Why Salamanca Is Famous In The Field Of Education?


Why Salamanca Is Famous In The Field Of Education
Adoption – Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality (Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June 1994). This report from the UN’s education agency calls on the international community to endorse the approach of inclusive schools by implementing practical and strategic changes.

  1. In June 1994 representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organisations formed the World Conference on Special Needs Education, held in Salamanca, Spain.
  2. They agreed a dynamic new Statement on the education of all disabled children, which called for inclusion to be the norm.
  3. In addition, the Conference adopted a new Framework for Action, the guiding principle of which is that ordinary schools should accommodate all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions.

All educational policies, says the Framework, should stipulate that disabled children attend the neighbourhood school ‘that would be attended if the child did not have a disability.’
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Why was the Salamanca statement so important?

It led to the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education, arguably the most significant international document that has ever appeared in the field of special education. In so doing, it endorsed the idea of inclusive education, which was to become a major influence in subsequent years.
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What is Salamanca statement in special education?

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  2. Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education:Access and Quality Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June 1994
  3. More than 300 participants representing 92 governments and 25 international organizations met in Salamanca, Spain in June 1994 to further the aim of Education for All by considering what basic policy changes are needed to promote inclusive education, so that schools can serve all children, particularly those with special educational needs.
  4. Organized by the Government of Spain and UNESCO, the Conference adopted the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education and a Framework for Action.

These two documents are important tools for efforts to make sure schools work better and to fulfill the principle of Education for All. They are printed in a single publication published by UNESCO. Get hold of a copy from the UNESCO office in your country or from the address at the bottom of this page.

every child has a basic right to education

every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs

education services should take into account these diverse characteristics and needs

those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools

regular schools with an inclusive ethos are the most effective way to combat discriminatory attitudes, create welcoming and inclusive communities and achieve education for all

such schools provide effective education to the majority of children, improve efficiency and cost- effectiveness.

The Salamanca Statement asks governments to:

give the highest priority to making education systems inclusive

adopt the principle of inclusive education as a matter of law or policy

develop demonstration projects

encourage exchanges with countries which have experience of inclusion

set up ways to plan, monitor and evaluate educational provision for children and adults

encourage and make easy the participation of parents and organizations of disabled people

invest in early identification and intervention strategies

invest in the vocational aspects of inclusive education

make sure there are adequate teacher education programs

The Framework for Action outlines new thinking on special needs education and guidelines for action at national, regional and international levels. Among the guidelines for national action are:

Recruitment and training of educational personnel

External support services

The Salamanca Statement and Framework For Action,UNESCO, 1994. Ref: ED-94/WS/l 8. For further information: UNESCO, Special Education, Division of Basic Education,7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07-5P, France. Fax: +33 1 40 65 94 05. : Salamanca Statement
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What is the role of Salamanca statement in the embracing inclusive education in the Philippines?

Arguing that inclusion and participation are human rights, the UNESCO Salamanca Statement asserts that the general education setting should be regarded as a venue of human development open to all schoolchildren, regardless of their physical, emotional, and intellectual states.
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In which year Salamanca World Conference on Special Needs Education was Organised?

The World Conference on Special Needs in Education was a conference held in Salamanca (Spain) in 1994 where more than 300 participants representing 92 governments and 25 international organizations adopted a Framework for Action that called on schools to welcome all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other characteristics.

  • This is arguably the most significant international document that has ever appeared in the field of special education,
  • The principles elaborated in Salamanca have set the foundation for understanding the importance of inclusion in education,
  • Since then, the concept of inclusion has broadened, emphasizing the need to reach all learners, on the assumption that every learner matters equally and has the right to receive relevant, quality, equitable and effective educational opportunities.

This is reinforced by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, specifically Goal 4 (SDG4), which calls upon education systems ‘to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’. The Conference was co-organized by the organization UNESCO and the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain.
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What are the benefits of Special Needs Education?

Stigmas Jeff Clayton, communications director at WillowWood School, a school with strong special needs support, in Toronto, Ontario “Concerns among parents about special needs schools and programs include social stigmas around learning styles, loss of neighbourhood-school atmosphere, and options for their students’ lives after school ends.
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What particular year was the Salamanca Statement and Framework Action on Special Needs Education?

The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education More than 300 participants representing 92 governments and 25 international organisations met in Salamanca in 1994 to further the objective of Education for All by considering the fundamental policy shifts required to promote the approach of inclusive education, namely enabling schools to serve all children, particularly those with special educational needs.

Organised by the Government of Spain in co-operation with UNESCO, the Conference brought together senior education officials, administrators, policy-makers and specialists, as well as representatives of the United Nations and the Specialised Agencies, other international governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations and donor agencies.

The Conference adopted the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education and a Framework for Action. These documents are informed by the principle of inclusion, by recognition of the need to work towards “schools for all” – institutions which include everybody, celebrate differences, support learning, and respond to individual needs.
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What are the major elements of Salamanca statement?

Introduction Salamanca Statement 1994 (Framework for Action) is in the subject of “Creating and Inclusive School”. Organized by the Government of Spain and UNESCO, the Conference adopted the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education and a Framework for Action.

  • Salamanca Statement 1994 (Framework for Action) (1) In June (7 to 10), a representative from 25 internationals and 92 government organisations formed the “World Conference on Special Needs Education” and it was held in Salamanca (Spain).
  • 2) Conference reaffirmed that education is the right of every individual as per the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948”.

(3) Government of many countries have done many activities in next ten years and big changes had been seen. (4) The conference adopted a new “Framework for Action” the guiding principle through which the ordinary schools should accommodate all children, regardless of their physical, social, intellectual, emotional, linguistic or other coditions.

  • 5) The framework suggested that every educational policies should include a provision for disabled student to attend neighbourhood school.
  • 6) All the delegates at the conference agreed on new statement on education for all disabled children and schools must follow Inclusiveness.
  • 7) The world conference called several groups to support inclusiveness in the school and these groups are: Government, the International community and UNESCO.

The Salamanca Statement says that: (1) Every child has a basic right to education (2) Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs (3) Education services should consider these diverse characteristics and needs (4) Those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools (5) Regular schools with an inclusive ethos are the most effective way to combat discriminatory attitudes, create welcoming and inclusive communities and achieve education for all.

