian language.
  • · English
  • · And for arts students not less than two special subjects preferably from each group.
  • Humanities:
  • a. Classical or a modern Indian language
  • b. English, German or French
  • c. Philosophy
  • d. History
  • e. Mathematics
  • f. Fine Arts
  • g. Political Science
  • Social Sciences:
  • h. Economics
  • i. Sociology
  • j. Psychology
  • k. Anthropology
  • l. Geography
  • m. Home Economic
  • For science students not less than two special subjects from the following list:
  • a. Mathematic;
  • b. Physics
  • c. Chemistry
  • d. Botany
  • e. Zoology
  • f. Geology
  • VI Professional Education

Agriculture. The study of agriculture at the primary secondary and higher education be given high priority in national economic planning. So far as is feasible. agricultural education be given a rural setting. Commerce. A commerce student should be given opportunities for practical work in three or four different kinds of firms.

Engineering and Technology. The number engineering schools of different grades be increases particularly for training of grades 4 and 5 (foremen, craftsmen, draftsmen, overseers. etc.) In establishing new engineering colleges or institutes there should be fresh critical inquiry as to the types of engineering services needed in Indian.

Uncritical reception and imitation of existing institutions here and aboard should be avoided. Law: A three year degree course be offered in special legal subjects. Students pursuing degree souses in law shall not be permitted to carry outer degree courses simultaneously except in a few instances where advanced students have proved their interest and are studying related subjects in law and some other fields.

  1. Medicines : the maximum number of admission to a medical college be 100 provide the staff and equipment for that number are available.
  2. Religious education: all educational institutions should start work with a few minutes for silent meditation.
  3. · In the first year lives of the great religious leaders like Gautama Buddha, Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, Jesus, Sankara, Ramanuja, Madhva, Mohammad, Kabir, Nanak, Gandhi be taught.
  4. · In the second year some selections of a universalism character from the scriptures of the world be studied.
  5. · In the third year the central problems of the philosophy of religion be considered.
  6. VII Examinations

· A university degree should not be required for government administrative services. Special state examination for recruitment to the various services should be organized. · No credit is given at present for class work in courses except sometimes in the case of practical work.

Such credit should be given. · Three years will be involved for the first degree. · The standards for success at the examination should as far as possible, be uniform in the4 various universities and should be raised. We suggest that a candidate should get 70 per cent or more marks to secure a first class, 55 per cent to 69 per cent for a second and at least 40 per cent for a third.

VIII. Medium of Instruction

The federal languages should be developed through the assimilation of words from various sources and the retention of words which have already entered into Indian languages from different sources, thereby avoiding the dances of exclusiveness.

2. International technical and scientific terminology be adopted, the borrowed words be properly assimilated, their pronunciation be adopted to the phonetic system of the Indian language the their spelling fixed in accordance with the sound symbols of Indian scripts.3.

For the medium of instruction for higher education, English should be replaced as early as practicable by an Indian language which cannot be Sanskrit on account of vital difficulties.4. Pupils at the higher secondary and University stages should be made conversant with three languages the regional language, the federal language.

And English (the last one in order to acquire the ability to read books in English) ; and (ii) Higher education be imparted through the instrumentality of the regional language with the option to use the federal language as the medium of instruction either for some subjects or for all subjects.5.

  • IX Students Their Activities and Welfare
  • o Two years of physical education be required for all students, men and women, except those who are physically unify or who are in the national cadet corps.
  • o Hostels be constructed in blocks of not more than fifty students per block with common rooms and dining halls for four or five blocks.

o University unions should be as free as possible from political activities. An advisory board of student welfare be organized in university which do not have such a body. X Women Education On the importance of women education the commission observed, there cannot be an educated people without education of women.

If general education had to be limited to man or women then opportunity should be given to women, from them it would more surely be passed to the next generation, the commission further observed, it is time to realize that the finest family relations result from the association of a man and woman who have had much relations result from the association of a man and woman who have had much of their education in common but each of the whom has developed according to his or her own nature and not in imitation.

A woman should be a made familiar with the problems of home management and the skills developed in meeting these. They should be provided laboratory experience in a baby home and nursery school etc. Special courses of study for women: These are home economics, nursing teaching fine arts.

Women students in general should be helped to see their normal place in a normal society both as citizens and as women and to prepare for it. College programmes should be so designed that it will be possible for them to do so. Standards for courtesy and social responsibility should be emphasized on the part of men in college.

