Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission?

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Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission
Structure – The commission, under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, was the sixth commission in India post independence and the first commission with comprehensive terms of reference on education. It was composed of a member secretary, an associate secretary and fifteen members.
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Who was the chairman of First Indian education commission?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Who was the president of education commission?

Results of Kothari Commission Recommendations –

The education system at the national level was aligned in 10+2+3 pattern, as recommended by the Kothari Commission. One of the most important recommendations of the Kothari Commission was the National Policy on Education. The Bill was passed in the Parliament under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. It has been reported that even the National Policy on Education in 1986 (which was formulated under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi), was influenced by recommendations of Kothari Commission. As per recommendations of Kothari Commission, the education sector in India was stratified into national bodies, state bodies and Central Board.

Kothari Commission – UPSC Notes:- Central Advisory Board of India decided to set up two commissions, University education commission (1948) to report on the status of Indian university education and Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) to deal with secondary education.

In accordance with the recommendations of Kothari commission, the National education policy of 1968 was formulated. It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states. It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states. The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English.

The Kothari Commission was appointed by the Central government to look into the educational aspects and revamp the sector in order to set guidelines for the pattern of education in India. The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission.

  1. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy.
  2. Othari Commission was formed on 14 July 1964 under the Chairmanship Daulat Singh Kothari.
  3. He was the then chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC).
  4. Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the page.

Related Links : Kothari Commission (1964-66) – Facts, Objectives, Recommendations
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Who acted as a chairman of Indian education commission?

Who have appointed first Indian Education Commission and in Option 4 : Lord Ripon in 1882 Free 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins The correct answer is Lord Ripon in 1882, Key Points

There were complaints that the Wood‟s Dispatch of 1854 had not been properly followed. Secondly, Christian missionaries had made complaints against the Indian education administration on the ground that education in India was not in line with the Woods Despatch. The Country Council Act of 1880 for reforming primary education had been passed in England and education in India was to be reformed on similar lines. Lord Ripon, the then Governor-General of India, appointed the first Indian Education Commission on February 3, 1882, under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter. Sir William Hunter was a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commission was also required to report on “the present state of elementary education and the means by which this can be extended and improved.” In the field of primary education, the commission made elaborate recommendations on the lines of the country council act of England with regard to its policy, objectives, curriculum, methods of teaching, teachers training, finance and administration etc.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Who have appointed first Indian Education Commission and in
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Who is the father of Indian education?

Who is the father of modern legal education in India? Answer at BYJU’S IAS Neelakanta Ramakrishna Madhava Menon is considered by many as the father of modern legal education in India. He was an Indian civil servant, lawyer and legal educator. He is the founder of the National Law Universities system. Further Reading: : Who is the father of modern legal education in India? Answer at BYJU’S IAS
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Who is the founder of India education?

Lord Macaulay was the father and founder of the present education system, as is referred to in the fourth line of the first paragraph.
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What is another name of Indian education commission?

Kothari Commission (1964-66): Aims, objectives & major recommendations The ‘Kothari Commission’ 1964 was constituted on July 14, 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr.D.S. Kothari with 17 other members. Kothari Commission is also known as National Education Commission, 1964.
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Who changed Indian education commission in 1882?

Hunter Commission FAQs For UPSC – Q.1 What were the major recommendations of the Hunter Education Commission? Ans.1 Local bodies to be given the responsibility of providing primary education, Indianization of education, establishing schools for providing training to the teachers, the establishment of a model government school in every district, and inclusion of subjects such as agriculture, arithmetic, etc were some of the recommendations of the Hunter Education Commission.Q.2 Why was the Hunter Commission of 1919 set up? Ans.2 The Hunter Commission of 1919 was set up to inquire into the Jallianwala Bagh massacre which was carried out by Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer.

The committee was appointed on 14 October 1919, following the orders of Edwin Montagu, the then Secretary of the State for India.Q.3 Why was the Hunter Commission of 1882 appointed? Ans.3 The Hunter Education Commission of 1882 was appointed by the British Indian government to analyse the status of education and the education system in India and to suggest measures for the improvement of education in the country.

