How Did The Need For National Education Arise In India?


How Did The Need For National Education Arise In India
How did the need for national education arise in India? – Following its partition from being a Subcontinent to an independent entity, the need for education in India was prevalent from the get-go. Under the leadership of dedicated leaders championing for education and its spread among people, the sector thrived.
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Why do we need national education policy?

The NEP provides an important opportunity to move Indian education from ‘sorting and selection’ to ‘human development,’ enabling every student to develop to their maximum potential.
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When was the national education policy introduced in India?

About New Education Policy Consultation – The National Education Policy was framed in 1986 and modified in 1992. More than three decades have passed since previous Policy. During this period significant changes have taken place in our country, society economy, and the world at large.

It is in this context that the education sector needs to gear itself towards the demands of the 21st Century and the needs of the people and the country. Quality, innovation and research will be the pillars on which India will become a knowledge super power. Clearly, a new Education Policy is needed. The Government had initiated the process of formulating a New Education Policy through the consultation process for an inclusive, participatory and holistic approach, which takes into consideration expert opinions, field experiences, empirical research, stakeholder feedback, as well as lessons learned from best practices.

The Committee for preparation of the draft National Education Policy submitted its report to the Ministry on 31.05.2019. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 (DNEP 2019) was uploaded on MoE website and also at MyGov Innovate portal eliciting views/suggestions/comments of stakeholders, including public.

The draft NEP is based on the foundational pillars access, affordability, equity, quality and accountability. Post submission of Draft Report States/UTs Governments and Government of India Ministries were invited to give their views and comments on Draft National Education Policy 2019. A brief summary of the Draft National Education Policy 2019 was circulated among various stakeholders, which was also translated in 22 languages and uploaded on the Ministry’s website.

Meetings with State Education Secretaries of School Education and with State Secretaries of Higher & Technical Education were held.An Education Dialogue with Hon’ble MPs of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka & Odisha.

A special meeting of CABE on National Education Policy was held.’ In the meeting, 26 Education Ministers of various States and UTs, representatives of States and Union Territories, Members of CABE, Heads of Autonomous Organisations, Vice Chancellors of Universities, attended the meeting along with senior officials of the Central and State Governments.

Around 2 lakh suggestions on the Draft National Education Policy received from various stakeholders. A meeting on Draft NEP 2019 of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Education was held on 07.11.2019. Currently exercise of formulation of National Education Policy is ongoing and it will be finalised shortly.
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What are the main features of the national policy on education?

National Policy on Education: Feature # 3, –

  • Education for Equality :
  • The NPE ’86 lays special emphasis on the “removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of those who have been deprived of so far”.
  • 1. Education for women’s equality:
  • The policy states the following:
  • (i) Status of women:
  • Education will be used as an agent of basic change in the status of women.
  • (ii) Empowerment of Women:

The national system of education will play a positive role in the empowerment of women. It will foster the development of new values through redesigned curricula, text books, the training and orientation of teachers, decision makers and administrators, and the active involvement of educational institutions.

  1. (iii) Women’s Studies:
  2. Women’s studies will be promoted as a part of various courses and educational institutions will be encouraged to take up active programmes to accelerate the pace of women’s development.’
  3. (iv) Removal of Women’s Illiteracy :
  4. The removal of illiteracy of women and obstacles inhibiting their access to and retention in century education will receive top priority through provision of special support services, setting of time targets, and effective monitoring.
  5. (v) Women’s Participation in Technical and Vocational Education :

Major thrust will be placed upon women’s participation in technical, vocational and professional course at different levels. The policy of non-discrimination will be pursued vigorously to obliterate sex stereo-typing in vocational and professional courses. Besides, their participation will be promoted a non-traditional occupations and emergent technologies.