XI Constitution and Control University education is placed on the concurrent list. The concern of the central government with the universities be with regard to finance coordination of facilities in special subjects adoption of national policies, ensuring minimum standards of efficient administration and liaison between universities and nation research laboratories and scientific survey, etc.

  1. The commission observed that on account of resource crunch, the universities are not able to implement appropriate reforms.
  2. In this regard it made the following recommendations; · A university grants commission should be set up to allocate finances to the university.
  3. · The state govt.
  4. Should shoulder the major burden of the university education.

· Recurring and nonrecurring grants should be given to non government colleges. Specific rules should be framed for giving grants. · Income tax concession may be given to individual and firms who gave financial aids to university.1.5 Conclusion: While evaluating the report of the university education commission (1947-48) it may be borne in mind that the report was drafted and published before the finalization of the constitution of India and its inauguration on 26 th of January 1950.

  1. It is therefore, natural that some of the important points and terms like socialism, secularism, national and emotional integration, and fundamental eights, etc.
  2. Do not find mention and accordingly their implication in the report.
  3. The report of the commission is document of great importance as it has guided the development of university education in Indian since independences.
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In the first instance we take up the philosophical and sociological aspects of the recommendations. It accorded due attention to synthesize the knowledge the recommendation. It accorded due attention synthesize the knowledge and wisdom of the east and the west and of the ancient and modern.4.

  1. Points to remember/ Summary: 4.1 Dr.S.
  2. Radhakrishnan was the chairman of University Education Commission.4.2 The Commission was inaugurated on December 6, 1948,4.3 The Commission submitted its report in August 1949.4.4 Besides the Chairman, the Commission included 9 members.4.5 The Commission recommended about function of Universities, discipline and indiscipline, standards of teaching, examination system, courses of study, medium of instruction etc.

For Universities. : Mohit Puri / University Education Commission
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What is the popular name of Indian education commission of 1964 66?

Educational Commission of India – “Kothari Commission (1964-66)” Kothari commission was set-up in 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr.D.S Kothari. This was the sixth commission in the history of education commission and was most comprehensive in nature.

  1. It reviewed almost all aspects of the education system without limiting itself to any one particular aspect, unlike the commissions that came before and after it.
  2. Another unique feature of the Kothari commission was its international composition.
  3. Apart from 11 Indian members, it had members from 5 other countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and Japan.

NEED for appointment of commission: 1) Need for a comprehensive policy of education in spite no. of education committees after independence, satisfactory progress would not be achieved.2) Need for detailed study even though a good deal of expansion of education facilities took place; it was at the expense of quality.3) Need to emphasize role of people in national development.

  1. To make people aware that they have a share in the national development along with the government.4) Need for overview of educational development.
  2. To create more integration between various parts and consider it as a whole not as fragments.
  3. The main task of the Commission was to advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the general policies for the development of education at all stages-ranging from the primary to post-graduate stage and in all its aspects besides examining a host of educational problems in their social and economic context.

The Commission submitted its report to the Government on June 29,1966. The main features of the Commission’s report were as follows: (i) Introduction of work-experience which includes manual work, production experience, etc. and social service as integral part of general education at more or less all level of education.

  • (iii) Vocationalization of secondary education.
  • (iv) Strengthening of the centres of advance study and setting up of a small number of major universities which would aim at achieving highest international standards.
  • (v) Special emphasis on the training and quality of teachers for schools

(vi) Education for agriculture and research in agriculture and allied sciences should be given a high priority in the scheme of educational reconstruction. Energetic and imaginative steps are required to draw a reasonable proportion of talent to go in for advance study and research in agriculture science. Language issues in Kothari Commission:

  • The development of a proper language policy can greatly assist in strengthening national unity. The key programme will be to develop all Indian languages and to adopt them as media of education at all stages.
  • At lower primary level, only one language should be studied compulsory i.e mother tongue or regional language.
  • At the secondary stage (classes I-X) the regional language should ordinarily be the medium of education. Adequate safeguards should be provided for linguistic minorities. In class XI_XII, a pupil should study at least one language of his choice in addition to the medium of education. While facilities to study languages, on an optional basis, should be adequately provided at the university-level, the study of no language should be made compulsory unless such study is an essential part of a prescribed course.

Before Kothari commission the proposal was to promote Hindi as the national language and chosen for formal education purpose as it was spoken by majority of the people, but some of the states were in oppose of that and so this three language formula was proposed in commission report.