  • 6) Such schools provide effective education to the majority of children, improve efficiency and cost- effectiveness.
  • The Salamanca Statement asks governments to: (1) Give the highest priority to making education systems inclusive.
  • 2) Adopt the principle of inclusive education as a matter of law or policy.

(3) Develop demonstration projects. (4) Set up ways to plan, monitor and evaluate educational provision for children and adults k. (5) Encourage and make easy the participation of parents and organizations. (6) Disabled people invest in early identification and intervention strategies.

  • 7) Invest in the vocational aspects of inclusive education.
  • 8) Make sure there are adequate teacher education programs.
  • Role of International Communities International organisations like UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP and World Bank endorsed the approach of inclusive education in schools.
  • Role of UNESCO (1) Inclusive education must be discussed in every education policy of the nation.

(2) Enhance the education of teachers in this field. (3) Stimulate the research for Inclusive Education. (4) Use the fund from 1996 to 2001 to create programs for Inclusive Education. Framework For Action On Special Needs Education (1) The purpose to implement this by government, NGO and national agencies on Special Education.

2) School should accommodate all the children regardless of their physical, social, emotional, economical background, etc. (3) Schools have to ensure all the necessary steps to be taken for children with disabilities and learning difficulties. (4) Proper support should be provided in terms of the classroom, infrastructure, furniture, transport, textbooks, etc.

(5) The role of the community is also important to support inclusive education. (6) Technology to support inclusive education like teaching aids, school curriculum, mobility and learning aids, etc. (7) Teachers training is also important steps towards inclusive education.

  • 8) Research and development in the field of infrastructure, assistive aids, transport, etc.
  • To enhance inclusive education.
  • 9) Healthy partnerships should be maintained between school administration and parents as parents are active partners in decision making.
  • 10) The parent should be encouraged to participate in school as well as home activities.

(11) Monitoring should be done from time to time. (12) The proper legislature should be there to protect the right of every child, individual at each level of their life. Read In Detail Introduction With the proclamation of human rights and impact of the philosophy of humanism, there has been a worldwide call for providing humane treatments to the disabled and stop their isolation and give up the policies and provisions of seclusion for their education and development.

  1. For this purpose, a number of organised attempts have been made by the world society and nations from time to time under the banner of the UNO in the form of a number of joint international conventions and conferences.
  2. It has resulted into useful declaration of statements, framework for actions or provisions and policies for shaping the education of the disabled.

(i) Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action, 1994, and (ii) UN Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), 2006. Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action, 1994 An international document and declaration in the name of ‘The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Disability Education (1994)’ has come into existence as a result of deliberations held in June 1994 in a World Conference on Special Needs Education.

More than 300 participants representing governments of the 92 countries of the world, including India and 25 International organisations, met in Salamanca, Spain in this conference jointly held by the Ministry of Education and Science Spain and UNESCO. The conference through its four days deliberations (7–10 June) came up with a report and resolutions in the form of Statement and Framework for Action in implementing the policy of inclusive education for the education and welfare of the children with special needs, particularly the disabled.

The Salamanca Statement (on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education) The statement in original runs as under: (1) We, the delegates of the World Conference on Special Needs Education representing ninety-two governments and twenty-five international organisations, assembled here in Salamanca, Spain, from 7–10 June 1994, hereby reaffirm our commitment to Education for All, recognising the necessity and urgency of providing education for children, youth and adults with special educational needs within the regular education system, and further hereby endorse the Framework for Action on Special Needs Education, that governments and organisations may be guided by the spirit of its provisions and recommendations.

(2) We believe and proclaim that: (a) every child has a fundamental right to education, and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning; (b) every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs; (c) education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs; (d) those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs; (e) regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency, and ultimately, the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.

(3) We call upon all governments and urge them to: (a) give the highest policy and budgetary priority to improve their education systems to enable them to include all children regardless of individual differences or difficulties; (b) adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular schools, unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise; (c) develop demonstration projects and encourage exchanges with countries having experience with inclusive schools; (d) establish decentralised and participatory mechanisms for planning, monitoring and evaluating educational provision for children and adults with special education needs; (e) encourage and facilitate the participation of parents, communities and organisation of persons with disabilities in the planning and decision-making processes concerning provision for special educational needs; (f) invest greater effort in early identification and intervention strategies, as well as in vocational aspects of inclusive education; (g) ensure that, in the context of a systemic change, teacher education programmes, both pre-service and in-service, address the provision of special needs education in inclusive schools.

(4) We also call upon the international community; in particular, we call upon: (a) governments with international co-operation programmes and international funding agencies, especially the sponsors of the World Conference on Education for All, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the World Bank: – to endorse the approach of inclusive schooling and to support the development of special needs education as an integral part of all education programmes; (b) the United Nations and its specialised agencies, in particular, the International Labour Office (ILO), the World Health Organisation (WHO), UNESCO and UNICEF; – to strengthen their inputs for technical co-operation, as well as to reinforce their co-operation and networking for more efficient support to the expanded and integrated provision of special needs education; (c) non-governmental organisations involved in country programming and service delivery: – to strengthen their collaboration with the official national bodies and to intensify their growing involvement in planning, implementation and evaluation of inclusive provision for special educational needs; (d) UNESCO, as the United Nations agency for education: – to ensure that special needs education forms part of every discussion dealing with education for all in various forums; – to mobilise the support of organisations of the teaching profession in matters related to enhancing teacher education as regards provision for special educational needs; – to stimulate the academic community to strengthen research and networking and to establish regional centres of information and documentation; also, to serve as a clearinghouse for such activities and for disseminating the specific results and progress achieved at country level in pursuance of this statement; – to mobilise funds through the creation within its next Medium-Term Plan (1996–2002) of an expanded programme for inclusive schools and community support programmes, which would enable the launching of pilot projects that showcase new approaches for dissemination, and to develop indicators concerning the need for and provision of special needs education.

(5) Finally, we express our warm appreciation to the Government of Spain and to UNESCO for the organisation of the Conference, and we urge them to make every effort to bring this Statement and the accompanying Framework for Action to the attention of the world community, especially at such important forums as the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995) and the World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995).