Another important function of the commission was to look into the complaints related to the non-implementation of Wood’s despatch of 1854.Q.4 Who appointed the Hunter Education Commission of 1882? Ans.4 Lord Ripon, the then Viceroy of India appointed the Hunter Education Commission of 1882.
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Who is known as Mother of education?

TBI Heroes: Savitribai, The Mother Of Modern Girls’ Education In India Savitribai Phule may not be as famous as Mahatma Gandhi or Swami Vivekananda. But her impact on the liberation of the Indian woman has been no less spectacular or significant. One of the earliest crusaders of education for girls, and dignity for the most vulnerable sections of society – dalits, women and widows, Savitribai broke all the traditional shackles of 19th century India to herald a new age of thinking.

She can be legitimately hailed as the mother of Indian Feminism. Read about her remarkable life of courage and initiative. “Y ou owe her. But do you know her? Savitribai Phule, the Mother of modern education. If you are an Indian woman who reads, you owe her. If you are an educated Indian woman, you owe her.

If you are an Indian schoolgirl reading this chapter in English, you owe her. If you are an educated international desi woman, you owe her.” – Excerpted from ‘Savitribai and India’s Conversation on Education’ by Thom Wolf and Suzana Andrade, published in ‘Oikos Worldviews Journal’ (2008).

  • As a new bride at the age of nine, when Savitribai moved to her marital home in Pune in 1840, her most prized possession was a book that had been given to her by some Christian missionary.
  • Impressed by her thirst for learning, Jotirao Phule, her husband, then all of 13, taught her to read and write, little knowing that this would lay the foundation for a whole new chapter in Indian history.
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In times when women were treated no better than the cattle at home, Savitribai Phule earned the distinction of being the first Indian woman to become a teacher. For this she undertook training at Ms. Farar’s Institution at Ahmednagar and in Ms. Mitchell’s school in Pune.

  1. The first Indian to place universal, child sensitive, intellectually critical, and socially reforming education at the very core of the agenda for all children in India”, is how Wolf and Andrade describe her in their paper.
  2. Savitribai Phule placed “universal, child sensitive,intellectually critical, and socially reforming education at the verycore of the agenda for all children in India” by setting up the first school for girls in 1848 with eight students.

Long believed to be the preserve of the Brahmins, children from other castes and communities were denied the right to an education. Savitribai and her husband broke the rules and established the first school for girls in 1848 in Bhide Wada, Narayan Peth, Pune.

  1. Eight girls, belonging to different castes, enrolled as students on the first day.
  2. When she started her unique school, Savitribai also overcame another hurdle – of women not being allowed to step outside the home to work.
  3. Of course, the young woman had to contend with a lot of opposition.
  4. She carried a change of sari with her every day as men pelted her with stones, mud and even dung as she made her way to the school.

But undeterred by all the opposition, Savitribai opened another school for adults the same year. By 1851, she was running three schools with around 150 girl students. “Women who cite harassment as a reason to quit what they want to do can learn a lot from Savitribai,” feels Sushama Deshpande, actor, writer and director of Marathi theatre.

  • A journalist by training, she has written and directed the play, ‘Vhay, Mee Savitri Bai’ (‘Yes I am Savitri Bai’), based on the life and works of the educationist.
  • Today, 24 years later, too, the play inspires and enthralls audiences across the world.
  • Theatre journalism, as I call it, is my way of reaching out to women from all walks of life and telling them how strong they are through stories like that of Savitribai’s,” she says.

Today, government programmes like the ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’, the Right to Education Act and the midday meal scheme that incentivize education, may seem like modern concepts, but even 150 years back Savitribai had set a precedent – she gave stipends to prevent children from dropping out of school.

  1. She was the teacher who inspired a young student to ask for a library for the school at an award ceremony instead of gifts for herself.
  2. A poet and writer, Savitribai had motivated another young girl, Mukta, to write an essay that became the cornerstone of ‘Dalit literature’.
  3. She even conducted the equivalent of a parent-teacher meeting to involve the parents so they would understand the importance of education and support their children.