  • 2. Education of Scheduled Castes :
  • The main focus in this regard is the equalization of SCs population with the non-SCs population X all stages and levels of education, in all areas and in all the four dimensions—rural male, rural female, urban male and urban female.
  • The measures contemplated include:
  • (i) Incentives to indigent families to send their wards to school regularly till they attain the age of 14.
  • (ii) Introduction of pre-matric scholarship scheme from class I onwards.
  • (iii) Constant micro-planning and verification to ensure enrolment, retention and successful completion of courses, together with provision of remedial courses to improve their prospects for further education and employment.
  • (iv) Recruitment of teachers from scheduled castes.
  • (v) Provision of facilities for SC students in hostels at district headquarters, according to a phased programme.
  • (vi) Location of school buildings, Balwadis, Adult Education Centres, Non-formal Centres in such a way as to facilitate full participation of the scheduled castes.
  • (vi) The utilization of NREP and RLEGP resources so as to make substantial educational facilities available to the scheduled castes.
  • (viii) Constant innovation in finding new methods to increase the participation of the scheduled castes in the education process.
  • 3. Education of Scheduled Tribes :
  • The following measures are to be taken:
  • (i) The construction of school buildings will be undertaken in tribal areas on a priority basis under the normal funds for education, as well as under the NREP, RLEGP and Tribal Welfare Schemes.
  • (ii) The need to devise the curricula and instructional materials in tribal languages at the initial stages, with arrangements for switching over to regional language.
  • (iii) Educated and promising scheduled tribe youths will be encouraged and trained to take teaching in tribal areas.
  • (iv) Residential schools, including Ashram Schools, will be established on a large scale.
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(v) Incentive schemes like scholarships in higher education including technical, professional and para-professional courses will be taken for the scheduled tribes. Special remedial courses and other programmes to remove psycho-social impediments will be provided to improve their performance in various courses.

  1. (vi) Anganwadis, non-formal and adult education centres will be opened on a priority basis in areas predominantly dominated by scheduled tribes.
  2. (vii) The curriculum at all stages of education will be designed to create an awareness of the rich cultural identity of the tribals and their enormous creative talents.
  3. 4. The Education of Backward Sections and Areas :

Suitable incentives will be provided to all educationally backward sections of society living in rural areas. Hilly and desert districts, remote and inaccessible areas and islands will be provided adequate institutional infrastructure.5. Minorities: Greater attention will be focused on education of the minorities for promotion of social justice and equality.

  • 6. The Education of the Handicapped :
  • The policy states that the objective should be to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence.
  • It envisages the following measures in this regard:
  • (i) Whenever possible, education of children with locomotors handicaps and other mild handicaps will be common with that of others.
  • (ii) Provision of special schools with hostels as far as possible at district headquarters, for the severely handicapped children.
  • (iii) Adequate arrangements for vocational training to the disabled to enable them to live with confidence.
  • (iv) Re-orientation of teacher training programmes to deal with the special difficulties of the handicapped children.
  • (v) Voluntary efforts for the education of the disabled by the voluntary organisations.
  • 7. Adult and Continuing Education:
  • The NPE ’86 provided the following in this regard:
  • (i) Strengthening the existing programmes keeping in view the national goals such as alleviation of poverty, national integration, environmental conservation, energisation of cultural creativity of people, observance of small family norm, promotion of women’s equality etc.
  • (ii) Regarding mass literacy programme, the policy outlines the following:
  • (a) Commitment of the central and State Governments, political parties, mass media and educational institutions to mass literacy programmes of diverse nature.

(b) Involvement of teachers, students, youths, voluntary agencies, employers etc. in this programme.

  1. (c) Concerted efforts to harness various research agencies to improve the pedagogical aspects of adult literacy.
  2. (d) Awareness among the learners upon literacy, functional knowledge, skills and socio-economic reality in the mass literacy programme,
  3. (iii) Regarding the implementation, the ways and means are as follows:
  4. (a) Setting of continuing education centres in rural areas.
  5. (b) Education of workers through their employers, trade unions and concerned agencies of Government.
  6. (c) Providing post secondary educational institutions.
  7. (d) Providing books, libraries and reading rooms.