  • The Framework for Action (on Special Needs Education) (1) This Framework for Action on Special Needs Education was adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education organised by the Government of Spain in co-operation with UNESCO and held in Salamanca from 7 to 10 June 1994.
  • Its purpose is to inform policy and guide action by governments, international organisations, national agencies, non-governmental organisations and other bodies in implementing the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education.
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The Framework draws extensively upon the national experience of the participating countries as well as upon resolutions, recommendations and publications of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organisations, especially the Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities.

  1. It also takes account of the proposals, guidelines and recommendations arising from the five regional seminars held to prepare the World Conference.
  2. 2) The right of every child to an education is proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and was forcefully reaffirmed by the World Declaration on Education for All.

Every person with a disability has a right to express his wishes with regard to his education as far as this can be ascertained. Parents have an inherent right to be consulted on the form of education best suited to the needs, circumstances and aspirations of their children.

  1. 3) The guiding principle that informs this Framework is that schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions.
  2. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantaged or marginalised areas or groups.

These conditions create a range of different challenges to school systems. In the context of this Framework, the term ‘special educational needs’ refers to all those needs of children and youth that arise from disabilities or learning difficulties. Many children experience learning difficulties, and thus, have special educational needs at some time during their schooling.

  1. Schools have to find ways of successfully educating all children, including those who have serious disadvantages and disabilities.
  2. There is an emerging consensus that children and youth with special educational needs should be included in the educational arrangements made for the majority of children.

This has led to the concept of the inclusive school. The challenge confronting the inclusive school is to develop a child-centred pedagogy capable of successfully educating all children, including those who have serious disadvantages and disabilities.

  1. The merit of such schools is not just that they are capable of providing quality education to all children, but their establishment is a crucial step in helping to change discriminatory attitudes, in creating welcoming communities and in developing an inclusive society.
  2. A change in social perspective is imperative.

For far too long, the problems of people with disabilities have been compounded by a disabling society that has focused upon their impairments rather than their potential. (4) Special needs education incorporates the proven principles of sound pedagogy through which all children may benefit.

It assumes that human differences are normal and that learning must accordingly be adapted to the needs of the child rather than the child fitted to preordained assumptions regarding the pace and nature of the learning process. A child-centred pedagogy is beneficial to all students, and as a consequence, to the society as a whole.

Experience has demonstrated that it can substantially reduce the drop-out and repetition that are so much a part of many education systems while ensuring higher average levels of achievement. A child-centred pedagogy can help in avoiding the waste of resources and the shattering of hopes that is all too frequently a consequence of poor quality instruction and a ‘one size fits all’ mentality towards education.

  1. Child-centred schools are, moreover, the training ground for a people-oriented society that respects both the differences and the dignity of all human beings.
  2. 5) This Framework for Action comprises the following sections: I.
  3. New thinking in special needs education II.
  4. Guidelines for action at the national level A.

Policy and organisation B. School factors C. Recruitment and training of educational personnel D. External support services E. Priority areas F. Community perspectives G. Resource requirements III. Guidelines for action at the regional and international level Out of the above cited dimensions related to Framework for Action, we would here concentrate on the first two—new thinking in special needs education and guidelines for action at the national level (especially related to school children).

New thinking in special needs education (especially related to school children) (1) The trend in social policy during the past two decades has been to promote integration and participation and to combat exclusion. Inclusion and participation are essential to human dignity and to the enjoyment and exercise of human rights.

Within the field of education, this is reflected in the development of strategies that seek to bring about a genuine equalisation of opportunity. Experience in many countries demonstrates that the integration of children and youth with special educational needs is best achieved within inclusive schools that serve all children within a community.

It is within this context that those with special educational needs can achieve the fullest educational progress and social integration. While inclusive schools provide a favourable setting for achieving equal opportunity and full participation, their success requires a concerted effort, not only by teachers and school staff but also by peers, parents, families and volunteers.

The reform of social institutions is not just a technical task, but it depends, above all, on the conviction, commitment and goodwill of the individuals who constitute society. (2) The fundamental principle of the inclusive school is that all children should learn together, wherever possible, regardless of any difficulties or differences they may have.

Inclusive schools must recognise and respond to the diverse needs of their students, accommodating both different styles and rates of learning and ensuring quality education to all through appropriate curricula, organisational arrangements, teaching strategies, resource use and partnerships with their communities.

There should be a continuum of support and services to match the continuum of special needs encountered in every school. (3) Within inclusive schools, children with special educational needs should receive whatever extra support they may require to ensure their effective education.

  • Inclusive schooling is the most effective means for building solidarity between children with special needs and their peers.
  • Assignment of children to special schools (or special classes or sections within a school on a permanent basis) should be the exception, to be recommended only in those infrequent cases where it is clearly demonstrated that education in regular classrooms is incapable of meeting a child’s educational or social needs or when it is required for the welfare of the child or that of other children.

(4) The situation regarding special needs education varies enormously from one country to another. There are, for example, countries that have well-established systems of special schools for those with specific impairments. Such special schools can represent a valuable resource for the development of inclusive schools.

The staff of these special institutions possesses the expertise needed for early screening and identification of children with disabilities. Special schools can also serve as training and resource centres for staff in regular schools. Finally, special schools or units within inclusive schools may continue to provide the most suitable education for the relatively smaller number of children with disabilities who cannot be adequately served in regular classrooms or schools.

Investment in existing special schools should be geared to their new and expanded role of providing professional support to regular schools in meeting special educational needs. An important contribution to ordinary schools, which the staff of special schools can make, is to match the curricular content and method to the individual needs of pupils.

(5) Countries that have few or no special schools would, in general, be well-advised to concentrate their efforts on the development of inclusive schools and the specialised services needed to enable them to serve the vast majority of children and youth, especially provision of teacher training in special needs education and the establishment of suitably staffed and equipped resource centres to which schools could turn for support.

Experience, especially in developing countries, indicates that the high cost of special schools means, in practice, that only a small minority of students, usually the urban elite, can benefit from them. The vast majority of students with special needs, especially in rural areas, is as a consequence provided with no services whatsoever.

Indeed, in many developing countries, it is estimated that lower than one percent of children with special educational needs are included in the existing provision. Experience, moreover, suggests that inclusive schools, serving all of the children in a community, are most successful in eliciting community support and in finding imaginative and innovative ways of using the limited resources that are available.