Her schools imparted vocational training as well. Along with educating women, Savitribai also took on the responsibility for the health and well-being of young widows, another exploited group. A poster from 1863 reads something like this: “Women who conceive out of wedlock should go to the home of Jotirao Govindrao Phule for their confinement.

Their names will be kept confidential”. Pained by the plight of young Kashibai, a widow sentenced to ‘Kalapani’ rigorous imprisonment in the Andamans for killing her newborn, the Phules opened up their home as a shelter for young widows. Raped by family members and then disowned when pregnant, these women often resorted to suicide or killed their babies.

The couple even adopted one child as their own. Today, every educated Indian woman owes a debt of gratitudeto Savitribai Phule, often referred to as the mother of modern girls’ education. Yeshwant, their adopted son, trained as a doctor and eventually joined his mother in all the good work she did.

Setting an example for others, she conducted his wedding under the ‘Satya shodhak samaj’, or the truth-seekers society, with no priests, no dowry and at very little expense. She even brought her son’s fiancée for a home stay before the wedding, so she could get familiar with her soon-to-be home and family.

Moreover, she took on the household chores so the young woman had time to study. Maybe if soaps today had mothers-in-law like her instead of the scheming kitchen politics they show on TV, we may have reduced dowry deaths and other social problems. laments Mridu Verma a journalist-turned-entrepreneur.

“Savitribai is an Indian icon who realised the true meaning of women’s liberation long before it became fashionable,” she adds. Savitribai and Jotirao were always there for the community. In 1877, their region was hit by a severe drought. The couple launched the ‘Victoria Balashram’ and aided by friends and funds collected by going from village to village, they fed over a thousand people every day.

Earlier in 1868, during a very dry spell, they had opened up their wells to the Dalits, who were forbidden to draw water from other wells. Stories of her personal generosity are legend. No one visiting the Phule home would go empty handed. At the very least they would be assured of a meal.

  1. She would give away her saris too, if she saw anyone in torn saris.
  2. Extremely hands on, she looked after all the young widows who came to their house to have their babies.
  3. She also personally nursed husband Jotirao to health when a stroke paralysed him.
  4. Says Harish Sadani of Men Against Violence and Abuse (MAVA), an all-men organisation directly intervening in gender-based violence against women.

Sadani admits that he is influenced by her more than by any western thinker. Savitribai broke yet another taboo when she led the funeral procession of her husband. Even today, the Hindu last rites are considered to be the sacred privilege of men alone.

  1. When Jotiba passed away in 1890, warring relatives tried to wrest the rights of performing the last rites away from Yeshwant, faulting his parentage.
  2. Savitribai took the ‘titve’, or the funeral mud-pot, herself and led the procession.
  3. Even the fear of death did not deter this brave woman from doing what she felt was right.

In 1897, when the plague hit Pune, she was at the forefront. She even carried young Pandurang Babaji Gaikwad, a 10-year-old boy, from Mundhwa to the clinic strapped to her back. Ironically, he beat the infection but Savitribai caught it and in March 1897, she breathed her last.

“Every Indian woman who is educated today owes Savitribai a debt of gratitude,” sums up Sushama Deshpande, whose play has now been adapted by many and is preformed extensively to packed houses, adding, Not a single performance goes by without a few women coming backstage to tell me how watching the play has helped them find solutions to their personal problems.

She epitomises the aspirations of women even 150 years after she burst on the scene. Today, the school Savitribai had set up is part of Pune’s ‘heritage’ walk, a reminder that her legacy needs to be carried forward for the generations that follow. : TBI Heroes: Savitribai, The Mother Of Modern Girls’ Education In India
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Who is known as mother of Indian education?

Savitribai Phule: The Mother Of Modern Education – Savitribai Phule: The Mother Of Modern Education World humanity is going to celebrate 184th Birth Anniversary Celebrations of Savitribai Phule-The liberator of women, Pioneer of Human Rights and the Greatest Humanitarian Revolutionary of the world. We were all shocked when Taliban shot a young girl Malala Yousafzai for defending the right of young girls to education.

