Why Not India For Higher Education?


Why Not India For Higher Education
Why Students Do Not Prefer Higher Education In India “> Majority of Indian students prefer higher education abroad. This article explains why higher education in India is suffering and why most of the students do not opt for it. A few reasons include poor funding by the government of India, less options, less research focus, reservation, politics and others. Read this article for full information regarding higher education in India. Most of the students in India either go for a job after a Bachelor’s degree or go for higher education overseas. The reason for this is the lack of high quality higher education in India, The reasons for the poor higher education in India are many. Just to name a few – lack of research oriented education, lack of funding, politics, reservation and similar other reasons. A few of these reasons are covered in this article in detail
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Why not choose India for higher education?

Jobs – One of the other reasons why students choose to study abroad is the scope of job opportunities. The scope for jobs is higher abroad as the number of students is lesser than the number of jobs available, unlike in India. Moreover, the scope for various industries is more when compared to India.

Does that mean students who choose to study in India would not get jobs? No. However, that being said, it is not easy to get jobs abroad while you’re studying. If you, as a student, choose to study abroad and get a job, certain steps need to be taken. Colleges abroad focus on the overall aspect of a student.

When it comes to offering assistance in getting a job, they help students based on their profile and capabilities.
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Is India good for higher education?

India’s higher education is opening up. But is it ready? INDIA 05 November 2022 Indian higher education has suddenly become ‘hot’ – with delegations of global university leaders and politicians flocking to the country, the latest group from Australia. Governments and universities from around the world are signing memoranda of understanding with Indian counterparts and making big plans for research collaboration, joint degrees and other initiatives.

  • Recent regulations for setting up international branch campuses in Gujarat and the interest expressed by some foreign universities in doing this is the latest trend.
  • This is not surprising.
  • India is now the world’s second largest higher education system, with around 38 million students in 50,000 academic institutions (including 1,057 universities) and a goal of doubling gross enrolment rates from the current 26.3% to 50% by 2035.

Further, India is the second largest source of international students (after China) globally. Interest is also stimulated by the new National Education Policy (NEP) released in 2020 that promises major investment in post-secondary education and significant improvement in India’s top universities with an emphasis, for the first time, on internationalisation.

Importantly, the NEP promises to open up a highly regulated and a largely closed academic system to the world. The traditional Indian ‘ swadeshi ‘ (encouraging local products) ideology will, it is proposed, be replaced by an open door. Scepticism about China, especially in Western countries, its ‘zero-COVID’ policy, and a modest decline in internationally mobile Chinese students have also stimulated interest in India.

While there is enthusiasm, little is known about the realities of Indian higher education and data are limited. It is worth looking at some of the challenges that international partners will face in India. This brief discussion on the challenges is intended as a contribution to a realistic approach to future collaboration and partnerships.

Populism and politics Complexity and bureaucracy Underfunding Good (in part) but not great While India wants to partner with world-class universities in other countries, it cannot claim to have any world-class universities of its own, at least as measured by the 2023 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. A perennially troubled academic profession Internationalisation Philip G Altbach is research professor and distinguished fellow, Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, United States.

Indian higher education today exists in a highly toxic political and societal environment – as is the case in many countries – and this has fundamental implications for how academic institutions from other countries should consider possible collaboration and involvement.

A few examples illustrate the point. The ruling BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) government’s Hindutva ideology, and especially its anti-Muslim rhetoric and activism, is without question a hindrance to global higher collaboration. Numerous examples of visa denials exist, such as a University of Sussex professor who is an expert on Kerala who was refused entry at the Thiruvananthapuram Airport and deported on his way to a conference with no explanation provided.

Academic freedom issues reported in the international media are all problematical. Indeed, reports of academic freedom threats are common. There were reports that government interference led to the resignation of eminent professor, Pratap Bhanu Mehta, from Ashoka University, a private institution.

The recent proposal by Home Affairs Minister Amit Shah to emphasise Hindi in the central universities and in the Hindi-speaking states will similarly be seen as a turn towards nationalism. Promoting pseudo-science in the name of promoting Indian knowledge systems in prominent institutions, promoting Hindi for medical degrees in the state of Madhya Pradesh, etc, can be harmful for the country’s higher education system in its efforts to compete globally.

Without question, India has one of the most complicated higher education systems in the world. Most undergraduate students study in private colleges of diverse quality. Of the 1,057 universities that mostly offer graduate programmes, around 450 are private.

  1. Most higher education institutions are under the jurisdiction of India’s 28 states and eight union territories.
  2. The best quality public universities and research institutes – about 7% of the total – are central government institutions.
  3. There is also a small, recently established high prestige private university sector.

There is a complex arrangement for quality assurance – both external – through the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) for colleges and universities, and the National Board of Accreditation for assessing the quality of engineering and technology, management, pharmacy, architecture and several other fields.

But only a minority of institutions (around 14% of colleges and 35% of universities) have undergone accreditation by NAAC. India is known for its bureaucracy, inherited from British colonialism and ingrained in independent India. Rules and regulations, often inconsistently or slowly applied, cover many aspects of higher education.

Internal bureaucracy combines with cumbersome governmental regulation. The Constitution of India allows both the central government and the state governments to enact laws related to the higher education sector. Often, this division of powers has led to confrontation between central and state governments.

The recent confrontations between the central-appointed governors and state governments of West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Punjab on matters related to vice-chancellor appointments – including the mass firings of nine vice-chancellors in Kerala – are examples. Indian higher education, at both state and central levels, has been dramatically underfunded for decades.

Much of the significant expansion of recent years has been in colleges that receive no direct government funding, although a small proportion of students in select institutions are eligible for need-based support or scholarships based on caste or other status.

The private university sector has been witnessing significant growth in recent years. But most of the private universities are only ‘big colleges’ in terms of student enrolments and physical infrastructure. The 2020 NEP promises a major infusion of funds for higher education and research, but significant allocations have not yet been distributed.