Guidelines for action at the national level (1) Policy and organisation: The major recommendations in this area are as below: (a) To create legislative measures for recognising the principle of equality of opportunity to the disabled in the field of education (b) To develop parallel and complementary legislative measures in the fields of health, social welfare, vocational training and employment in order to support and give full effect to educational legislation (c) To make educational policies at all levels, from the national to the local, to stipulate that a child with a disability should attend the neighbourhood school, that is, the school that would be attended by the child did not have a disability.

Exception to this rule should be considered on a case-by-case basis where only education in a special school or establishment can be shown to meet the needs of the individual child (d) The practice of ‘mainstreaming’ children with disabilities should be an integral part of national plans for achieving education for all.

Even in these exceptional cases where children are placed in special schools, their education need not be entirely segregated (2) School factors: Schools should be adequately prepared for meeting the needs of inclusive education. For this purpose, they should work for (a) Adapting curricular to children’s needs, not vice-versa (b) Providing additional instructional support to CWSN in the context of the regular curriculum, not a different curriculum (c) Helping the CWSN in participating fully in the school programs meant for wholesome development (d) Incorporating formative evaluation into the regular educational process for getting the needed feedback on a continual basis (e) Arranging a continuum of support to CWSN, ranging from minimal help in regular classrooms to additional learning support programs within the schools and extending, where necessary, to the provision of assistance from specialist teachers and external support staff (f) Arranging the appropriate and affordable technology to enhance success in the school curriculum and to aid communication, mobility and learning.

(3) Recruiting and training of educational personnel: The things like below need to be done in this concern. (a) Pre-service training programmes should provide to all student teachers, primary and secondary alike, positive orientation toward disability, thereby developing an understanding of what can be achieved in schools with locally available support services.

The knowledge and skills required are mainly those of good teaching and include assessing special needs, adapting curriculum content, utilising assistive technology, individualising teaching procedures to suit a larger range of abilities, etc. In teacher-training practice schools, specific attention should be given to all teachers preparing to exercise their autonomy and apply their skills in adapting curricula and instruction to meet pupils needs as well as to collaborate with specialists and co-operate with parents.

  • B) A proper system of in-service training to all teachers should be established, which is well supported by distance education and other self-instruction techniques.
  • C) Specialised training in special needs education leading to additional qualifications should normally be integrated with or preceded by training and experience as a regular education teacher in order to ensure complimentarily and mobility.

(d) The training of special teachers needs to be reconsidered with a view to enabling them to work in different settings and to play a key role in special educational needs programmes. A non-categorical approach encompassing all types of disabilities should be developed as a common core, prior to further specialisation in one or more disability-specific areas.

  • E) A recurrent problem with education systems, even those that provide excellent educational services for students with disabilities, is the lack of role models for such students.
  • Special needs students require opportunities to interact with adults with disabilities who have achieved success so that they can pattern their own lifestyles and aspirations on realistic expectations.

In addition, students with disabilities should be given training and provided with examples of disability empowerment and leadership so that they can assist in shaping the policies that will affect them in later life. Education systems should, therefore, seek to recruit qualified teachers and other educational personnel who have disabilities and should also seek to involve successful individuals with disabilities from within the region in the education of special needs children.

  1. 4) External support services: The things like below may be useful in this concern: (a) Support to ordinary schools could be provided by both teacher-education institutions and the outreach staff of special schools.
  2. The latter should be used increasingly as resource centres for ordinary schools offering direct support to those children with special educational needs.

Both training institutions and special schools can provide access to specific devices and materials as well as training in instructional strategies that are not provided in regular classrooms. (b) External support by resource personnel from various agencies, departments and institutions such as advisory teachers, educational psychologists, speech and occupational therapists, etc., should be coordinated at the local level.

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School clusters have proved a useful strategy in mobilising educational resources as well as community involvement. Clusters of schools could be assigned collective responsibility for meeting the special educational needs of pupils in their area and given scope for allocating resources as required. Such arrangements should involve non-educational services as well.

Indeed, experience suggests that education services would benefit significantly if great efforts were made to ensure optimal use of all available expertise and resources. (5) Priority areas (a) Early childhood education: The success of the inclusive school depends considerably on early identification, assessment and stimulation of the very young child with special educational needs.

Early childhood care and education programmes for children aged up to six years ought to be developed and/or reoriented to promote physical, intellectual and social development and school readiness. These programmes have a major economic value for the individual, the family and the society in preventing the aggravation of disabling conditions.

Programmes at this level should recognise the principle of inclusion and be developed in a comprehensive way by combining pre-school activities and early childhood health care. (b) Girl’s education: Girls with disabilities are doubly disadvantaged. A special effort is required to provide training and education for girls with special educational needs.

  1. In addition to gaining access to school, girls with disabilities should have access to information and guidance as well as to models which could help them to make realistic choices and preparation for their future role as adult women.
  2. C) Preparation for adult life: Young people with special educational needs should be helped to make an effective transition from school to adult working life.

Schools should assist them to become economically active and provide them with the skills needed in everyday life, offering training in skills which respond to the social and communication demands and expectations of adult life. (6) Community perspectives: The things like below may be attended in this concern: (a) Parents partnership: The education of children with special educational needs is a shared task of parents and professionals.

  • A positive attitude on the part of parents favours school and social integration.
  • Parents need support in order to assume the role of a parent of a child with special needs.
  • The role of families and parents could be enhanced by the provision of necessary information in simple and clear language; addressing the needs for information and training in parenting skills is a particularly important task in cultural environments where there is little tradition of schooling.

Both parents and teachers may need support and encouragement in learning to work together as equal partners. (b) Community involvement: Efforts should be made to encourage community participation by giving support to representative associations and inviting them to take part in decision-making.

To this end, mobilising and monitoring mechanisms composed of local civil administration, educational, health and development authorities, community leaders and voluntary organisations should be established in geographical areas small enough to ensure meaningful community participation. (c) Public awareness: Policy-makers at all levels, including the school level, should regularly reaffirm their commitment to inclusion and promote positive attitudes among children, among teachers and among the public-at-large towards those with special educational needs.