But if in today’s world girls can walk freely to school without being attacked it is because other young Malalas have braved criticism and struggled for education in their times.Most prominent among them was Savitribai Phule who not only fought for right education for girls but also for the right to dignity for widows,unwed mothers and women with unwanted pregnancies.

She was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India. The world history has witnessed the agricultural revolution,industrial revolution, info revolution, bio revolution which has changed the “material world” of Human society. Human society has also largely been changed by “Western Enlightenment” viz.

Scientific and Secular revolutions, French and Russian revolutions. The ‘Eastern world’ on the other hand also contributed to human history by Chinese revolution. All the above developments in the history of human civilisation has changed the “mental and material world” of humankind. But these revolutions could not abolish the human sufferings and end problems of human kind.

If by ‘Revolution’ we mean Deconstruction of undesirable principles values and orders and establishment of desirable principles, values and orders, neither of the Enlightenments and revolutions could establish the principles of Equality-Liberty-Fraternity-Justice in reality.

  1. Thus, there is a greater revolution beyond this led by Savitribai Phule and her husband Jyotiba Phule, which contributed for the establishments of golden principles of humanity viz.
  2. Equality, Liberty, Fraternity and Justice.Women of the Indian society are not aware of the greatness of Savitribai Phule,who dared to pursue the noble profession of teaching in the ‘Dark Age’.
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Read further at Ambedkar Caravan Hate and Harmony in 2021 A recap of all that transpired across India in terms of hate speech and even outright hate crimes, as well as the persecution of those who dared to speak up against hate. This disturbing harvest of hate should now push us to do more to forge harmony. Taliban in Afghanistan: A look back Communalism Combat had taken a deep dive into the lives of people of Afghanistan under the Taliban regime. Here we reproduce some of our archives documenting the plight of hapless Afghanis, especially women, who suffered the most under the hardline regime. Milestones 2020 In the year devastated by the Covid 19 Pandemic, India witnessed apathy against some of its most marginalised people and vilification of dissenters by powerful state and non state actors. As 2020 draws to a close, and hundreds of thousands of Indian farmers continue their protest in the bitter North Indian cold. Migrant Diaries The 2020 COVID pandemic brought to fore the dismal lives that our migrant workers lead. Read these heartbreaking stories of how they lived before the pandemic, how the lockdown changed their lives and what they’re doing now. Hate and Harmony in 2021 A recap of all that transpired across India in terms of hate speech and even outright hate crimes, as well as the persecution of those who dared to speak up against hate. This disturbing harvest of hate should now push us to do more to forge harmony. Taliban in Afghanistan: A look back Communalism Combat had taken a deep dive into the lives of people of Afghanistan under the Taliban regime. Here we reproduce some of our archives documenting the plight of hapless Afghanis, especially women, who suffered the most under the hardline regime. Milestones 2020 In the year devastated by the Covid 19 Pandemic, India witnessed apathy against some of its most marginalised people and vilification of dissenters by powerful state and non state actors. As 2020 draws to a close, and hundreds of thousands of Indian farmers continue their protest in the bitter North Indian cold. Migrant Diaries The 2020 COVID pandemic brought to fore the dismal lives that our migrant workers lead. Read these heartbreaking stories of how they lived before the pandemic, how the lockdown changed their lives and what they’re doing now.
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Who is called Father of school?

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Who is the father of basic education?

Mahatma Gandhi proposed his scheme of Basic Education (Nai Talim) in a well formulated approach to education in 1937 in his news paper ‘Harijan’.
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Who was the father of child education?

Hence, we conclude that Child-centred education was advocated by John Dewey.
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Who started education first?

China – According to legendary accounts, the rulers Yao and Shun (ca.24th–23rd century BC) established the first schools. The first education system was created in Xia dynasty (2076–1600 BC). During Xia dynasty, government built schools to educate aristocrats about rituals, literature and archery (important for ancient Chinese aristocrats).

  1. During Shang dynasty (1600 BC to 1046 BC), normal people (farmers, workers etc.) accepted rough education.
  2. In that time, aristocrats’ children studied in government schools.
  3. And normal people studied in private schools.
  4. Government schools were always built in cities and private schools were built in rural areas.