And the NEP mainly covers standards and procedures governed by the central government and does not affect the states much – where the bulk of higher education resides. Without question, neither significant quality improvement nor the massive enrolment expansion planned can be achieved without much-enhanced funding from both the central and state governments.

  • India’s highest ranking is the Indian Institute of Science, which is in the 251-300 range.
  • India does have 75 universities included in the rankings, but rather far down on the lists.
  • India does have a number of outstanding specialised institutions, including the Indian Institutes of Technology (especially the original five IITs located in Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Chennai), the Indian Institutes of Management and several research institutions.

India also has some excellent public universities with globally recognised postgraduate programmes in selected fields. Further, an Institutions of Eminence (IoE) scheme was launched in 2017, with the goal of identifying 20 universities to achieve “world-class standards”.

Although each public institution selected under the scheme is eligible for around US$122 million over a period of five years, only less than half of the originally sanctioned amount has been released for the eight public institutions under this programme. Poor project implementation and poor absorption capacity of beneficiary institutions are the main reasons for the underutilisation of funds.

By August 2022, only eight public and three private institutions were approved by the government under the scheme – including the Jio Institute, a not-yet-established new university in the ‘greenfield’ category. Only public institutions are eligible for receiving funds from the government under this programme.

The IoE scheme is, therefore, very much a work in progress. Approximately 20 of India’s 54 central universities and 20 of India’s 126 ‘deemed universities’ meet reasonably good standards and some, such as the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai and Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, are excellent.

Most of India’s 28 states have at least one comprehensive university with some research focus that is of reasonable quality. Some of the oldest universities, such as the University of Mumbai, the University of Calcutta and the University of Madras, are sponsored by the state governments.

A large and growing private sector exists in India. Around 78% of India’s colleges are in the private sector (government-aided and unaided together) and they constitute around 66% of total student enrolments in the country. There are around 450 private universities, most of which are of poor quality and have marginal reputations.

However, there is a small but growing number – perhaps a dozen – of high-quality non-profit well-resourced private universities. These new institutions, which have earned high status in a short time, largely serve undergraduate students. India has more than 100 research laboratories in diverse areas sponsored by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and other central government agencies.

Some are outstanding in terms of their research contributions. From the perspective of overseas universities seeking partners in India, a rough estimate of appropriate partner Indian universities may be around 50. It is important to plan both an institution-specific and department-specific strategy for identifying potential partners in India.

As elsewhere in the world, some second-tier universities have a few departments that are on a par with peer departments of the top-rated 50 universities. At the heart of university quality and culture is the professoriate. The Indian academic profession is perennially troubled.

Subject to strict bureaucratic rules, with many staff subject to extensive teaching responsibilities at the undergraduate level and often lacking adequate facilities to teach STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) and other fields, the profession now faces significant shortages. In much of the system, up to 38% of posts are lying vacant.

Around 33% of the 18,905 academic positions in central universities were vacant last year – and the situation is worse in state institutions. Staffing at the IITs is particularly problematical, as top talent can earn much more in the booming tech sector, both in India and abroad.

The result is that 2,231 academic posts at the IITs of Delhi, Mumbai, Madras, Kharagpur and Kanpur were recently vacant. While there have been efforts to increase the proportion of total faculty with doctorates, many academics do not hold a terminal degree. And more concerning still, many of India’s top researchers work overseas.

The NEP has placed emphasis on internationalisation, and particularly on increasing the small number of international students in India, as well as building links and programmes with top-ranking foreign universities, setting up international student offices in institutions and attracting foreign branch campuses.

But the fact is that India has never had an international academic strategy and has been a largely closed system for a half century. The infrastructure and policies necessary for effective internationalisation are lacking. Few universities have professional staff prepared to deal with foreign collaboration or significant numbers of international students.

Government regulations on everything from financial regulations to visa policy will need to be significantly changed – and this is not easy in the Indian context. The NEP recommendation that only universities in the top 100 of the global rankings will be welcome is entirely unrealistic and bad policy as well, although this recommendation is being rethought.

  1. The NEP will no doubt give a boost to higher education internationalisation, but without major reforms and significant investment, by both universities and government, success will be impossible.
  2. These developments are both encouraging and discouraging.
  3. The recent Central Regulations “International Financial Services Centres Authority, (Setting up and Operation of International Branch Campuses and Offshore Education Centres) 2022” allow both “top 500” universities and “other foreign institutions” to establish campuses and offer programmes in financial management, fintech, science, technology, engineering and mathematics in “GIFT City” in Gujarat.

These regulations allow only foreign campuses to be established on that specific site. How this will affect other parts of the country is unclear. The clauses of these regulations also allow “Foreign Educational Institutions” other than universities to establish campuses.

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Why choose Australia for study rather than India?

When you opt to study in Australia, you get to choose from 22,000 courses available in 1,100 universities and institutions, acquire globally-recognised degrees, explore various Australian scholarship opportunities and receive education from the best instructors in the world.
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Why students are leaving India?

24 August 2022, 11:13 AM IST – As many as 1.8 million Indians are estimated to spend $ 85 billion on education abroad by 2024, according to a report by RedSeer. Most of them opt for global professional opportunities and world-class universities so that they could be ‘self-reliant’ and ‘live life on their own terms’. According to government data, 30,948 students from Kerala left for USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Poland and Ukraine for higher studies during 2019. The reason for this is the realization that the standard of education in India has fallen sharply. Dr. Monisa Qadiri. “The main reason Indian students join foreign universities is because they get education with different job opportunities. Having a degree from an internationally recognised institution always stands a chance of getting into a top institution.

  1. The colonial mindset within the country will see a foreign University student better when compared to even a better performing local student.
  2. Indian universities does not figure in global ranking when compared to American, European universities.
  3. If even an Ivy league university is accessible and offering scholarship, why wouldn’t a student go for it.