In this concern, mass media (newspapers, films and television channels, etc.) can play a powerful role in promoting positive attitudes towards the integration of disabled persons in society; overcoming prejudice and misinformation against them, and infusing among them great optimism and imagination about their capabilities.

The media can also promote positive attitudes of employers towards hiring persons with disabilities. The media should be used to inform the public on new approaches in education, particularly with regard to provision for special needs education in regular schools, by popularising examples of good practice and successful experiences.

(7) Resource requirements: In this connection, Guidelines for Action has commented in the following way: The development of inclusive schools as the most effective means for achieving education for all must be recognised as a key government policy and accorded a privileged place on the nation’s development agenda.

It is only in this way that adequate resources can be obtained. Changes in policies and priorities cannot be effective unless adequate resource requirements are met. Political commitment, at both the national and community level, is needed to obtain additional resources and to re-deploy the existing ones.

While communities must play a key role in developing inclusive schools, government encouragement and support is also essential in devising effective and affordable solutions.
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What do you know about Salamanca statement?

The Salamanca Statement is a primary point of departure in research and policy on inclusive education. However, several problems have surfaced in the 25 years since its publication. In particular, several different interpretations of the concept of inclusive education and its enactment in practice have arisen.
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What is Salamanca?

Flag Coat of arms
Salamanca Location of Salamanca in Spain Show map of Spain Show map of Castile and León Show map of Europe Show all
Coordinates: 40°57′54″N 05°39′51″W  /  40.96500°N 5.66417°W Coordinates : 40°57′54″N 05°39′51″W  /  40.96500°N 5.66417°W
Country Spain
Autonomous community Castile and León
Province Salamanca
• Total 38.6 km 2 (14.9 sq mi)
Elevation 802 m (2,631 ft)
Population (2020)
• Total 144,825
• Density 3,800/km 2 (9,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
• Summer ( DST ) UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code 34 (Spain) + 923 (Salamanca)
Website salamanca.es
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name Old City of Salamanca
  1. Old Quarter of the City
  2. Colegio de los Irlandeses
  3. Iglesia de San Marcos
  4. Iglesia de Sancti Spiritus
  5. Convento de las Claras
  6. Casa-Convento de Santa Teresa
  7. Iglesia de San Juan Barbalos
  8. Iglesia de San Cristobal
Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iv)
Reference 381rev
Inscription 1988 (12th Session )
Area 50.78 ha (125.5 acres)
Buffer zone 130.3 ha (322 acres)
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Salamanca ( Spanish: ) is a city in western Spain and is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and León, The city lies on several rolling hills by the Tormes River. Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

  • As of 2018, the municipality has a population of 143,978.
  • It is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain’s market for the teaching of the Spanish language,
  • Salamanca attracts thousands of international students.
  • The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university.

Pope Alexander IV gave universal validity to its degrees. With 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca. It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago,
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Who plays the most important role in inclusive education?

Perhaps the most critical role in successful inclusive schools is the role of the principal. The school principal’s active participation is the single most important predictor of success in implementing change, improving services, or setting a new course. Why Salamanca Is Famous In The Field Of Education
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What is the importance of inclusive in education?

Why is inclusive education important? – Inclusive systems provide a better quality education for all children and are instrumental in changing discriminatory attitudes. Schools provide the context for a child’s first relationship with the world outside their families, enabling the development of social relationships and interactions.
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How do you reference the Salamanca statement?

UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Paris: UNESCO. TITLE: Psychosocial Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among Children with Disabilities in Two Community Based Rehabilitation in Rwanda AUTHORS: Jean Baptiste Sagahutu, Patricia Struthers KEYWORDS: Barriers, Children with Disabilities, Parents/Caregivers, Attitude JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Applied Sociology, Vol.4 No.6, June 27, 2014 ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial environmental barriers to school attendance by children with disabilities in Rwanda.

A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in one urban and one rural community-based rehabilitation centre. There was a sample of 94 parents or caregivers of children with disabilities who were not attending school. A structured closed-ended questionnaire was used. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (15.0 version) was used for data analysis.

The data analysis included descriptive statistics as frequency distributions and percentages. The data werepresented in the forms of cross-tables. CHI-Square was used to determine the association between variables. The level of significance (alpha) was set at 0.05.

  • The findings indicate that in Rwanda there is a negative attitude among parents/caregivers and the community towards children with disabilities.
  • Many parents/caregivers reported that having a child with a disability is a burden and shame in their families.
  • A great proportion of parents/caregivers also indicated that, if they needed to make a choice, they would prioritise education for their child without the disability over their child with the disability.

The majority reported the special school to be their first choice for their children with disabilities. Others reported that the community gave their children different abusive names. About the teachers’ attitude, a high proportion of parents/caregivers said that the teachers told them that their children had to go to the schools for other children with disabilities.
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Who is the first special educator in the world?

Historical background – Although there are isolated examples of caring for and treating disabled individuals in ancient Greece and Rome, early societies typically shunned people who differed from the norm. During the Middle Ages the church became the first institution to provide care for physically or mentally impaired people, but the development of techniques associated with special education did not emerge until the Renaissance, with its emphasis on human dignity.

  1. In the mid-1500s Pedro Ponce de León succeeded in teaching deaf pupils in Spain to speak, read, and write; it is assumed that his methods were followed by Juan Pablo Bonet, who in 1620 published the first book on the subject.
  2. This gave rise to a wider European interest in the education of deaf individuals.

In 17th-century England John Bulwer published an account of his experiences teaching deaf persons to speak and lip-read, and in France similar work was carried on by Charles-Michel, abbé de l’Epée (1712–89), who changed the nature of communication for deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals by developing the natural sign language they used into a systematic and conventional language for more universal use.

His work was developed by Roch-Ambroise Cucurron, Abbé Sicard, and gave rise to the manual system, or silent method, of teaching people with hearing impairments. In Germany Samuel Heinicke experimented with training deaf children to speak, and in the 19th century Friedrich Moritz Hill (1805–74), a leading educator of the deaf, developed this method in relation to the concept that education must relate to the “here and now” of the child—known as the “natural method.” Thus arose the oral method of instruction that in time became an accepted practice throughout the world.

