Who Supported The Cause Of Muslim Education?

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Who Supported The Cause Of Muslim Education
The Aligarh Movement – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is best known for the Aligarh Movement — a systemic movement aimed at reforming the social, political and educational aspects of the Muslim community. He founded the Scientific Society in 1863 to translate major works in the sciences and modern arts into Urdu.

He released two journals to this end — The Aligarh Institute Gazette, which was an organ of the Scientific Society, and the Tehzibul Akhlaq, known as the Mohammedan Social Reformer in English. Khan’s most notable contribution to the field of education is establishing the Madarsatul Uloom in Aligarh in 1875, now known as the Aligarh Muslim University, a premier educational institution of the country.

He attempted to model the college on universities such as Oxford and Cambridge. His work on Muslim education was not limited to this alone — he wanted to create a network of educational institutions managed by Muslims and founded the All India Muslim Educational Conference.

  • In 1886, he set up the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Education Congress, later renamed the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Educational Conference, to bring together education and culture.
  • He emphasised the need for an autonomous Muslim institution free of any government funding.
  • On this issue he said, “As long as we depend on Government for wants which are essentially of a domestic nature as education necessarily is, we really expect to get what is simply impossible to obtain.

The best educational institutions in Europe are either entirely or next to entirely free from any control of the government.” An avid historian, he was the first person to publish an archaeological study in an Indian language. As a result, he was also named as an honorary member of the Royal Asiatic Society.
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Who made efforts for educating Muslims?

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan | Founder AMU Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, one of the architects of modern India was born on October 17, 1817, in Delhi and started his career as a civil servant. The 1857 revolt was one of the turning points in Syed Ahmed’s life. He clearly foresaw the imperative need for the Muslims to acquire proficiency in the English language and modern sciences, if the community were to maintain its social and political clout, particularly in Northern India.

  1. He was one of those early pioneers who recognized the critical role of education in the empowerment of the poor and backward Muslim community.
  2. In more than one ways, Sir Syed was one of the greatest social reformers and a great national builder of modern India.
  3. He began to prepare the road map for the formation of a Muslim University by starting various schools.

He instituted Scientific Society in 1863 to instill a scientific temperament into the Muslims and to make the Western knowledge available to Indians in their own language. The Aligarh Institute Gazette, an organ of the Scientific Society, was launched in March 1866 and succeeded in agitating the minds in the traditional Muslim society.

Anyone with a poor level of commitment would have backed off in the face of strong opposition but Sir Syed responded by bringing out another journal, Tehzibul Akhlaq which was rightly named in English as ‘Mohammedan Social Reformer’ On 24 May 1875, Sir Syed founded the Madarsatul Uloom in Aligarh and patterned the MAO College after Oxford and Cambridge universities that he went on a trip to London.

His objective was to build a college in line with the British education system but without compromising its Islamic values. He wanted this College to act as a bridge between the old and the new, the East and the West. While he fully appreciated the need and urgency of imparting instruction based on Western learning, he was not oblivious to the value of oriental learning and wanted to preserve and transmit to posterity the rich legacy of the past.

  1. Dr. Sir Mohammad Iqbal observes: “The real greatness of Sir Syed consists in the fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it – his sensitive nature was the first to react to modern age”.
  2. The aim of Sir Syed was not merely restricted to establishing a college at Aligarh but at spreading a network of Muslim Managed educational institutions throughout the length and breadth of the country keeping in view this end, he instituted All India Muslim Educational Conference that revived the spirit of Muslims at the national level.

The Aligarh Movement motivated Muslims to help open a number of educational institutions. It was the first of its kind of such Muslim NGO in India, which awakened the Muslims from their deep slumber and infused social and political sensibility into them.

  1. Sir Syed contributed many essential elements to the development of the modern society of the subcontinent.
  2. During Sir Syed’s own lifetime, ‘The Englishman’, a renowned British magazine of the 19th century remarked in a commentary on November 17, 1885: ‘Sir Syed’s life “strikingly illustrated one of the best phases of modern history”.

He died on March 27, 1898, and lies buried next to the main mosque at AMU. : Sir Syed Ahmad Khan | Founder AMU
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Who spread Muslim education the most?

Theories of Islamic Education – Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas described the Islamic purpose of education as a balanced growth of the total personality through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality.

One of the more prominent figures in the history of Islamic education, Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali studied theology and education on a theoretical level in the late 1000s, early 1100s CE. One of the ideas that Al-Ghazali was most known for was his emphasis on the importance of connecting educational disciplines on both an instructional and philosophical level.