  1. That is why Hindi wasn’t promoted as a national language rather it became a language as a subject and due to westernization nowadays universally speaking language becomes English which is also promoted in our school education system as well.
  2. Work experience: It may be defined as participation in productive work in school, in the home, in a workshop, on a farm, in a factory or in any other productive situation, should be made an integral part of all general education.

It should be varied to suit the age and maturity of students and oriented to technology, industrialization and the application of science to the production process, including agriculture. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: Another programme which can bring education into closer relationship with productivity is Vocational education.

  1. It should be emphasized particularly at the secondary stage.
  2. At lower secondary stage (age group 11-16) vocational education should ultimately be provided to about 20percent of the enrolment ; at the higher secondary stage (age group 17-18) such enrolment should be increased to 50 percent.
  3. In higher education, about one-third of the total enrolment may be in vocational courses.

It is to increase the emphasis on agricultural and technological education at the university level. The main front line activities were handled by nineteen task forces or working groups of Kothari Commission: Task Force on Adult Education: The group’s main objective was the eradication of illiteracy by focusing on adult education.

  1. The group was composed of three foreign members, J.F.
  2. McDougall, Welthy Fischer and Hans Simons and fifteen Indian members, V.S.
  3. Jha, Abdul Qadir, G.K.
  4. Chandiramani, A.R.
  5. Deshpande, Durgabai Deshmukh, K.L.
  6. Joshi, D.R.
  7. Alia, T.A.
  8. Oshy, M.S.
  9. Mehra, A.R.
  10. Moore, J.P.
  11. Naik, M.S.
  12. Randhawa, K.G.
  13. Saiyidain, Sohan Singh and group secretary, S.M.S.

Chari. Task Force on Agriculture Education : The group had 15 members of which two were foreign members, J.F. McDougall and R.W. Cummings. The Indian members included B.P. Pal, Hashim Amir Ali, Anant Rao, Chintamani Singh, V.M. Dandekar, K.C. Kanungo, A.B. Joshi, S.N.

  1. Mehrotra, S.K.
  2. Mukherji, J.P.
  3. Naik, K.C.
  4. Naik, N.K.
  5. Panikar, C.S.
  6. Ranganathan, S.C.
  7. Verma and secretary, S.
  8. Ramanujam.
  9. The group focused on the development of agricultural education.
  10. Task Force on Educational Administration: This twelve member group examined the shortcomings on the educational administration and had Prem Kirpal, A.C.

Deve Gowda, V. Jagannadham, M.V. Mathur, S.N. Mukherjee, J.P. Naik, H.M. Patel, D.M. Sen, J.D. Sharma, V.D. Sharma, Rudra Dutt Singh and S. Rajan (secretary) as its members. Task Force on Educational Finance: The task before the group was to examine the existing set up with regard to educational finance and identify ways to overcome the shortfalls.

The group had M.V. Mathur, D.A. Dabholkar, B. Dutta, R.A. Gopalaswami, K.L. Joshi, D.T. Lakdawala, Gautam Mathur, Atmanand Misra, Sadashiv Misra, J.P. Naik, K.A. Naqvi, Pritam Singh and Gurbax Singh (secretary) as its members. Task Force on Higher Education: The group’s objective was to coordinate the higher education system in India and advise on ways of improvement.

The group was one of the largest and had 20 members, including three overseas members, J.F. McDougall, Hans Simons and H.J. Taylor. The Indian members were K.G. Saiyidain, J.W. Airan, P.K. Bose, Chandrahasan, V.S. Jha, A.C. Joshi, K.L. Joshi, C.L. Kapur, D.S. Kothari, M.V.

Mathur, P.G. Mavlankar, J.P. Naik, P.J. Philip, A.B. Shah, Amrik Singh, R.K. Singh and S. Rehman (secretary). Task Force on Manpower: The group had twelve members which included R.A. Gopalaswami, Abdul Qadir, K.L. Joshi, M.V. Mathur, J.P. Naik, R. Prasad, T. Sen and S.P. Aggarwal. The group had its mandate to examine the recruitment and training of teaching and non teaching staff.

Task Force on Techniques and Methods in Education: This seventeen member task force was entrusted with the designing of the functional mechanics of the educational system. The members were V.S. Jha, G.K. Athalye (later replaced by S.L. Ahluwallia), M.L. Bharadwaj, A.R.

Dawood, S. Dutt, C.L. Kapur, S.S. Kulkarni, J.C. Mathur, J.F. McDougall, S.K. Mitra, J.P. Naik, Paul Neurath, S. Panandikar, Albert J. Perrelli, S. Rehman, J.M. Ure (later replaced by D.A. Smith) and S.M.S. Chari, who served as the Secretary. Task Force on Professional, Vocational and Technical Education: The group trained its focus on the professional and vocational courses.