(e) Using Radio, T.V. and films as mass learning media.

  • (f) Creation of learner’s groups organisations.
  • (g) Designing programme of distance learning,
  • (h) Providing assistance in self-learning.
  • (i) Organizing vocational training programmes based on need and interest.

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Who introduced national education?

The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India. The policy was put into effect for the first time by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1968 and second time by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986.
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What do you mean by national education?

What is the National Education Policy – The Government of India has formulated the NEP or National Education Policy as a means and strategy to regulate, promote, and support education throughout the nation of India. The scope of the policy covers everything from elementary grades to higher education levels, and is applicable to both urban and rural areas. So far, there have been three iterations of the NEP education policy. For the first time, PM India Gandhi implemented the National Education Policy 1968; then PM Rajiv Gandhi brought about the National Education Policy 1986; finally, PM Narendra Modi created the National Education Policy 2020.
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Who introduced National Education Policy in India?

Need for Change – National Policy on Education –

  • In 1986, Rajiv Gandhi announced a new education policy, the National Policy on Education (NPE), which was intended to prepare India for the 21st century. The policy emphasized the need for change: ‘Education in India stands at the crossroads today. Neither normal linear expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation.’
  • According to the new policy, the 1968 policy goals had largely been achieved: more than 90 percent of the country’s rural population were within a kilometre of schooling facilities and most states had adopted a common education structure. The prioritization of science and mathematics had also been effective. However, change was required to increase financial and organizational support for the education system to tackle problems of access and quality.

UPSC and other Government exam aspirants can also refer to the links given below for exam preparation:
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Why is National Education Day is celebrated and its importance?

To honor Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced 11th November as ‘National Education Day’ on 11th September, 2008. The announcement released by Ministry said, “The Ministry has decided to commemorate the birthday of this great son of India by recalling his contribution to the cause of education in India. How Did The Need For National Education Arise In India Agencies National Education Day 2022 11th November is celebrated every year as National Education Day to commemorate the birth anniversary of India ‘s first Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, On this day, his exemplary contributions to the field of education and educational institutions are celebrated.

  • He was the first education minister of independent India and served from 1947 to 1958.
  • National Education Day is observed around all educational institutions to raise awareness about the importance of literacy.
  • National Education Day: Theme The Ministry of Human Resource Development sets a different theme for National Education Day every year.
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This year’s theme is “Changing Course, Transforming Education.” National Education Day: History To honor Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced 11th November as ‘National Education Day’ on 11th September, 2008. The announcement released by Ministry said, “The Ministry has decided to commemorate the birthday of this great son of India by recalling his contribution to the cause of education in India.

November 11 from 2008 onwards, will be celebrated as the National Education Day, without declaring it a holiday, every year.” Who was Maulana Abul Kalam Azad? Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin known as Maulana Abul Kalam Azad born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in 1888. A freedom fighter, he started a weekly journal in Urdu in 1912 called Al-Hilal to criticise the British policies.

He started another weekly Al-Bagah after Al-Hilal got banned. Azad strongly advocated for women’s education. In the Central Assembly in 1949, he said that national education could not be appropriate if it does not give consideration for the advancement of one-half of the society – women.

  1. He stressed for the modern education system, and advocated the use of English language for educational advantages.
  2. However, he believed that primary education should be imparted in the mother-tongue.
  3. National Education Day: Celebration National Education Day is celebrated in schools annually by spreading awareness about the importance of education.

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What are the four national goals of education?

Sweeping educational reforms took place and were initiated through various policies and position papers. Development of education in Namibia was to be guided by four broad goals of access, equity, quality and democracy.
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What is the main goal of the education for All?