Government schools paid attention on educating students about rituals, literature, politics, music, arts and archery. Private schools educated students to do farmwork and handworks. During the Zhou dynasty (1045–256 BC), there were five national schools in the capital city, Pi Yong (an imperial school, located in a central location) and four other schools for the aristocrats and nobility, including Shang Xiang,

The schools mainly taught the Six Arts : rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, and mathematics. According to the Book of Rites, at age twelve, boys learned arts related to ritual (i.e. music and dance) and when older, archery and chariot driving. Girls learned ritual, correct deportment, silk production and weaving.

It was during the Zhou dynasty that the origins of native Chinese philosophy also developed. Confucius (551–479 BC) founder of Confucianism, was a Chinese philosopher who made a great impact on later generations of Chinese, and on the curriculum of the Chinese educational system for much of the following 2000 years.

  1. Later, during the Qin dynasty (246–207 BC), a hierarchy of officials was set up to provide central control over the outlying areas of the empire.
  2. To enter this hierarchy, both literacy and knowledge of the increasing body of philosophy was required: “.the content of the educational process was designed not to engender functionally specific skills but rather to produce morally enlightened and cultivated generalists”.

During the Han dynasty (206–221 AD), boys were thought ready at age seven to start learning basic skills in reading, writing and calculation. In 124 BC, the Emperor Wudi established the Imperial Academy, the curriculum of which was the Five Classics of Confucius.

  1. By the end of the Han dynasty (220 AD) the academy enrolled more than 30,000 students, boys between the ages of fourteen and seventeen years.
  2. However education through this period was a luxury.
  3. The nine-rank system was a civil service nomination system during the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD) and the Northern and Southern dynasties (420–589 AD) in China.

Theoretically, local government authorities were given the task of selecting talented candidates, then categorizing them into nine grades depending on their abilities. In practice, however, only the rich and powerful would be selected. The Nine Rank System was eventually superseded by the imperial examination system for the civil service in the Sui dynasty (581–618 AD).
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When was NPE introduced India?

Need for Change – National Policy on Education –

  • In 1986, Rajiv Gandhi announced a new education policy, the National Policy on Education (NPE), which was intended to prepare India for the 21st century. The policy emphasized the need for change: ‘Education in India stands at the crossroads today. Neither normal linear expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation.’
  • According to the new policy, the 1968 policy goals had largely been achieved: more than 90 percent of the country’s rural population were within a kilometre of schooling facilities and most states had adopted a common education structure. The prioritization of science and mathematics had also been effective. However, change was required to increase financial and organizational support for the education system to tackle problems of access and quality.

UPSC and other Government exam aspirants can also refer to the links given below for exam preparation:
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Who was the chairman of NPE 1992?

The National Education Policy 1986 required reformulation. A committee reviewed the NPE 1986 and came up with a detailed programme/plan of action. And the POA 1992 was framed to give suggestions in this regard. The review committee included six education ministers, eight educationists under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Shri N Janardhana Reddy.
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How many NPE are there?

Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission Among proposals, 10+2 school format to become 5 + 3 + 3 + 4. (Express Photo: Partha Paul) New Education Policy 2020: On Wednesday, the Union Cabinet cleared a new National Education Policy (NEP) proposing sweeping changes in school and higher education.

A look at the takeaways, and their implications for students and institutions of learning: What purpose does an NEP serve? An NEP is a comprehensive framework to guide the development of education in the country. The need for a policy was first felt in 1964 when Congress MP Siddheshwar Prasad criticised the then government for lacking a vision and philosophy for education.

The same year, a 17-member Education Commission, headed by then UGC Chairperson D S Kothari, was constituted to draft a national and coordinated policy on education. Based on the suggestions of this Commission, Parliament passed the first education policy in 1968. Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission Why the National Education Policy is needed What are the key takeaways? The NEP proposes sweeping changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options, and discontinuation of the M Phil programme.