The group had sixteen members including the associate secretary, J.F. McDougall. The other members were T. Sen, S.K. Bose, G.K. Chandiramani, L.S. Chandrakant, D.R. Dhingra, R.N. Dogra, V.G. Garde, R.A. Gopalaswami, K.L. Joshi, P.K. Kelkar, S.G. Pendse, S.C. Sen, R.K.

  1. Srivastav, H.C.
  2. Visvesvaraya and secretary, S.
  3. Venkatesh.
  4. Task Force on Science Education: The mandate of the group was to focus on the science education excluding medical education and consisted of D.S.
  5. Othari, S. Deb, B.D. Jain, P.
  6. Florence Nightingale, R.C.
  7. Paul, R.N. Rai, T.S.
  8. Sadasivan, D.
  9. Shankernarayan, Shantinarayan, A.R.

Verma, R.D. Deshpande and I.C. Menon (secretary). Task Force on School Education: The group worked on the modalities of school education excluding primary education in India. It consisted of twelve members including the commission secretary, J.P. Naik along with A.R.

Dawood, K.L. Gupta, G.S. Khair, K. Kuruvila Jacob, D.R. Mankad, P.N. Mathar, R. Muralidharan, S. Panandikar, H. Radhakrishna, S.N. Saraf, and S. Doraiswami (secretary). Task Force on Student Welfare: The welfare aspects of the students including scholarships and other measures of incentives were attended to by this group which had A.R.

Dawood, V.S. Jha, D.R. Mankad, M.S. Mehta, Perin H. Mehta, J.P. Naik, Prem Pasricha, V. Ramakrishna, A.S. Raturi, D.S. Reddy, S.L. Saruparia, Vikram Singh and S. Doraiswami (secretary) as its members. Task Force on Teacher Education and Teacher Status: The group inspected the proficiency of the teachers and their remuneration packages.

One of the tasks before the group was to standardize the public and private sector compensation packages and also to design a machinery for continuous on-job training of the teachers. The members of the group were S. Panandikar, S.P. Aggarwal, Reginald Bell, A.C. Deve Gowda, G.N. Kaul, J.P. Naik, S. Natarajan, K.G.

Saiyidain, Salamatullah and M.D. Paul (secretary). Working Group on Educational Buildings: This group had its focus on the educational infrastructure and had several construction and infrastructure experts among its fifteen members. The members were A.R.

Dawood, R.K. Chhabra, Dinesh Mohan, B.V. Doshi, J.F. McDougall, M.M. Mistri, J.P. Naik, M.H. Pandya, C.B. Patel, S. Rahaman, J.L. Sehgal, T.S. Vedagiri, H.C. Visvesaraya, H. Williams and S. Venkatesh (secretary). Working Group on Education of the Backward Classes: The group had fifteen members and was mandated to focus on the education of the scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other backward communities in India.L.M.

Shrikant, Sashimeren Aier, N.V. Bapat, S.R. Bhise, P.D. Kulkarani, J. Lakra, D.J. Naik, J.P. Naik, V. Rajlakshmi, T. Sanganna, S.C. Sen Gupta, Manikya Lal Verma, Vimal Chandra, N.M. Wadiwa and the secretary of the group, Gurbax Singh were the members. Working Group on Educational Statistics: The group provided the statistical tools for the commission and had J.P.

  1. Naik, S.P.
  2. Aggarwal, R.K.
  3. Chhabra, G.P. Khare, D.
  4. Natarajan, H.
  5. Webster and Gurbax Singh (secretary) as members.
  6. Working Group on Pre-Primary Education: This group was intended to work on the primary education and its standardization as the primary education till that time was unorganized with several different schools such as basic primary and Montessori systems in practice.

The group had ten women, S. Panandikar, Bilquis Ghufran, L. Jesudian, Shalini Moghe, A. Pakrashi, Grace Tucker, P.K. Varalakshmi, Amrita Varma and R. Muralidharan and two men, M.C. Nanavatty and Shesh Namle as members. Working Group on School Community Relations: The group composed of L.R.