Critical and Urgent EFA Tasks – To attain the above goals, nine urgent and critical tasks were formulated as follows:

  1. Make every school continuously perform better
  2. Expand Early Childhood Care and Development
  3. Transform nonformal and informal interventions into an alternative learning system yielding more EFA benefits
  4. Promote practice of high quality teaching
  5. Adopt a 12-year program for formal basic education
  6. Enrich education curriculum in the context of articulation, enrich the pillars of new functional literacy
  7. Provide adequate and stable public funding for countrywide attainment of EFA goals
  8. Create a network of community-based groups for attainment of local EFA goals
  9. Monitor progress in efforts towards attainment of EFA goals

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What is the main aim of National Education Policy 1968?

The Need and Goals of NPE 1968 – NPE 1968 was framed to equalize educational opportunities across the country. It aimed at creating an education system that can provide unrestricted access to education. This policy focused on the development of values for national integration. Because it acknowledged the power of education for the country’s economic and cultural development. How Did The Need For National Education Arise In India Here’s a look at the key highlights of the National Policy of Education, 1968:
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What are the impacts of national education policy?

This will help the students experience the global quality of education in their very own country. The policy of introducing multi-disciplinary institutes will lead to a renewed focus on every field such as arts, humanities and this form of education will help students to learn and grow holistically.
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What are the goals of National Education Policy 1986?

What is the important educational objective of NPE – 1986? Option 3 : Universal access and enrollment Free 80 Questions 80 Marks 50 Mins The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote and regulate education in India. Key Points

The policy covers elementary education to higher education in India. The first NPE was promulgated by the Government of India by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1968, the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986, and the third by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2020. The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992 was to establish a national system of education that implies that all students irrespective of caste; creed, sex, and religion have access to education of comparable quality.

Important Points The objectives of this policy had been divided into several aspects.

National System of Education: 10 + 2 + 3 structure of Education. Early childhood care and Education The national curriculum framework contains a common core along with other components. Equal opportunity for all. Minimum levels of learning for each stage of education. Life-long education. Education for Equality Removal of women’s illiteracy. Education of minorities. Education of the handicapped. Universal enrolment and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age Child-Centered Approach Pacesetting schools for talented children, largely rural. Technical and Management Education

Hence, we can conclude that Universal access and enrollment is the important educational objective of NPE – 1986. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : What is the important educational objective of NPE – 1986?
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What is national system of education in India?

The School System – India is divided into 28 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory.

As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list,

That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.

  • There is a national organization that plays a key role in developing policies and programmes, called the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum Framework.
  • Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT).
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These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states’ departments of education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by the NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.

The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century. The government committed to earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for education, half of which would be spent on primary education.

The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent in 1997-98. The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18).

The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level.

Students throughout the country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below. There are mainly three streams in school education in India.

Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number of “central schools” (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is being taught.

One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are available. All of them follow textbooks written and published by the NCERT.

In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there.

The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference held in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister for Education.

The main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. In October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate’s Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country.

The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting public examinations.

Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this Council. All these are private schools and generally cater to children from wealthy families. Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher secondary).

Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years.
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What is the role of education in national economy?

What function does education play in economic development? – As follows, education has an important influence on economic development:

Education enhances people’s access to current and scientific concepts.It improves people’s efficiency and capacity to absorb new technologies.It raises knowledge of potential possibilities and labor mobility.Education helps people obtain information, skills, and attitudes that will allow them to grasp societal changes and scientific advances.Education investment is one of the primary sources of human capital that enables inventions and discoveries.A country’s ability to adopt sophisticated technologies is aided by a well-educated labor population.

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Who announced National Education Policy in 1972?

When the people’s s party came to power in Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto announced the education policy on March 29,1972.1972 On the order of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the National Education Policy 1972 will be prepared by the Federal Minister of Education under the leadership of Abdul Hafeez Pirzada.
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What is National Education Policy 2022?

New Education System in India 2020 – The New education system in India 2020 introduced a 5+3+3+4 education structure, The 5+3+3+4 education structure is a major change from the previous education system in India, which was a 10+2 system, In the new system, students will spend more time in school overall, but the number of years spent in each stage of education will be reduced.
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