No serious attempt was made to educate or to train persons with visual impairments, however, until the late 18th century. Valentin Haüy, known as the “father and apostle of the blind,” opened the National Institution of Blind Youth (Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles) in Paris in 1784, with 12 blind children as his first pupils.

News of Haüy’s success in teaching these children to read soon spread to other countries. Subsequently, schools for the blind were opened in Liverpool, England (1791), London (1799), Vienna (1804), Berlin (1806), Amsterdam and Stockholm (1808), Zürich, Switzerland (1809), Boston (1829), and New York City (1831).

Scientific attempts to educate children with intellectual disabilities originated in the efforts of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard, a French physician and otologist. In his classic book The Wild Boy of Aveyron (1807), he related his five-year effort to train and educate a boy who had been found running wild in the woods of Aveyron.

  • Itard’s work with the boy became notable for the possibilities it raised regarding the education of persons with mental or emotional disabilities.
  • Years later his student Edouard Séguin, who emigrated from France to the United States in 1848, devised an educational method that used physical and sensory activities to develop the mental processes.

Séguin’s published works influenced Maria Montessori, an Italian pediatrician who became an educator and the innovator of a unique method of training young mentally retarded and culturally deprived children in Rome in the 1890s and early 1900s. Her approach emphasized self-education through specially designed “didactic materials” for sensorimotor training; development of the senses was the keynote of the system.

Special education for people with disabilities became universal in developed countries by the late 20th century. Concurrent with this development was the identification of two concepts of individual differences: (1) ” interindividual differences,” which compares one child with another, and (2) ” intraindividual differences,” which compares the child’s abilities in one area with the child’s abilities in other areas.

What is the Salamanca Statement?

The grouping of children in special classes rests on the concept of interindividual differences, but the instructional procedures for each child are determined by intraindividual differences—that is, by a child’s abilities and disabilities.
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When was the school of Salamanca founded?

University of Salamanca

Universidad de Salamanca
Seal of the University of Salamanca
Latin : Universitas Studii Salamanticensis
Motto Omnium scientiarum princeps Salmantica docet ( Latin )
Motto in English The principles of all sciences are taught in Salamanca
Type Public
Established 1218
Academic affiliations EUA, Coimbra Group
Rector Ricardo Rivero Ortega
Academic staff 2,453
Administrative staff 1,252
Students 30.000
Doctoral students 2,240
Location Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain 40°57′41″N 05°40′00″W  /  40.96139°N 5.66667°W Coordinates : 40°57′41″N 05°40′00″W  /  40.96139°N 5.66667°W
Campus Urban/ College town
Colours Carmine
Website www,usal,es


University rankings Global – Overall ARWU World 601-700 (2019) CWTS World 699 (2019) QS World 601-650 (2020) THE World 601–800 (2020) USNWR Global 651 (2020)

Close up of the plateresque façade of the University of Salamanca. School Courtyard in the university. The old library of the University of Salamanca. The University of Salamanca ( Spanish : Universidad de Salamanca ) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, It was founded in 1218 by King Alfonso IX, It is the oldest university in the Hispanic world and one of the oldest in the world in continuous operation,
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What word was first introduced in the UNESCO Salamanca Statement?

The Story of Inclusion Inclusion has been the byword for education these days. I was exposed with the word sometime in 2017 when I became aware of the United Nations Sustainable Goals (UN SDGs), specifically Goal no.4 which states “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.” I realized, I kept using the word, assuming I know what inclusion meant.

  • After reading all the articles and legal references, I obtained a valuable insight on what inclusion really meant.
  • The inclusive education framework was not a new concept.
  • The “word” inclusion was the focus of the 1994 Salamanca Statement which was signed by the representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organizations.

The statement affirmed education for all which promoted inclusion, particularly for children with special educational needs (UNESCO SALAMANCA STATEMENT, iii). Meanwhile, on May 2015, the World Education Forum held at Incheon, Korea spearheaded by UNESCO drafted the Education 2030 Incheon Declaration which reiterated SDG #4 — Inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all (UNESCO Education 2030).

  1. Transitioning to Inclusive education In the Philippines, the recent response of the government to inclusion was the issuance of Dept.
  2. Order (DO) 21, series of 2019 by the Department of Education (DepEd) Secretary Leonor Briones.
  3. The DO detailed the Policy Guidelines on the K-12 Basic Education Program.
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Part of the policy statement on Inclusive Education was featured in item no.16 which states “Inclusive education is the core principle of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. This promotes the right of every Filipino to quality, equitable, culture based and complete education.

Through inclusive education, all Filipinos will realize their full potential and contribute meaningfully to building the nation.” There was also a separate Annex (5) for the Inclusive Education Policy Framework. The Salamanca Statement also provided a guiding principle on the inclusion framework — “school should accommodate children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions.

This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic ethnic or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantage or marginalized area or group.” It was also mentioned that ” children and youth with special educational needs should be included in the educational arrangements made for the majority of the children” (UNESCO Salamanca Statement).

Special education was part of the “inclusion” mandate of the Salamanca Statement. The Philippines had come a long way in institutionalizing policies on Special Education (SPED) in support of an inclusive and equitable education. Although our journey cannot be compared to developed countries such as US and Canada, the legislative policies for people with disabilities were in place.

Table 1 shows the different legal framework of SPED in the Philippines, which was a testament that people with disabilities were recognized as an equally important contributor for nation development. The latest legislature in the 18th Congress of the Philippines on Special Education was Senate Bill (SB)1907 dated 2020 November 09, entitled “An Act Instituting Services and Program for Learners with Disabilities in Support of Inclusive Education, Establishing Inclusive Learning Resource Centers of Learners with Disabilities in all Municipalities and Cities, providing for Standards, Appropriating Funds Therefor, and for other Purposes” or called the “Instituting Services and Programs for Learners with Disabilities in Support of “Inclusive Education Act.” The bill consolidated all previous SB 55, 69, 329, 338, 354, 540, 804 and 1150 that were related to Children and Youth with Special Needs (CYSN) and inclusive education.