The quality of published research is one which aspiring researchers and scholars want to follow. Along with studies, the dimension of a global outlook and personality development shapes the decisions to a large extent”, explained Dr. Monisa Qadiri. Senior Faculty Member of Journalism and Media Studies from Islamic University, Kashmir. Saurabh Sharma “There are multiple reasons for that. The quality of education is much better outside. Two, exposure to a different culture. Three, foreign-educated PhDs are more accepted in Indian universities,” said Saurabh Sharma, a PhD student at Wuhan University of Technology. Anubhuti Yadav “Our children join universities mainly for jobs in the US and Europe. It becomes easy if they study there. The life of a student is very tough. Most of them have availed loan. There is lot of competition for working too. But once they find a job everything will be fine”, Professor Anubhuti Yadav, New Media, Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi shared her experience. Indians going abroad for studies in large numbers. It is increasing every year. During the lockdown, more time was spent on the Internet as a positive factor. Then strong advertising campaigns by institutions working in this field. The fact is that it has gained momentum. Philip Thomas Apart from the level of education, the social security and high standard of living in the respective countries motivates our youth. This is due to the realization that the kind of facilities they want are not available in their own country.

Young people going abroad from here do not make decisions based on the world ranking of the institution they are going to study. More and more young people go to countries where they can get a student visa as soon as possible and get citizenship or permanent residence visa after studies. This becomes clear if a study is done based on the courses chosen by the youth, institutions as well as countries.

Only a very small number of young people go for higher studies after studying the courses and institutes very seriously. A radical change is necessary for the education sector of our country. Only a few institutions from India feature in the world rankings from primary level to higher education level. Praneet Kaur “I believe it’s not majorly about the quality, it’s about the various fields they offer. India, indeed, has a lot of accredited universities, but those universities would rarely offer a field that isn’t mainstream- engineering, medicine, journalism, commerce.

If you have a look at the courses the universities abroad offer, so many in number! From wine journalism to chemical and bio molecular engineering, there are courses that are probably just heard of in India but haven’t really been explored. The work culture- countries abroad have a system of each child having their own struggles and making it on their own.

Yes, it may not be applicable for all, but it helps the students to understand and appreciate even the smallest of jobs around them, help them make adequate money to at least sponsor their education (to some extent). In India, companies usually exploit students by giving them low stipend.
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Is studying in USA better than India?

A unique curriculum, multicultural environment, advanced technology, and a plethora of work opportunities are some of the reasons why you wish to study in the USA and not in India. Along with Indian students, learners from across the globe pursue higher education in the USA. Let’s look at the top reasons why the USA is one of the most sought-after study destinations globally.
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Why is UK better than India for study?

United Kingdom (UK) is home to some of the oldest universities and colleges globally that have their roots in the 12th and 13th centuries. Owing to this factor UK has set a benchmark for other countries in the education sector. There are ample benefits of studying in the UK compared to India.
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What is the biggest problem in higher education?

The Biggest Challenges facing Higher Education in 2022/2023 With the start of the 2022/2023 academic year looming, we look at some of the biggest challenges facing higher education globally. The challenges and priorities of educational institutions have changed significantly over the last few years and are likely to continue to change at a swift pace.

  1. Universities and Colleges must adapt quickly and astutely to keep up with this ever-changing landscape of modern education delivery.
  2. One of the most challenging developments in education over the last few years, has been its accelerated Universities and colleges around the world need to invest significantly in their digital infrastructure to match the requirements of a modern education experience.

Building ‘The Campus of the Future’ requires repurposing and adapting existing infrastructure and focusing on the digital tools and technologies needed to improve the student journey. These new developments bring additional challenges around cybersecurity that HEIs will need to prioritise too.

  1. Following on from new digital developments, the new model of education delivery involves a blended online and in-person experience.
  2. Many HEIs have already made to their teaching and learning delivery as a result of the Covid-19 Pandemic.
  3. As the hybrid learning experience looks set to stay, institutions need to make the necessary technological investments.

This includes implementing software that supports long-term hybrid education delivery. Student welfare across the globe is experiencing what can only be described as an, Research indicates that up to 70% of students are suffering with their mental health while at University.

A figure that has risen since the beginning of the pandemic. Fundamental to student success, student wellbeing needs to be a top priority of all education providers for the 2022/2023 academic year. This is especially important given the new digital education experience where students are spending less time on-campus.

Fundamental to student success, student wellbeing needs to be a top priority of all education providers for the 2022/2023 academic year. Why Not India For Higher Education An ever-important challenge for global industries, Education has it’s own agenda to meet when it comes to improving sustainability, reducing emissions, and minimising costs. To remain financially viable and ensure their campuses are sustainable, HEIs need to invest appropriately.

Institutions should look to technology that enables environmentally friendly estate management, space utilisation and improved campus efficiency. Modern innovations have shown us that In his own on the challenges and trends facing Higher Education, IE University President Santiago Iniguez, reflects on the growing emphasis on applied forms of learning.

Study in US, UK, Canada | Is it Worth it? | Ankur Warikoo Hindi

There is an increasing demand from both students and employers that graduates have more hands-on work experience. Affirming this, released in 2020 revealed that 1 in 4 unemployed Australians have a university degree. This speaks to the need for HE and FE to offer more work-integrated-learning opportunities such as placements and internships, to increase graduate employability. Why Not India For Higher Education The issue of falling enrolment rates has been hitting US institutions hard but some have also been affected. Recent research shows that overall college enrolment fell by 13 % in the past decade. Community colleges have been worst affected, having lost over 827,000 students since the start of the pandemic.

This only intensifies the existing financial pressures facing colleges and universities. Focusing efforts on will have a positive impact. Especially in Community Colleges where continue to drop. On the other side of the spectrum, the UK is experiencing record numbers of students looking to attend postsecondary education.

Any positivity associated with bucking the enrolment trend of the US has been overshadowed. indicate that the number of A-level pupils without a university place in 2022 is at it’s highest in a decade. This follows from the Higher Education Policy Institute that revealed over 350,000 more higher education places will be needed in England by 2035.