Desai, Hulbe, V.S. Jha, H.B. Majumder, P.N. Mathur, J.P. Naik, M.C. Nanavatty, H. Radhakrishna, K.G. Saiyidain, R.K. Singh and M.P. Balakrishnan (secretary) worked on the extra curricular ambience and activities of the education. Working Group on School Curriculum: This group had one of the major tasks of the commission which included the design and development of a standardized curriculum to be used across the country.S.

Panandikar, J.P. Naik, A.R. Dawood, L.S. Chandrakant, A.J. Perrelli and B. Ghosh (secretary) were the members. Working Group on Women’s Education: The group, consisting the chairman, D.S. Kothari and the commission secretary, J.P. Naik, had Durgabai Deshmukh, Rajammal Devadas, P.N.

Mathur, S. Panandikar, K.G. Saiyidain, Raksha Saran, Premlila V. Thackersey and S. Rajan (Secretary) as members. PAY SCALE EQUALISATION: Kothari Commission had, recommended that the scales of pay of school teachers working under different managements such as government, local bodies or private management should be the same.

Almost all the States in the country had agreed to implement the recommendations of the Kothari Commission. PROBLEMS: The Common School System was endorsed by the NPE 1986 and 1992. However, the recommendations never got translated into action. In 1990, the apex Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE), which appraises the extent to which the NPE is implemented by the Central and State governments and other agencies appointed a committee to review NEP 1986.

  1. Minorities groups are given protection by the Constitution to establish and administer their own educational institutions which is not in consonance with the concept of CSS.
  2. In Government run schools, the quality of education has not been very satisfactory.
  3. Lack of any political will.
  4. Public schools and private schools which charge capitation fees and those offering expensive coaching facilities have proliferated.
  5. Proliferation of exclusive sainik schools, Kendriya Vidyalayas run by the Government itself.
  6. EVALUATION:
  • It should be a continuous process, forming an integral part of the total educational system and should be related to the educational objectives. It exercises a great influence on the pupil’s studying habits and the teacher’s methodologies.
  • At the lower primary level, it would be desirable that the students develop at their own pace.
  • At the higher primary level, written test should be taken along with oral tests as part of the internal assessment. They should simple teacher-made diagnostic tests.
  • At the end of the primary stage an examination should be held in the national level so as to place the development of the child.
  • At the secondary level the students have to take up regular tests as well as internal assessment as part of their cumulative growth.
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: Educational Commission of India – “Kothari Commission (1964-66)”
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Who appointed 1st Indian education commission?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Who was the chairman of Indian education commission 1882 1883?

Hunter Commission Report – Hunter Commission 1882 and 1920 The Hunter Commission of 1882 was presided by Sir William Hunter and was appointed by Lord Ripon, the then viceroy of India. The hunter commission was constituted on 3rd April 1882, after a request of the general council of education was made to Ripon.
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What is the second name of Kothari Commission?

Kothari Commission (1964-66): Aims, objectives & major recommendations The ‘Kothari Commission’ 1964 was constituted on July 14, 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr.D.S. Kothari with 17 other members. Kothari Commission is also known as National Education Commission, 1964.
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How many Indians members were there in 1902 Indian university commission?

The Raleigh Commission had only one Indian member, Syed Hussain Belgrami. This commission submitted its report in 1902 and this followed the introduction of a Bill called the Raleigh Bill. The Raleigh Bill when became an act, it was called Indian Universities Act 1904.
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Who was the first chairman of UGC?

List of Former Chairpersons

S.No Chairpersons Name Periods
1. Dr. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar 1953 – 1955
2. Shri Humayun Kabir 1955 – 1956
3. Pt. Hridaynath Kunzru 1956 – 1956
4. Shri C.D. Deshmukh 1956 – 1961

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Who was the father of Basic education scheme?

who was the founder of basic education? Hey student, Mahatma Gandhi was the founder of BASIC EDUCATION. Basic Education is a principle which states that knowledge and work are not separate. He promoted an educational curriculum with the same name based on this pedagogical principle.

  • It can be translated with the phrase ‘Basic Education for all’.
  • The term ‘Basic’ is significant in Basic Education.
  • Basic comes from the term “Base”.
  • Which means bottom or foundation.
  • So in the literary sense, Basic Education is the foundation of education or education at the primary level on which the edifice of the Superstructure of Higher Education can be built.

Basic Education Scheme pattern:

Pre-basic (up to 6 years ) Basic (from 7 to 14 years) Post-Basic (from 15 to 18) University education Social and Adult education

Hope it helps. : who was the founder of basic education?
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Which day is celebrated as National Education Day?