Establishing Inclusive Learning Resource Center of Learners with Disability in their inclusion in the general education system (Section 3-c).Further develop a system for identification, referral and intervention for learner with disabilities (Section 3-f).To identify, through a Child Find System, learners with disability who are not receiving early and basic education services (Section 3-g)To institutionalized the development, implementation, and review of the individualized education plan for the quality education of the learners with disability (Section 3-h)To ensure the inclusion of the Filipino Sign Language as the First Language (L1) or mother tongue of the deaf learners under RA 10533 (Section 3-n)Definition of Related Services (Section 4 – Definition of Terms)Procedural Safeguards (Section 23)Creation of the Bureau of Inclusive Education as Implementing Bureau (Section 12)Creation of Advisory Council for Education of Learners with Disabilities (Section 13)Learners with Disability Information System (Section 14)

The Challenges in the Transition The Bureau of Learning Delivery, Student Inclusion Division conducted a ‘Training of School Heads on Inclusive Education in the New Normal” last 2020 November 25 to 27. I was fortunate to watch the FB live streaming and got insights from Dr.

  1. Susanne B.
  2. Carington, a professor from Queensland University Technology, Australia.
  3. She discussed “Global Preparation and Practices on Inclusive Education”.
  4. In her presentation, she explained the difference between inclusive education and special education.
  5. She further stressed that inclusion is not exclusion and at the same time not integration.

Then I understood from there that one of the challenges in embracing inclusion came from such confusion. People had different understanding between inclusive education and special education (Carington, 2020). This was manifested on the research conducted for private education in Quezon City.

The respondents (mostly teachers) said that they were practicing inclusive education however limited in their understanding of what inclusion was. They were also not confident if what they were doing was at par with the best practices as far as inclusion was concerned (Muega, M.2019). Another challenge that Dr.

Carington mentioned was lack of resources and infrastructure. This can be felt by unavailability of services, special education teachers, classrooms, and to some extent more caseloads for existing SPED teachers (Berry, A. & Gravelle, M.2013). Another example was the unavailability of extensive and updated statistics of children with special needs (Labraque, C, 2018).

  • Congruent to the lack of resources, another challenge was the preparation of teachers and school leaders (Carington, 2020).
  • General education teachers lack training on inclusive education.
  • To address this challenges, current teachers should be equipped with the necessary skills and appropriation of sufficient budget to fund the endeavor (Muega, M.2019).

The pains in education for special education was exponentially felt during the pandemic as there were children with special needs who dropped out due to limited facilities and lack of teachers (Delizo, M.2010). Dr. Carington (2020) also mentioned the importance of local and cultural context.

For instance, in one of the studies, it was affirmed that the Philippine K-curriculum has integrated the concepts and expression of inclusion — the highest of which was self expression (23)%, followed by communication (19,23%), responsibility (10.3%) and participation & cooperation (7.7%). These were 4 of the 16 constructs that were directly related to the K-curriculum.

However, the scope of her study did not include the analysis on how these constructs were integrated in the full K-12 program (Raguindin, P.2020). Herein lies another challenge. We know inclusion was integrated in the K-12 program but we do not know how was this being implemented up to the school level.

  1. Much of the conundrum in exclusive education was that learners with disabilities were mixed in general education classrooms (O’Leary, W.2019; E-Net Philippines).
  2. Some private schools in Quezon City were found to be implementing inclusion, however, the question was if such schools were deploying it properly and with ease (Muega, M, 2019).

Inclusive education practices requires responsibilities that concerns a lot of paperwork (Gravelle, M.2013), hence, would need for teachers to “exert extra efforts” (Muega, M.2019). Another perceived challenge was the “role confusion in inclusionary setting” and “professional isolation”.

  • Teachers felt that they do not have enough support coming from the general education teachers, parents and administrators.
  • The SPED teachers felt that educating students with disabilities became their sole responsibility (Berry, A.
  • Gravelle, M.2013).
  • It was also mentioned that the role of the general education teacher and the SPED teacher were blurring (O’Leary, W.2019).

If this will not be resolved, then inclusion might be viewed as a burden rather than a solution that will catapult Philippine education to the 21st century. A Model for Transformation In the same webinar hosted by DepEd, Dr. Carrington (2020) recognized the Canadian province of New Brunswick for successfully implementing a comprehensive system of inclusive education.

  1. In my search for references on the journey of Brunswick, I found a pamphlet written by Gordon L.
  2. Porter and David Towell, entitled “Advancing Inclusive Education: Keys to Transformational Change in Public Education.” The transformation in Brunswick did not happen overnight.
  3. It took the country years of collaboration among all the stakeholders to implement inclusive education.

(Porter, G. & Towell, D.2017). Both authors enumerated 5 important elements that impacted the transformation in New Brunswick:

Transformational Change Matrix which details the 10 keys to transformationEducational System Transformation in New Brunswick which discusses the 3 major factors that propelled the country to transform starting in 1970.Government Level PrioritiesSchool District Level PrioritiesSchool & Class Level Priorities

The 10 keys to Transformation recommended by Porter and Towell (2017) that should be implemented at the state, district, school and classroom level were: Educating for Life; Promoting Inclusion; Encouraging Transformational Leadership; Developing Partnership; Investing in equity; Tackling barriers to participation; Strengthening inclusive pedagogy; Prioritizing professional development; Learning from Experience, and; Plotting the journey to inclusion.

Relevant and Better Learning Spaces As a mother with a son diagnosed with autism spectrum and learning disability, I hope that there will be more relevant and better learning spaces for kids with disabilities. A place where relevant learning means transforming, discovering and enhancing the diverse human talents of an individual.

Better learning spaces in the Philippines that provides children with disabilities equitable attention and care, structure, support, resources and personalized instructions/plans. However, relevant and better learning spaces will only be possible if all stakeholders will collaborate, spearheaded by the Department of Education and Commission on Higher Education.

  1. A strong support from the law makers in drafting and approving bills relevant to special education will make a big impact for students, parents, teachers and school administrators to support said space.
  2. Henceforth, the current laws and polices on special education need to be revisited.
  3. The exiting law — RA 7277 — fell short, especially if we use the Disability Education Act (IDEA) Principles (Lee) as a standard reference (See Table 2).