Similarly significant increases are expected in, HEIs should try address some of this demand with well-organized hybrid learning opportunities. Institutions should ensure that their Visa Sponsorship and international student management are equipped for Finally, one of the biggest issues facing all Higher Education Institutions across the globe are and completion rates.

Students from disadvantaged groups are more likely to be affected, indicating HEIs need to do more to support underrepresented cohorts during their time in college. Falling student completion rates not only impact students who drop out or face resits.
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What is the biggest issue facing higher education institutions?

Spiraling Costs Make College Unaffordable – Another factor driving would-be students away is rising costs. Since 1980, the cost of full-time attendance at a four-year college has risen more than 180%, At public four-year schools, tuition increases have outpaced inflation by 171% over the past 20 years.

It’s not just tuition. Room and board charges have also risen dramatically, Instead of curbing costs, many colleges are instead discounting tuition — returning a portion of each tuition dollar in the form of financial aid. A National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) study revealed that among private universities, the discount rate for first-time undergraduates reached a record-high 54.5% in 2021-22.

This figure has grown almost 10 percentage points over the last decade. Private colleges are returning to students more tuition income than they’re keeping. That means they increasingly have to do more — or at least the same — with less. It’s an unstable model trending in the wrong direction.
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What are two critical issues facing higher education?

Indiana University of Pennsylvania – According to Indiana University of Pennsylvania’s president the greatest challenges facing higher ed are:

Challenge: growing expectations and shrinking budgets. Solution: involve all stakeholders, inside and outside the university, to establish a shared vision, goals, and investment.

These are good solutions that are tailored to their respective institutions, and what they have in common is that they require an organizational change process to implement. Universities can be rife with resistance to change, and frequently, faculty are resistant to change they have not originated and/or change they perceive will affect them negatively.

In today’s environment, getting buy-in from stakeholders is critical to the success of initiatives, and higher education administrators and boards of trustees must ensure both organization alignment and stakeholder attunement is present to be successful. By gaining buy-in from stakeholders at every level and at every step of the way, you can achieve your organization’s goals and implement the changes that you need.

We can help you overcome and succeed in the face of these challenges,
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Is education better in India or Australia?

Methods of Teaching – Compared with Indian teachers, Australian teachers use much more modern teaching techniques. In Australia, for instance, teachers are encouraged to prepare interactive or physical learning lessons in addition to reading assignments.

The Indian teachers, however, tend to concentrate on creating practical reading assignments and have a lesser regard for interactive teaching techniques. As a result of this difference between the Indian and Australian educational systems, Australian students tend to score higher. However, students are not required to write exams when they first start school.

This is because the education system of Australia has implemented a continuous method of testing called ‘Formative Assessment.’ This means that teachers assess a student’s performance throughout an academic year, in addition to test scores. In India, students receive a final grade at the end of the year.
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Why not to choose USA for study?

The cost of education in the U.S. is high. So, if you don’t get any scholarships or assistantships, it will be hard for you to pay for your tuition. If you or your family (parents) do not have enough financial stability, you may have to borrow student loans to pay for the tuition abroad.
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Is it better to live in Australia or India?

Cost of living in Australia vs India – Australia will indeed prove a better living standard for you as it is a developed country. However, this also means a higher cost of living. In India, the quality of life may not be up to the mark, but you can still live a comfortable life given you are earning adequately.
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What are the problems that Indian are facing?

Why Not India For Higher Education

  • Posted By 10Pointer
  • Categories Polity & Governance
  • Published 8th Jan, 2022

India materialised itself as an independent nation-state on 15th August 1947, after a long freedom struggle against the British colonial rule and gave itself a constitution which made India a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, the Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government.

  1. Since then, the Indian growth story has earned monumental growth in all spheres, yet there are numerous challenges that India faces today in its everyday social life, which are intertwined in a way.
  2. To name a few, the major challenges that India faces revolve around: Poverty, Pollution, Illiteracy, Corruption, Inequality, Gender discrimination, Terrorism, Communalism, Unemployment, Regionalism, Casteism, Alcoholism, Drugs Abuse, Violence against Women.

The challenges can be better understood if discussed systemically. It can be done by segregating them based on the segment of the society they are affecting the most and then touching upon the challenges that affect the society as a whole. CHALLENGES FACED BY THE CHILDREN: 1.

  • Child labour still flourishes in India, despite gains made by the social reforms. Over 10 million children are working in labour-intensive fields in our country. Poverty and an inadequate educational system push the child into the grip of child labour.
  • In many cases, the parents also force their children into work to financially support their families. It’s also the only survival mode for children who are homeless or abandoned.
  • Spreading awareness, bringing more stringent laws and effective implementation, sending more children to schools, discouraging people to employ children in homes, shops, factories, etc ca

Constitutional and legal safeguards:

    • Article 24 : ( Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed in work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.
    • Article 39 (e) : The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Rules, 1986: The Rules provide a broad and specific framework for prevention, prohibition, rescue and rehabilitation of child and adolescent workers. It also clarifies issues related to helping in family and family enterprises and the definition of family with respect to child, specific provisions have been incorporated in rules.

2. Malnutrition:

  • India has slipped to the 101 st position in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2021 of 116 countries, from its 2020 position of 94 th and is behind its neighbours Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • Over 33 lakh children in India are malnourished and more than half of them fall in the severely malnourished category with Maharashtra, Bihar and Gujarat. More than a third of the children under five face stunting and wasting and 40% aged between one and four are anaemic.
  • Services like ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme) and midday meals in schools have become irregular during the prolonged closure of schools due to pandemics.
  • National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 : Every third child still suffers from chronic undernourishment, and every fifth child is acutely malnourished.
  • Unless challenges related to adequacy in budgetary allocations to secure nutrition security of children and bottlenecks in utilisation are addressed, India will be unable to mitigate the loss caused due to the pandemic.
  • The partial closure of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) during pandemic along with disruptions in supply chains due to subsequent lockdowns has resulted in halting of mid-day meals scheme, reduced access to take-home ration (a nutritional measure to supplement some portion of a child’s calorie needs) and restricted mobility to health care services.