With this, Al-Ghazali heavily incorporated religion into his pedagogical processes, believing that the main purpose of education was to prepare and inspire a person to more faithfully participate in the teachings of Islam. Seyyed Hossein Nasr stated that, while education does prepare humankind for happiness in this life, “its ultimate goal is the abode of permanence and all education points to the permanent world of eternity”.

  • According to Islam, there are three elements that make up an Islamic education.
  • These are the learner, knowledge, and means of instruction.
  • Islam posits that humans are unique among all of creation in their ability to have ‘Aql (faculty of reason).
  • According to the Nahj al-Balagha, there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge merely heard and that which is absorbed.

The former has no benefit unless it is absorbed. The heard knowledge is gained from the outside and the other is absorbed knowledge means the knowledge that raised from nature and human disposition, referred to the power of innovation of a person. The Quran is the optimal source of knowledge in Islamic Education.

  1. For teaching Quranic traditions, the Maktab as elementary school emerged in mosques, private homes, shops, tents, and even outside.
  2. The Quran is studied by both men and women in the locations listed above, however, women haven’t always been permitted in study in mosques.
  3. The main place of study for women before the mosques changed their ideology was in their own homes or the homes of others.

One well-known woman that allowed others into her home to teach the Quranic traditions was Khadija, Muhammad’s wife. The Organization of the Islamic Conference has organized five conferences on Islamic education: in Mecca (1977), Islamabad (1980), Dhaka (1981), Jakarta (1982), and Cairo (1987).
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Who worked for Muslims education through Aligarh Movement?

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the greatest Muslim reformers of India. He interpreted Quran in the light of modern rationalism and science. His greatest achievement was the establishment of the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College(Also known as Aligarh Muslim University) at Aligarh in 1875. Updated: May 20, 2016 11:20 IST The most important movement for the spread of modern education and social reform among Muslims was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898). He came from a family of nobles of the Mughal court. He joined the services of the East India Company as a judicial officer and remained loyal to them during the revolt of 1857, whereas the British rulers regarded the Muslims as their ‘real enemies and most dangerous rivals’ and followed a policy of discrimination against them. Syed Ahmad Khan was deeply concerned at the depressing situation of the Muslims and raising them from their backwardness became his life-long passion and aim. He strove hard to remove the hostility of the British rulers towards the Muslims. He appealed to the Muslims to return to the original Islamic principles of purity and simplicity.

  • He advocated English education for the regeneration of Muslims in India.
  • His emphasis on science particularly offended the orthodox Muslims.
  • He faced opposition from the orthodox sections of Muslims.
  • However, with courage and wisdom, he overcame these obstacles.
  • In 1864, he founded the Translation Society which was later renamed ‘The Scientific Society’,

The society was located at Aligarh. It published Urdu translations of English books on science and other subjects, and an English-Urdu journal for spreading liberal ideas on social reforms. He advocated the removal of many social prejudices that kept the community backward.

  1. His greatest achievement was the establishment of the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College (Also known as Aligarh Muslim University) at Aligarh in 1875,
  2. In course of time, this college became the most important educational institution of Indian Muslims.
  3. It provided for education in humanities and science throughout English medium and many of its staff members came from England.

The college received support from leading Muslims throughout India and the British showed much interest, both officially and otherwise in its development. The M.A.O. College which later became the Aligarh Muslim University fostered a modern outlook among the generations of students that studied there.

The movement of Muslim awakening associated with Syed Ahmad Khan and M.A.O. College came to be known as Aligarh Movement, He opposed the activities of the Indian national congress. He believed, like many other leaders at that time that Indians were not yet ready to govern themselves and that their interests would be best served by remaining loyal to the British rule.

He founded the Indian patriotic Association with the support of some Hindu and Muslim leaders to oppose the congress and tried to dissuade the Muslims from joining the congress. He emphasized the unity between Hindus and Muslims. Conclusion Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the greatest Muslim reformers of India.
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Who was the first Muslim leader to advise the Muslims to receive western education?

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan | Facts, Biography, History, & Education Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Sayyid also spelled Syad or Syed, Ahmad also spelled Ahmed, (born October 17, 1817, Delhi—died March 27, 1898,, India), Muslim educator, jurist, and author, founder of the at Aligarh,,, and the principal motivating force behind the revival of Indian in the late 19th century.