Something must be done to uphold the rights of the children including learners with disability, as stipulated in the 1987 Constitution Article XIV, “Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.” The IDEA has institutionalized referral, evaluation and assessment of children with disabilities. This way, proper kids with learning disabilities, autism, ADHD, intellectual disability, and etc. will be properly diagnosed and managed. IDEA has also defined the 13 categories of disabilities (Saleh) which even the new SB 1907 still lack unless it will be included in the Implementing Rules and Regulation (IRR) once approved.

The Child Find provision, which was part of the IDEA, was also not part of RA 7277. Said provision requires the state and schools to identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities (IDEA). While it was true that inclusion and special education has different meaning, both are interrelated and complement one another.

A true inclusive education gives equitable opportunity for everyone including children with disabilities. We need lawmakers, school leaders, teachers, parents, active and concerned citizens and other relevant groups in the society to work together to ensure that Philippines will be able to implement comprehensive inclusive education.

  • The success of any laws approved in legislature or policies mandated by the national government were dependent on governance, leadership, mindful implementation of the programs, transformation of consciousness, capability building, and collaboration of all stakeholders.
  • Brunswick Canada has laid out and shared their journey.

We can learn, be guided with their experience and put it into the Philippine context. References: The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000098427 Education 2030.

  • Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action.
  • Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/education-2030-incheon-framework-for-action-implementation-of-sdg4-2016-en_2.pdf SBN-1907: Instituting Services and Programs for Learners with Disabilities in Support of Inclusive Education.

Retrieved from http://legacy.senate.gov.ph/lis/leg_sys.aspx?congress=18&type=bill&p=1 Cruz, M. (2019) “Bill on kids with special needs passes.” Manila Standard. Retrieved from https://manilastandard.net/news/national/296130/bill-on-kids-with-special-needs-passes.html Carrington, S.

(2020) “Global Perspective and Practices on Inclusive Education”. Taken from a video Streaming on Training of School Heads on Inclusive Education in the New Normal (2020). Bureau of Learning Delivery FB Page DepED DO 21 series of 2019. Policy Guidelines on K-12 Basic Education Program. Retrieved from https://www.deped.gov.ph/2019/08/22/august-22-2019-do-021-s-2019-policy-guidelines-on-the-k-to-12-basic-education-program/ Muega, Michael.

(2019). Inclusive Education in the Philippines: Through the Eyes of Teachers, Administrators, and Parents of Children with Special Needs. Berry, A. and Gravelle, M. (2013) The Benefits and Challenges of SPED Positions in Rural Setting: Listening to the Teachers Raguindin, P (2020) Integrating Concepts and Expressions of Inclusion in the K-Curriculum: The Case of the Philippines.

European Journal of Education Research E-Net Position Paper (2020). Statement from Allied Members of the Coalition for Education of Children and Youth with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://enetphil.org/2020/07/03/disability-sectors-comments-and-recommendations-on-the-various-bills-on-inclusive-education-for-children-and-youth-with-special-needs-filed-in-the-senate-and-the-house-of-representatives/ Labraque, C.

(2018) “Children with Special Education Needs in Public Elementary Schools of Catbalogan City, Philippines.” Journal of Academic Research pp 25-37. O’Leary, W. (2019) “5 Current Trending Issues in SPED.” Edmentum Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.edmentum.com/five-current-trending-issues-special-education Lee, A.

“Individual with Disability Education Act (IDEA): What You Need to Know.” Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/your-childs-rights/basics-about-childs-rights/individuals-with-disabilities-education-act-idea-what-you-need-to-know Saleh, M. “Your Child’s Rights: 6 Principles of IDEA.” Retrieved from https://www.smartkidswithld.org/getting-help/know-your-childs-rights/your-childs-rights-6-principles-of-idea/ The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.

Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/constitutions/1987-constitution/
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What is the most important thing in special education?

How to help learners –

Help them find and develop their strengths. The key to inclusive special education programs is understanding and accepting students for who they are. This means not just helping them overcome their weaknesses but assisting them in finding and developing their talents too. Some people associate special education needs with lower intelligence but this is not necessarily the case. Every student, no matter what learning difficulties they have, has strengths, even if he or she hasn’t found them yet! Learn more about the strengths associated with dyslexia, Provide the right strategy training and accommodations. No two individuals are alike and this is especially true when it comes to students who struggle with physical impairments or specific learning differences such as dyslexia, ASD, and ADHD, where a wide spectrum of ability can present. Most diagnostic testing results in a report in which recommendations are made for strategy training that can help a student cope with any issues he or she is experiencing. It may be that certain accommodations are also needed, such as typing on a computer instead of writing by hand or reading worksheets printed on a particular color paper in a special font. What’s important is to review the progress a child is making periodically, so strategy training and accommodations can be adjusted to ensure the maximum benefit to the learner. Learn more about diagnostic testing for dyslexia, Motivate and encourage. Many learners in special education programs have to work harder than their peers to achieve the same results. School can be exhausting physically, mentally and emotionally. That’s why it’s so important to provide plenty of motivation and encouragement, especially to children who struggle with a specific learning difference that is hard to see. The worst-case scenario is that a child finds school difficult and begins to avoid learning as a result. You might try finding role models in successful individuals who have overcome a similar challenge, or use what you know about a child to find the points that drive them to achieve their best. Read more about motivation in these posts: The importance of motivation, Motivating learners to read, What motivates students to learn?

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What are the three big ideas of special education?

Big Ideas in Special Education: Specially Designed Instruction, High-Leverage Practices, Explicit Instruction, and Intensive Instruction The mandate to provide specially designed instruction to support the learning and behavioral needs of students with disabilities is at the core of special education.

  • As the field of special education has evolved, a proliferation of terms has been introduced to describe the mandate and how special education professionals can provide it.
  • Currently, our field is seeing the following interrelated ideas surfacing in the context of specially designed instruction: high-leverage practices (HLPs), explicit instruction (EI), and intensive instruction (II).

These terms, represent four distinct ideas but the terms are sometimes used synonymously or imprecisely. In this article, we will define and describe SDI, HLPs, EI, and II and provide a classroom application. : Big Ideas in Special Education: Specially Designed Instruction, High-Leverage Practices, Explicit Instruction, and Intensive Instruction
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What are the four process of Salamanca?

The Salamanca process of study-research-analysis-action embodies the spirituality and mission of the Order of Preachers as expressed in its motto ‘contemplari et contemplata aliis tradere’ (S.
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