Steps taken by the government :

    • Mid-day Meal (MDM) scheme
    • POSHAN Abhiyaan
    • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
    • National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013
  • National Nutrition Strategy (NNS)
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
  • One Nation One Ration Card
  • National Iron Plus Initiative for Anemia Control

3. Illiteracy:

Neglect of Indian Languages: In many cases, standard education is not accessible in native Indian languages. New Education Policy emphasis on the mother tongue as the medium of instruction will instil confidence in students from poor, rural and tribal backgrounds.

Financial Constraint: As per the right to education act children are provided free education till the age of 14, post that they are out of the coverage of Right to Education (RTE),

Higher dropout rates: It is all due to several factors such as poverty, lack of toilets, long distance to school, child marriages, patriarchal mindset, and cultural factors.

Quality of teachers: Lack of trained and skilled teachers is another problem mostly faced by our elementary education system.

  • Lack of Infrastructure: Major challenges faced by public schools is the lack of drinking water facilities, electricity, toilets, and poor hygiene, etc.
  • Digital Literacy: Having poor or no access to digital devices, especially computer learning is a challenge to improve digital literacy in rural students.
4. Gender bias against girl child:

  • The demographic transition in India has brought along an ugly unintended consequence-a historically strong preference for sons over daughters in these societies has strengthened with the decline in fertility, thus worsening the female-male sex ratio at birth.
  • Dowry is also one of the main causes of the low sex ratio.
  • Women should also be socialized from early childhood to consider themselves equal to men.
5. Child Abuse:

  • Child Abuse is defined as “injury, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child”. Cases of child abuse are reported from everywhere -in cities and rural homes, in the homes of the rich and the poor, and in the streets and schools.
  • Articles 14, 15, 15(3), 19(1) (a), 21, 21(A), 23, 24, 39(e) 39(f) of the Constitution of India contain provisions for the protection, safety, security and well-being of all its people, including children.

6. Child trafficking :

  • It is a crime that uses girls and boys for many purposes, including forced labour and sex. It is associated with criminal activity and corruption. When human trafficking occurs, children are often victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation or for work, such as domestic service, factory work, agricultural work, mining.
  • Indian laws do not have a legal definition of child trafficking. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1956, deals only with the trafficking of minors for prostitution. However, other laws are present which can assist in child trafficking – Indian Penal Code, Juvenile Justice Act 2000, Andhra Pradesh Devadasi’s (Prohibition of Dedication) Act, 1988, Bombay Prevention of Begging Act etc. Article 23 (1) of the Indian constitution has a specific provision dealing with the Prevention of trafficking and forced labour.

Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency refers to the crimes committed by minors. The crimes done by teenagers are generally done without having proper knowledge of it is opined that they know very little about the world and are not aware of repercussions of their actions.

7. Reasons behind Juvenile Delinquency:

  • Exposure to violent media: Watching content like murder, violence, etc. may negatively affect the mind of the teenager.
  • Trauma: Trauma of any childhood or teenage incident may have a negative effect on the mind.
  • Lack of parental control:
  • Lack of Knowledge: Committing crime unknowingly,

Substance abuse:

  • Economic Factors: Unsatisfactory desires and basic needs
  • It is important to eradicate this practice from society to keep control of the problem of Juvenile Delinquency. It is in the best interest of the deviant child to rehabilitate him as early as possible and integrate him back into society. CHALLENGES FACED BY THE WOMEN: The main problem that lies in society is the rules set for women, about conduct and behaviour. Some of them are problematic as a woman cannot step out at night without a man, this subconsciously is only promoting the idea that women are unsafe, and due to this in many homes in India, the families treat the girls differently than boys.1. Low Sex Ratio at Birth:
  • The sex ratio at birth for the country was still 929 females per males-an an improvement from 919 in 2015-16, but still lower than the natural standard of 952 female births per 1,000 male births.

2. Women and Health:

Women, despite working as caretakers both in and outside the household, are the most neglected lot. Promotive and preventive health of females are equally important and must be stressed upon.

Health Scenario of women:

  • Malnutrition: As many as 57% of women aged 15-49 were anaemic in 2019-21, compared to 53% in 2015-16. Maternal malnutrition has been associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality and also childbirth defects.
  • Lack of maternal health: Poor maternal health not only affects a child’s health in adverse ways but also decreases a woman’s ability to participate in economic activities.
  • Non-Communicable Diseases: Commonly occurring issues such as PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), breast cancer and endometriosis are still subject to taboo and stereotypes. This reflects the current state of women’s health in India in a poor light.
  • The health of Adolescent Girls : At the adolescent age 70% of the girls are anaemic and their problems related to their menstrual health and hygiene often go unaddressed.
  • Teenage Pregnancies : There are 3 times more chances of deaths of girls in teenage pregnancies. The reproductive and sexual health needs of women are often ignored.

3. Violence/crime against Women

  • Gender-based violence against women is among the most egregious and commonly experienced abuses of women’s rights. Intimate partner violence, female genital mutilation, early and forced marriage, sexual and gender-based violence, are a barrier to women’s empowerment and gender equality, and a constraint on individual and societal development, with high economic costs.
  • Cyber Crime against women: The open and unregulated nature of the internet and the irrelevance of geography means that the internet provides futile ground for criminal enterprise. Incidences of Harassment through e-mails, Cyber Stalking, Cyber defamation, Cyber Bullying, Cyber grooming are getting more frequent nowadays.
  • National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5, points to rising instances of domestic and sexual violence against women in the state. The survey shows that married women, between the ages of 18-49, who have ever experienced spousal violence, has more than doubled from 20.6 in 2014-15 to 44.5%.