His works, in Urdu, included Essays on the Life of Mohammed (1870) and commentaries on the and on the, In 1888 he was made a Knight Commander of the, Sayyid’s family, though progressive, was highly regarded by the dying, His father, who received an allowance from the Mughal administration, became something of a religious recluse; his maternal grandfather had twice served as of the Mughal emperor of his time and had also held positions of trust under the,

Sayyid’s brother established one of the first printing presses at and started one of the earliest newspapers in, the principal language of the Muslims of northern India. The death of Sayyid’s father left the family in financial difficulties, and after a limited Sayyid had to work for his,

Starting as a clerk with the East India Company in 1838, he qualified three years later as a subjudge and served in the judicial department at various places. Sayyid Ahmad had a versatile personality, and his position in the judicial department left him time to be active in many fields. His career as an author (in Urdu) started at the age of 23 with religious tracts.

In 1847 he brought out a noteworthy book, Āthār aṣṣanādīd (“Monuments of the Great”), on the antiquities of Delhi. Even more important was his pamphlet, “The Causes of the Indian Revolt.” During the of 1857 he had taken the side of the British, but in this booklet he ably and fearlessly laid bare the weaknesses and errors of the British administration that had led to dissatisfaction and a countrywide explosion.

  1. Widely read by British officials, it had considerable influence on British policy.
  2. His interest in was also active and lifelong.
  3. He began a interpretation of the Bible, wrote Essays on the Life of Mohammed (translated into English by his son), and found time to write several volumes of a modernist commentary on the Qurʾān.

In these works he sought to harmonize the Islamic faith with the scientific and politically progressive ideas of his time. The supreme interest of Sayyid’s life was, however, education—in its widest sense. He began by establishing schools, at Muradabad (1858) and (1863).

A more ambitious undertaking was the foundation of the Scientific Society, which published translations of many educational texts and issued a bilingual journal—in Urdu and English. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. These institutions were for the use of all citizens and were jointly operated by Hindus and Muslims.

In the late 1860s there occurred developments that were to alter the course of his activities. In 1867 he was transferred to Benares, a city on the Ganges with great religious significance for the Hindus. At about the same time, a movement started at Benares to replace Urdu, the language by the Muslims, with Hindi.

  1. This movement and the attempts to substitute Hindi for Urdu in the publications of the Scientific Society convinced Sayyid that the paths of the Hindus and the Muslims must diverge.
  2. Thus, when during a visit to (1869–70) he prepared plans for a great educational institution, they were for “a Muslim Cambridge.” On his return he set up a committee for the purpose and also started an influential journal, Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq (“Social Reform”), for the “uplift and reform of the Muslim.” A Muslim school was established at Aligarh in May 1875, and, after his retirement in 1876, Sayyid devoted himself to enlarging it into a college.
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In January 1877 the foundation stone of the college was laid by the viceroy. In spite of opposition to Sayyid’s projects, the college made rapid progress. In 1886 Sayyid organized the All-India Muhammadan Educational Conference, which met annually at different places to promote education and to provide the Muslims with a common platform.

Until the founding of the in 1906, it was the principal national centre of Indian Islam. Sayyid advised the Muslims against joining active politics and to concentrate instead on education. Later, when some Muslims joined the, he came out strongly against that organization and its objectives, which included the establishment of in India.

He argued that in a where communal divisions were all-important and education and political organization were confined to a few classes, parliamentary would work only inequitably. Muslims, generally, followed his advice and abstained from politics until several years later, when they had established their own political organization.
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Who supported the cause of education among the Muslims in the 19th century?

The Aligarh Movement – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is best known for the Aligarh Movement — a systemic movement aimed at reforming the social, political and educational aspects of the Muslim community. He founded the Scientific Society in 1863 to translate major works in the sciences and modern arts into Urdu.

He released two journals to this end — The Aligarh Institute Gazette, which was an organ of the Scientific Society, and the Tehzibul Akhlaq, known as the Mohammedan Social Reformer in English. Khan’s most notable contribution to the field of education is establishing the Madarsatul Uloom in Aligarh in 1875, now known as the Aligarh Muslim University, a premier educational institution of the country.

He attempted to model the college on universities such as Oxford and Cambridge. His work on Muslim education was not limited to this alone — he wanted to create a network of educational institutions managed by Muslims and founded the All India Muslim Educational Conference.

  1. In 1886, he set up the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Education Congress, later renamed the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Educational Conference, to bring together education and culture.
  2. He emphasised the need for an autonomous Muslim institution free of any government funding.
  3. On this issue he said, “As long as we depend on Government for wants which are essentially of a domestic nature as education necessarily is, we really expect to get what is simply impossible to obtain.

The best educational institutions in Europe are either entirely or next to entirely free from any control of the government.” An avid historian, he was the first person to publish an archaeological study in an Indian language. As a result, he was also named as an honorary member of the Royal Asiatic Society.
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Who was the first person to help in Islamic history?