  • In school education, the policy focuses on overhauling the curriculum, “easier” Board exams, a reduction in the syllabus to retain “core essentials” and thrust on “experiential learning and critical thinking”.
  • In a significant shift from the 1986 policy, which pushed for a 10+2 structure of school education, the new NEP pitches for a “5+3+3+4” design corresponding to the age groups 3-8 years (foundational stage), 8-11 (preparatory), 11-14 (middle), and 14-18 (secondary).

This brings early childhood education (also known as pre-school education for children of ages 3 to 5) under the ambit of formal schooling. The mid-day meal programme will be extended to pre-school children. The NEP says students until Class 5 should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language.

The policy also proposes phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and that all universities and colleges must aim to become multidisciplinary by 2040. Also in Explained | How India’s Education Ministry became ‘HRD Ministry’, and then returned to embrace Education How will these reforms be implemented? The NEP only provides a broad direction and is not mandatory to follow.

Since education is a concurrent subject (both the Centre and the state governments can make laws on it), the reforms proposed can only be implemented collaboratively by the Centre and the states. This will not happen immediately. The incumbent government has set a target of 2040 to implement the entire policy.

  • Sufficient funding is also crucial; the 1968 NEP was hamstrung by a shortage of funds.
  • The government plans to set up subject-wise committees with members from relevant ministries at both the central and state levels to develop implementation plans for each aspect of the NEP.
  • The plans will list out actions to be taken by multiple bodies, including the HRD Ministry, state Education Departments, school Boards, NCERT, Central Advisory Board of Education and National Testing Agency, among others.
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Planning will be followed by a yearly joint review of progress against targets set. Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission Do all states need to follow it? What does the emphasis on mother tongue/regional language mean for English-medium schools? Such emphasis is not new: Most government schools in the country are doing this already. As for private schools, it’s unlikely that they will be asked to change their medium of instruction.

A senior ministry official clarified to The Indian Express that the provision on mother tongue as medium of instruction was not compulsory for states. “Education is a concurrent subject. Which is why the policy clearly states that kids will be taught in their mother tongue or regional language ‘wherever possible’,” the officer said.

What about people in transferable jobs, or children of multilingual parents? The NEP doesn’t say anything specifically on children of parents with transferable jobs, but acknowledges children living in multilingual families: “Teachers will be encouraged to use a bilingual approach, including bilingual teaching-learning materials, with those students whose home language may be different from the medium of instruction.” Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission What are its key recommendations? How does the government plan to open up higher education to foreign players? The document states universities from among the top 100 in the world will be able to set up campuses in India. While it doesn’t elaborate the parameters to define the top 100, the incumbent government may use the ‘QS World University Rankings’ as it has relied on these in the past while selecting universities for the ‘Institute of Eminence’ status.

  • However, none of this can start unless the HRD Ministry brings in a new law that includes details of how foreign universities will operate in India.
  • It is not clear if a new law would enthuse the best universities abroad to set up campuses in India.
  • In 2013, at the time the UPA-II was trying to push a similar Bill, The Indian Express had reported that the top 20 global universities, including Yale, Cambridge, MIT and Stanford, University of Edinburgh and Bristol, had shown no interest in entering the Indian market.

Participation of foreign universities in India is currently limited to them entering into collaborative twinning programmes, sharing faculty with partnering institutions and offering distance education. Over 650 foreign education providers have such arrangements in India.

  • 📣 Express Explained is now on Telegram,
  • Click here to join our channel (@ieexplained) and stay updated with the latest How will the four-year multidisciplinary bachelor’s programme work? This pitch, interestingly, comes six years after Delhi University was forced to scrap such a four-year undergraduate programme at the incumbent government’s behest.

Under the four-year programme proposed in the new NEP, students can exit after one year with a certificate, after two years with a diploma, and after three years with a bachelor’s degree. “Four-year bachelor’s programmes generally include a certain amount of research work and the student will get deeper knowledge in the subject he or she decides to major in. Who Was The Chairman Of Indian Education Commission How will school education change? What impact will doing away with the M Phil programme have? Chauhan said this should not affect the higher education trajectory at all. “In normal course, after a master’s degree a student can register for a PhD programme.