To honor Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced 11th November as ‘National Education Day’ on 11th September, 2008. The announcement released by Ministry said, “The Ministry has decided to commemorate the birthday of this great son of India by recalling his contribution to the cause of education in India. How Many Person Were There In Indian Education Commission Agencies National Education Day 2022 11th November is celebrated every year as National Education Day to commemorate the birth anniversary of India ‘s first Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, On this day, his exemplary contributions to the field of education and educational institutions are celebrated.

  • He was the first education minister of independent India and served from 1947 to 1958.
  • National Education Day is observed around all educational institutions to raise awareness about the importance of literacy.
  • National Education Day: Theme The Ministry of Human Resource Development sets a different theme for National Education Day every year.

This year’s theme is “Changing Course, Transforming Education.” National Education Day: History To honor Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced 11th November as ‘National Education Day’ on 11th September, 2008. The announcement released by Ministry said, “The Ministry has decided to commemorate the birthday of this great son of India by recalling his contribution to the cause of education in India.

  • November 11 from 2008 onwards, will be celebrated as the National Education Day, without declaring it a holiday, every year.” Who was Maulana Abul Kalam Azad? Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin known as Maulana Abul Kalam Azad born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in 1888.
  • A freedom fighter, he started a weekly journal in Urdu in 1912 called Al-Hilal to criticise the British policies.

He started another weekly Al-Bagah after Al-Hilal got banned. Azad strongly advocated for women’s education. In the Central Assembly in 1949, he said that national education could not be appropriate if it does not give consideration for the advancement of one-half of the society – women.

He stressed for the modern education system, and advocated the use of English language for educational advantages. However, he believed that primary education should be imparted in the mother-tongue. National Education Day: Celebration National Education Day is celebrated in schools annually by spreading awareness about the importance of education.

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In which year Simon Commission was appointed?

Simon Commission, group appointed in November 1927 by the British Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin to report on the working of the Indian constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919.
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Who was the chairman of NPE 1968?

National Education Policy, 1968 – First such policy had come in 1968 under Indira Gandhi government. Prior to this policy, a resolution in Lok Sabha was moved in 1964 by Congress MP Siddheshwar Prasad, who criticized the government for not paying enough attention to education and centre lacked a uniform vision and definite philosophy for education.

The government of the day agreed that there should be a national and coordinated policy towards education. The government then set up a 17 member Education Commission under UGC chairperson DS Kothari, On the basis of recommendations of Kothari Commission, the first National Education Policy was released in 1968.

This policy had called for a National School System, which meant that all students, irrespective of caste, creed and sex would have access to education of a comparable quality up to a given level. Further, it envisaged a common educational structure which was accepted across the country and most of us have studied under that system.
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Who prepared the 1854 education policy in India?

Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India in 1854. This document, known as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India,’ was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.
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How many members were there in the Radhakrishnan Commission 1948 49?

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on November 4, 1948. Key PointsRadhakrishanan Commission: There was a total of 10 members appointed under this commission. It was the first education commission of independent India.
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What is the educational Ordinance of 1882 about?

How Many Person Were There In Indian Education Commission How Many Person Were There In Indian Education Commission Nigerians gather outside a Christian missionary church in southern Nigeria circa 1880 The Portuguese introduced Christianity to southern Nigeria as early as the 15 th century. Over time, missionaries established education systems which required English language as a core subject.

  • The Education Ordinance of 1882, which was updated in 1887, 1896, and frequently thereafter, provided capitation pass grants to schools in each subject including English,
  • Students could also receive certification of educational achievement by passing examinations administered in English.
  • This solidified English’s dominance as the gateway to education.

The Education Ordinance of 1887, however, recognized indigenous Nigerian languages in schools in response to nationalist sentiments that English was the language of the oppressor, English remains the language of Nigerian universities.
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How many members are in the Hunter Commission?

Members of Hunter Committee – The 7 member Hunter Committee which was set up to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy was also known as Disorders Inquiry Committee. The British members were as following:

  1. Chairman: Lord William Hunter, ex- Solicitor-General and the Senator of the College of Justice in Scotland
  2. WF Rice, Additional Secretary to the Government of India (Home Department)
  3. Justice GC Rankin, Judge of the High Court, Calcutta;
  4. Major General Sir George Barrow, Commandant of the Peshawar Division, a non-official Englishman

The Indian Members were as follows:

  1. Sir Chimanlal Setalvad
  2. Pandit Jagat Narayan
  3. Sardar Sultan Ahmed Khan

The secretary of this committee was H G Stokes, secretary to the government of Madras.
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