Steps taken by the government:

  • UJJAWALA: A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
  • One-Stop Centres – SAKHI: Provide an integrated range of services to women affected by violence: medical aid, police assistance, legal aid/case management, psychosocial counselling, temporary shelter
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), 2005
  • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 : Ensure effective functioning of Dowry Prohibition Officers (DPOs) appointed by State Government.
  • The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
  • The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
  • Nirbhaya Fund: Districts can put up proposals through concerned departments of State Governments for innovative projects on the safety and security of women under the Nirbhaya Fund.
  • Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK): to provide one-stop convergent support services to empower rural women with opportunities for skill development, employment, digital literacy, health and nutrition.

4. Gender discrimination: Gender discrimination is the unequal or disadvantageous treatment inflicted on someone because they belong to a specific gender. It is usually the women who usually have to face such gender discrimination.5. Challenges posed to women education

  • High drop-out rates: Increased female enrolment is, compromised by persistently high rates of drop-out and poor attendance of girls relative to boys,
  • Social factors: Early marriages, girl children are not allowed to go outside the house.
  • Health factors: frequent ill-health of the student especially female due to lack of nutritious food and unhygienic conditions in living areas,
  • Patriarchy and social Perceptions: The position of women in the social, political and economic system, is very low.
  • Son preference: Boys (highlighted in economic survey 2018) are educated in private and better schools which are of (perceived) better quality.
  • Quality of education and infrastructure: The absence of a girl’s toilet is a common complaint and can cause parents to decide that it is not worth their girl child going to school.


  • Unemployment is high and the informal sector is in a shambles state. The global downturn of the last two or three years, aggravated by the pandemic, has added to the existing problem of unemployment.
  • The gig economy is nascent in India, but growing at a steady pace. Currently, these workers are not covered under health, ESI, PF or any other scheme as the gig economy is not yet defined as a way of life.
  • The Ministry of Labour and Employment has been working on a “Social Security Code” to ensure labour benefits for gig-economy workers.

Causes of Unemployment :

    • The education system is unable to fulfil the requirement of the job market : The syllabus taught in schools and colleges, being not as per the current requirements of the industries.
    • Lack of alternative opportunities: Low productivity in the agriculture sector combined with a lack of alternative opportunities for agricultural workers makes the transition from primary to secondary and tertiary sectors difficult.
    • Regressive social norms often deter women from taking/continuing employment or restarting their careers after a break.
    • Large population: The rising population is accompanied by a rise in the labour force of the community which leads a substantial chunk of the population to unemployment.

2. Challenges to adolescent and young adult health :

Major health issues impacting young people include undernutrition and overnutrition, common mental disorders including stress and anxiety, suicidal tendencies and increased suicidal death rates, increased consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other substance use.

Major issues faced by adults:

    • Injuries: “Vulnerable Road Users”, including pedestrians, cyclists or users of motorized two-wheelers get scummed to road injuries.
    • Violence: Interpersonal violence is a leading cause of death in adolescents and young people.
    • Mental Health: Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents, and suicide is the leading cause of death in people aged 15–19 years.
    • Alcohol and Drug Abuse: Alcohol and drug use in children and adolescents is associated with neurocognitive alterations which can lead to behavioural, emotional, social and academic problems in later life.
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Early Pregnancy and Childbirth
    • Nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies
    • Undernutrition and obesity

Initiatives by the government:

  • Strategic investments in health, nutrition, education and welfare are critical for the healthy growth of young people.
  • Initiatives like Ayushman Bharat National Health Protection Scheme can go a long way in securing health for all in India.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana(PMJJBY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana(PMSBY) National AIDS Control Programme (NACP)
  • National Iron Plus Initiative for Anemia Control

CHALLENGES FACED BY THE ELDERLY POPULATION: According to the Population Census 2011, there are nearly 104 million elderly persons in India.

  1. Lack of physical infrastructure is a major deterrent: With increasing longevity and debilitating diseases, many elder citizens will need better access to physical infrastructure in the coming years.
  2. Loneliness and isolation are major concerns among elderly Indians: Negligence by kids towards their old parents.
  3. Mental health issues: The country is ill-prepared to deal with the increasing incidence of Dementia, Alzheimer’s and depression amongst the elderly.
  4. Financial dependence : Retirement and dependence of elderly on their child for basic necessity.
  5. Rapid transformation, urbanization, technical & technological change, education and globalization makes it difficult for them to adopt these changes, resulting in the weakening of intergenerational ties.

Initiatives by government and legal provisions:

  • Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP)
  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY)
  • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS)
  • Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana (VPBY)
  • The Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana
  • Vayoshreshtha Samman
  • Article 41 and Article 46 are the constitutional provisions for elderly persons
  • Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007

Elderly peoples carry the immense experience of their personal and professional life, society at large needs to channelise those experiences for a better tomorrow. The private sector also needs to step in with innovative, scalable & affordable Elder Care solutions. CHALLENGES FACED BY THE SOCIETY AS A WHOLE: 1. Caste System:

  • The caste system generally means the categorization or division of people into different groups based on their caste. Many a time, this caste-based discrimination also led to violence.
  • The four groups in which people of Indian society were: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisya and Shudra or the Dalit people.

Evil faces of this system:

  • Untouchability
  • Discrimination
  • Division of Labour
  • Slavery

Initiatives by the government: The Indian Government has enacted laws to remove untouchability and has also brought in many reforms to improve the quality of life for the weaker sections of society. A few of them are:

  • Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental human rights
  • Abolition of ‘untouchability’ in 1950
  • Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
  • Provision of reservation in places like educational institutions, for employment opportunities etc.
  • Establishing social welfare departments and national commissions for the welfare of scheduled castes and tribes

These measures adopted by the government have brought some relief to the weaker sections of society. The urban areas have shown a good amount of impact and some improvement. Constitutional Provisions:

  • Article 14: Equality Before Law
  • Article 15: Social Equality and Equal Access to Public Areas
  • Article 16: Equality in Matters of Public Employment
  • Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability
  • Article 18: Abolition of Titles

2. Regionalism:

The region is a multidimensional concept encompassing geographical as well as economic and sociocultural factors such as language.