  • This is the current practice almost all over the world.
  • In most universities, including those in the UK (Oxford, Cambridge and others), M Phil was a middle research degree between a master’s and a PhD.
  • Those who have entered MPhil, more often than not ended their studies with a PhD degree.
  • MPhil degrees have slowly been phased out in favour of a direct PhD programme.” Will the focus on multiple disciplines not dilute the character of single-stream institutions, such as IITs? The IITs are already moving in that direction.

IIT-Delhi has a humanities department and set up a public policy department recently. IIT-Kharagpur has a School of Medical Science and Technology. Asked about multiple disciplines, IIT-Delhi director V Ramgopal Rao said, “Some of the best universities in the US such as MIT have very strong humanities departments.
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Who first created education?

China – According to legendary accounts, the rulers Yao and Shun (ca.24th–23rd century BC) established the first schools. The first education system was created in Xia dynasty (2076–1600 BC). During Xia dynasty, government built schools to educate aristocrats about rituals, literature and archery (important for ancient Chinese aristocrats).

  • During Shang dynasty (1600 BC to 1046 BC), normal people (farmers, workers etc.) accepted rough education.
  • In that time, aristocrats’ children studied in government schools.
  • And normal people studied in private schools.
  • Government schools were always built in cities and private schools were built in rural areas.

Government schools paid attention on educating students about rituals, literature, politics, music, arts and archery. Private schools educated students to do farmwork and handworks. During the Zhou dynasty (1045–256 BC), there were five national schools in the capital city, Pi Yong (an imperial school, located in a central location) and four other schools for the aristocrats and nobility, including Shang Xiang,

The schools mainly taught the Six Arts : rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, and mathematics. According to the Book of Rites, at age twelve, boys learned arts related to ritual (i.e. music and dance) and when older, archery and chariot driving. Girls learned ritual, correct deportment, silk production and weaving.

It was during the Zhou dynasty that the origins of native Chinese philosophy also developed. Confucius (551–479 BC) founder of Confucianism, was a Chinese philosopher who made a great impact on later generations of Chinese, and on the curriculum of the Chinese educational system for much of the following 2000 years.

Later, during the Qin dynasty (246–207 BC), a hierarchy of officials was set up to provide central control over the outlying areas of the empire. To enter this hierarchy, both literacy and knowledge of the increasing body of philosophy was required: “.the content of the educational process was designed not to engender functionally specific skills but rather to produce morally enlightened and cultivated generalists”.

During the Han dynasty (206–221 AD), boys were thought ready at age seven to start learning basic skills in reading, writing and calculation. In 124 BC, the Emperor Wudi established the Imperial Academy, the curriculum of which was the Five Classics of Confucius.

By the end of the Han dynasty (220 AD) the academy enrolled more than 30,000 students, boys between the ages of fourteen and seventeen years. However education through this period was a luxury. The nine-rank system was a civil service nomination system during the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD) and the Northern and Southern dynasties (420–589 AD) in China.

Theoretically, local government authorities were given the task of selecting talented candidates, then categorizing them into nine grades depending on their abilities. In practice, however, only the rich and powerful would be selected. The Nine Rank System was eventually superseded by the imperial examination system for the civil service in the Sui dynasty (581–618 AD).
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Who is first teacher in India?

Early life – Savitribai Phule was born on 3 January 1831 in the village of Naigaon in Satara District, Maharashtra. Her birthplace was about fifteen km (9.3 mi) from Shirval and about 50 km (31 mi) from Pune, Savitribai Phule was the youngest daughter of Lakshmi and Khandoji Nevase Patil, both of whom belonged to the Mali Community.

  1. She had three siblings.
  2. Savitribai was married to her husband Jyotirao Phule at the age of 9 or 10 (he was 13).
  3. Savitribai and Jyotirao had no children of their own.
  4. It is said that they adopted Yashawantrao, a son born to a Brahmin widow.
  5. However, there is no original evidence available yet to support this.

It is said when Yashwant was about to get married, no one was willing to give him a girl because he was born to a widow. Hence Savitribai arranged his marriage to her organization’s worker Dynoba Sasane’s daughter in February 1889.
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