Timeline of early Islamic history

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This is a timeline of the early during the lifetime of, The information provided in this article is based Islamic oral tradition, not on historical or evidence. A separate list of military expeditions and battles is at,

N. Record, milestone or achievement Date Noteworthy facts Notable primary sources
1. Muhammad’s first revelation: 610

According to Islamic tradition, during one such occasion while he was in contemplation, the archangel appeared before him in the year 610 CE and said, ‘Recite’, upon which he replied, ‘I am unable to recite’. Thereupon the angel caught hold of him and embraced him heavily. This happened two more time after which the angel commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses: “Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- Who taught (the use of) the pen,-Taught man that which he knew not.”

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2. First Muslim Female convert: 610

When Muhammad reported his first revelation from the (), Khadija was the first female and second person to, second only to

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3 First Muslim Male convert: 610 Abu Bakr was the first person to accept Islam upon hearing about it from Muhammad for the first time. Prior to that Abu Bakr was a monotheist and also avoided alcohol and idol worshipping. Abu Bakr is considered to be the first Muslim convert according to a majority of historical sources.

  • Muhammad’s prominent companions (d.674), (d.687), and the Kufan scholar (d.714) claim Abu Bakr to be the first male convert.
  • Abu Bakr is also said to be the first male Muslim convert on accounts preserved by the historian,
  • Despite the conflicts, when talking about adult males, Abu Bakr was the first one to accept Islam.

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4 First Muslim Child convert: 610 , is said to have supported from his childhood and in some texts, is said to have converted to just after his birth. Ali was among the earliest Muslims, the first among young/children concerts.

  • is known among the earliest and youngest Muslim converts. The early historian and Tabari puts Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law as the first child convert; presents three candidates, and does not decide between them.
  • One account in Tabari says that the first male convert was, a freed slave who had become Muhammad’s adopted son. It is known that Ali was indeed one of the first persons to convert to Islam, however some dispute this arguing he was only 12 years old at the time he embraced Islam.
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5 First Public 613

Around 613, Muhammad began to preach to the public(Quran ). Most Meccans ignored him and mocked him, though a few became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.

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6 First Muslim /first Muslim to be killed: 615

Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Muhammad and his followers., a slave of a prominent Meccan leader, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith.

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7 First Muslim to be tortured: 615
  • When Bilal’s master, found out he had converted to Islam, he began violently to torture Bilal.
  • With instigating, Umayyah tied Bilal up and had him dragged around as a means to break Bilal’s faith. Frustrated upon Bilal’s refusal to denounce Islam, Umayyah became even more angry. He ordered that Bilal’s limbs were to be stretched out and tied to stakes lying flat on desert sand, so that he could feel the intensity of the sun and the Arabian heat. He would be whipped and beaten while tied to the stakes. Constantly refusing to denounce Islam, Umayyah became frustrated and ordered that a large boulder/stone be placed on Bilal’s chest. The boulder heated by the sun burned Bilal’s body while also crushing him.
  • After such punishments, news of this slave reached some of Muhammad’s companions who told Muhammad of the slave. Muhammad then sent Abu Bakr. Eventually, Abu Bakr negotiated a deal with Umayyah to purchase Bilal and emancipate him from slavery.

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8 First migration to another country: 615

In 615, some of Muhammad’s followers to the Aksumite Empire and founded a small colony. This was known as the

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9 First Muslim Ambassador and Envoy: September 621

Musab ibn Umair al-Abdari was the first Muslim Ambassador. He was sent to Yathrib (now ) to teach the people the doctrines of Islam and give them guidance Note: Author says it happened before the which happened in 622. Therefore, this event happened in 621