The following are the possible factors for demarcating a region:

  • Language or linguistics basis
  • Caste (jatis) basis
  • Ethnic groups basis
  • Tribes basis
  • Particular social settings form as a basis
  • Cultural patterns form as a basis
  • Music, dance, folk arts, etc.

Regionalism based Issues in India: Examples

  • Demand for Dravida Nadu
  • Bodoland Demand within Assam
  • Demand for Khalistan
  • Demand for Greater Nagalim

Measures And Solutions to Prevent Regionalism

    • Imparting feeling of one nation: By providing funding, developing infrastructure, recognizing the culture of both conflict and no-conflict regions.
    • Minimising interference of central government in state affairs: State governments should be given genuine autonomy or transfer of power.
    • Legislative Mechanism: leaders who inflict regionalism must get punished which will act as a deterrence.
    • Peaceful and constitutional approach for solving existing problems.

Promoting inclusive growth and trying to achieve equitable development.

3. Secularism:

Secularism is an outcome of the relationship between the state and religion. India, being a cradle of several religions, ensures equal social participation and recognition of all religions. The state shall be unbiased in promoting religions and in safeguarding religious institutions. Minority religions are another important principle of secularism.

Challenges to Secularism:

  • Communal Politics
  • Domination based on Religion
  • Forced Conversion
  • Discrimination
  • Constitutional Contradiction
  • Growing Fundamentalism
  • Lack of Tolerance
  • Social Inequalities
  • Practice of Pseudo-secularism

Steps Taken to Promote Secularism

  • Abolition of separate electorates and introduction of the universal adult franchise after independence.
  • National Integration Council (NIC) was formed in 1961 under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister.
  • Prime Minister’s 15-point programme for minorities.
  • Introduction of welfare schemes like Nai Udaan, Nai Roshni (leadership development among minority women), Seekho aur Kamao (Learn and Earn).

Sachar Committee was designated to find out the socio-economic conditions of Muslims (2005–2006) and the Ranganath Misra Commission was set to ascertain the status of Religious and Linguistic Minorities (2004–2007).4. Fake News Menace:

  • News, stories or hoaxes created intentionally to misinform or deceive readers falls under Fake News.
  • Causes of Spread of Fake News in India
  • Social Media: It has decentralised the creation and circulation of fake news.
  • Polarization of society: Fragmentation of society based on ideological lines has made the spread of fake news easier.
  • Lack of legal provisions: There is no specific law to deal with fake news in India.
  • Confirmation Bias: People are more inclined to support their preferred narrative instead of finding the truth behind the news.

Tacking menace of Fake News:

  • Removal of Fake News
  • Educating the end-users and fast checking the content of the news for a mismatch.
  • Tracking down the source of fake news.

5. Poverty:

  • Poverty is a multidimensional concept. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person lacks the resources for a minimum standard of living.
  • According to Global MPI 2021, India’s rank is 66 out of 109 countries. It has three equally weighted dimensions – health, education, and standard of living.

Poverty Estimation in India:

  • Y.K. Alagh Committee, 1979
  • D.T. Lakdawala Committee, 1993
  • Tendulkar committee, 2005
  • Rangarajan Committee, 2014

NITI Aayog has released the National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI ):

  • It has three equally weighted dimensions-health, education, and standard of living. These three dimensions are represented by 12 indicators such as nutrition, school attendance, years of schooling, drinking water, sanitation, housing, bank accounts among others.
  • The national MPI measure uses the globally accepted and robust methodology developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the UNDP.

Government Initiatives for alleviating poverty:

  • National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)
  • The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MNREGA)
  • Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G)
  • Public Distribution System (PDS)
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
  • Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)
  • Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya)
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY)
  • One Nation One Ration Card

6. Digital Divide:

  • The digital divide has been a challenge for a while now. The digital divide has posed itself as a major challenge during pre and post-pandemic phases.
  • The digital divide is a term that refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology (ICT), and those that don’t or have restricted access.

Economic disparity is created between those who can afford the technology and those who don’t. The digital divide in a way hinders the social progress of a country. The disadvantaged sections of society have to bear the brunt. Consequences:

  • Unfair Competitive Edge
  • Disparity in Learning
  • Decreased Productivity Among the Poor
  • Political empowerment and mobilisation in the age of social media are difficult when there is a digital divide.

Initiatives by the government:

  • National Education Policy, 2020.
  • Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA).
  • PM eVidya.
  • Swayam Prabha TV Channel
  • SWAYAM portal

7. Pollution

  • One of the greatest problems that India is facing today is that of environmental pollution, which is causing grave and irreparable damage to its society.
  • Environmental pollution is becoming a major problem in megacities. Rapid Urbanisation has also played a key role in increasing the pressure of the limited resource and that has resulted in environmental degradation.
  • In many cases, rampant industrialisation has resulted in environmental injustice. Environmental justice can be defined as fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
  • The scientific arrangement is to be made to dispose of the solid waste including the garbage. New industries should not be permitted to start their establishments near residential areas. On the other hand, industries should be established far away from the cities.
  • Voluntary organizations and the media can play a vital role in curbing the negative effects of pollution. People should be educated properly to maintain cleanliness in the city.

Conclusion: Indian society has undergone transformation and advancements in diverse fields. This has led to the formation of a composite society with various socio-cultural issues that need to be tackled in addition to the issues like security of the people, in particular of the vulnerable section-such as women, children and elderly.

For centuries, we have shown strength in creating order from complexities, bringing together diversified groups to benefit the wider society, invigorating harmony among people with contrasting interests. This exemplifies the innate strength of Indian society on which it can rely to meet all future challenges.

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Is it OK to say Indian?

American Indian or Native American? – American Indian, Indian, Native American, or Native are acceptable and often used interchangeably in the United States ; however, Native Peoples often have individual preferences on how they would like to be addressed.

To find out which term is best, ask the person or group which term they prefer, When talking about Native groups or people, use the terminology the members of the community use to describe themselves collectively. There are also several terms used to refer to Native Peoples in other regions of the Western Hemisphere.

The Inuit, Yup’ik, and Aleut Peoples in the Arctic see themselves as culturally separate from Indians. In Canada, people refer to themselves as First Nations, First Peoples, or Aboriginal, In Mexico, Central America, and South America,the direct translation for Indian can have negative connotations.
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Why Indian students are not getting jobs?

Head Of Business Development at Acodemy.in – Published Jan 21, 2022 Engineering is one of the most choices that students make but yet they are not landing a job in that particular industry. India annually produces one million engineering graduates. And a handful of them eventually gets their engineering-related job.

  1. There are alarming statistics in a NASSCOM report, which estimates that, of the 3 million joining the IT workforce, only twenty-five percent of graduates with engineering backgrounds are employable.
  2. Only 3.84% of engineers are employable in software-related jobs at start-ups.
  3. Around 3% of engineers possess new-age skills in areas such as AI, Machine Learning, Data Engineering, and Mobile technologies.

On an aggregate level, employability in these areas is around 1.5–1.7%. Reasons why Engineers are not able to land their dream jobs: After getting a B.Tech degree most of them don’t get a job without having some months of training. There are a few elements why exactly most Engineering students didn’t get a job in their specialized domain.

The major reason for employment challenges is that many graduates are not skilled enough to work in engineering after graduating.Some Indian parents feel that a B.Tech degree is more prestigious than a normal degree and pressurize students to get an Engineering Degree without knowing their kids’ interestThe quality of staff suffered due to the increase in institutesMost of the companies are putting fresher resumes aside with the word ‘Experience’As of 2021, India annually produces one million engineering graduates. India’s technical education infrastructure includes 3500 engineering colleges, 3400 polytechnics, and every single job 300 members are competing. Every year the ratio of unemployment increases due to the previous year’s unemployment.In this era, technologies are changing drastically though the syllabus of colleges remain the same and also the methodology of teaching, so most of the engineers don’t get the knowledge of new technologies and end up taking the training from different institutes.By research 900 faculties are making false claims about the faculty’s academic qualifications, most of the engineers are not getting a quality education and also The facilities provided by the colleges are not at all satisfactory.Readmoreat: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/9007159.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst You can find engineering students are ready for any kind of work due to the financial condition or pressure from the family and some people tend to get a higher education just to avoid being unemployed or covering up a gap

Avoiding unemployment:

Marks or grades are just the eligibility criteria but the suitable technical skills are the ones that get you placedEvery student must have Industry level experience like working on projects, updating their resume, creating Github links, and being active on job portals.Students should get accustomed to the latest technologies in the market and need to understand in-depth those particular technologies.Besides, we should keep information beforehand about the roles and responsibilities in a particular organization.Most of the training institutions can help students to learn the new technologies in the market and land their dream job. By recent research acodemy.in is giving the best training and placement program for graduates and land their dream jobs.

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Is India is a brain drain country?

Reason for Brain drain: – They say ‘ brain goes where the money is ‘ Some say ‘ brain go where the brains are ‘ Others say ‘ brains go where they are valued ‘ Though it’s wrong to believe that money doesn’t play its role, it’s actually the biggest factor.

In academics its close to 6X, in IT sector it’s more than 2X and in management more than 3X in other countries as compared to India. ✨Money being one of the factor, you have education, quality of life, social security, gender equality etc. behind brain drain. For some it’s Higher Education In the primary education we have done some great progress in India, but as far as higher education is still a challenge.

Even our Steller institutions like IIT and IIMs doesn’t make it to the list of world’s top universities. And some of the quality institutions in India have sky rocketing cut-off That’s why thousands of Students leave to study abroad to get the better paying jobs and on the top of that they get better quality of life there.

As per associated chamber of commerce, Indian students studying abroad cost us around 17 billion dollars per year in lost revenues. When they leave India they are in the most productive phase of their lives and when they return, if they return at all, they are the spent force with ideas & skills that is no longer required.

⚡ For some it’s “Colonial hangover” and for some “tag of NRI is a badge of honour”. ✨Some find the idea of living abroad glamourous, thanks to Bollywood for their portrayal of the NRIs and foreign locations. There is no one reason for leaving and not returning.

  • Brain drain leads to reduced economic growth, limited innovative capacities and lack of skilled manpower.
  • India is losing its doctors, engineers and entrepreneurs to other countries, it’s losing much of its skilled human capital.
  • Exodus of the brightest and best minds diminished India growth prospects; Conflict, political instability, lack of opportunities and health concerns are prime reasons for the same.

Credit: Images -Canva, Stats & facts – WION report
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What are the disadvantages of studying in India?

Not able to choose a variety of Subjects – Students in India do not get the chance to choose different subjects from different streams. For example, a commerce student cannot take Biology even if he is really interested. This is because the education system has segregated the streams on the basis of subjects.
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Why do you want to study in USA and not in India?

A unique curriculum, multicultural environment, advanced technology, and a plethora of work opportunities are some of the reasons why you wish to study in the USA and not in India. Along with Indian students, learners from across the globe pursue higher education in the USA. Let’s look at the top reasons why the USA is one of the most sought-after study destinations globally.
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Why do girls not get education in India?

Millions of girls around the world are being denied an education because they are exploited, discriminated against – or just ignored. – Millions of girls aren’t at school today. They are shut out of education because of discrimination, poverty, emergencies and culture.

  1. These girls have the same hopes and dreams as boys.
  2. They want to learn, fulfil their potential, work and help their families and communities.
  3. But too often they are treated as second-class.
  4. They are exploited, abused and simply disregarded in many countries.
  5. Figures from UNICEF last year showed that about 32 million girls of primary school age and 29 million of lower secondary school age are not getting an education.

But a new index published yesterday by the ONE Campaign put the number of girls not in school in any age group at 130 million. On International Day of the Girl Child, here are 13 reasons why girls continue to be denied an education.
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