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10 First Muslim : 622

After Muhammad migrated to he appointed as the first Muslim

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11 First treaty/pledge of war made amongst Muslims: 622
  • Converts to Islam came from nearly all present in Medina, such that by June of the subsequent year there were seventy-five Muslims coming to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet, Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what was known as the ” Second Pledge of al-`Aqaba “, or “The Second Pledge of Mount Aqabah” where the pledge was made. It has been described by both Orientalists and Muslim scholars as ” Pledge of War “. Conditions of the pledge, many of which similar to the first, included obedience to Muhammad, “enjoining good and forbidding evil” as well as responding to the call to arms when required. The Muslim scholar also refers it to a pledge of war, Tabari wrote: “”the second al-‘Aqabah took the pledge of war”
  • It has been described a both a treaty and a pledge
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  • First military operation, and first offensive campaign:
  • First Muslim military commander:
623
  • According to (The Sealed Nectar), a modern of Muhammad written by the Indian Muslim author Safi ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, Muhammad ordered the first caravan raid led by (Muhammad’s uncle) seven to nine months after the Hijra. A party of thirty to forty men assembled at the seacoast near al-Is, between Mecca and Medina, where (Abu Jahl), the leader of the caravan was camping with three hundred Meccan riders.
  • Hamza met Abu Jahl there with a view to attack the caravan, but Majdi bin Amr al-Juhani, a Quraysh who was friendly to both the parties intervened between them; so, both parties separated without fighting.
  • It is mentioned in and ‘s biography of Muhammad (the earliest surviving biography of Muhammad from the 7th century), that for these caravan raids Muhammad gave permission to “plunder” the caravans of theirs enemies and seize their goods and property(s) and said: “Go forth against this caravan; it may be that Allah will grant you plunder”
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13 First Muslim to take part in actual fighting in the name of Islam: 623

In 623 Muhammad ordered the to raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas was the first person to fire an arrow in the name of Islam, it mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection “I heard Sa’d saying, “I was the first amongst the ‘Arabs who shot an arrow for Allah’s Cause. We used to fight along with the Prophet””,

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14 First peace treaty: August 623
  • Muhammad ordered the with the purpose of raiding Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty But the Caravan of Amr Bin Makhshi Al Dhamri of the Banu Damrah tribe was raided instead. Negotiations began and the two leaders signed a treaty with, According to Muslim scholar, the provisions of the pact/treaty go as follows:”This document is from Muhammad, the messenger of Allah, concerning the Banu Darmah. In which he (Muhamnmad)established them safety and security in their wealth and lives. They can expect support from the Muslims, unless they oppose the religion of Allah. They are also expected to respond positively if the prophet sought their help”
  • The treaty meant that both parties were forbidden from raiding each other, to join hostile concentrations against each other and to support each other’s enemies., saw this as a deliberate attempt by Muhammad to provoke the Meccan’s.

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  • First Muslim to kill another person in the name of Islam:
  • First person(s) taken captive by Muslims: Uthman bin Abdullah and Nawfal bin Abdullah
January 624
  • participated in the that was ordered by Muhammad. He was the first person to kill someone in the name of Islam. While they (the ) were busy preparing food during the Nakhla Raid, the Muslims attacked. In the short battle that took place, Waqid ibn Abdullah killed Amr ibn Hadrami by shooting arrow at the leader of the Quraysh caravan. Nawfal ibn Abdullah managed to escape. The Muslims took Uthman ibn Abdullah and al-Hakam ibn Kaysan as captives. Abdullah ibn Jahsh returned to Medina with the booty and with the two captured Quraysh tribe members. The followers planned to give one-fifth of the booty to Muhammad.
  • Also during the, Nawfal bin Abdullah was captured and taken prisoner by According to the Muslim scholar, Muhammad refused to accept ransom for Nawfal bin Abdullah and another captive, until he was sure his companions were safe, he also threatened to kill the captives. Muhammad said: “For we fear for their safety with you. If you kill them, we will kill your people”, Ibn Kathir cites 7th century biography of Muhammad as the primary source for this quote. The 2 companions in question were Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and `Utbah bin Ghazwan who had lost their camels and gotten lost, Muhammad feared the Quraysh my find them and kill them.
16 First assassination carried out by Muslims: or January 624
  • Muhammad ordered the killing of ‘Asma’ bint Marwan for opposing Muhammad with poetry and for provoking others to attack him
  • For those scholar who consider this as unreliable Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf is considered the first person to be assassinated by Muslims
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17 First assassination carried out by Muslims: September 624

According to, Muhammad ordered his followers to kill Ka’b because he “had gone to Mecca after Badr and inveighed against Muhammad. He also composed verses in which he bewailed the victims of Quraysh who had been killed at Badr. Shortly afterwards he returned to Medina and composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women”.

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18 First person(s) to be beheaded and executed by Muslims: and March 624

According to the Muslim scholar, after the two captives – Nadr bin Harith and were beheaded by, Mubarakpuri mentions that this incident about the beheading is also mentioned in the no 2686 and Anwal Ma’bud 3/12 The Muslim scholar mentions that is also about this incident

no 2686 and Anwal Ma’bud 3/12

19 First Siege carried out by Muslims: February 624
  • Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Qaynuqa Jews for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which lead to her being stripped naked
  • As a result, a Muslim killed a Jew in retaliation, and the Jews in turn killed the Muslim man. This escalated to a chain of revenge killings, and enmity grew between Muslims and the Banu Qaynuqa, leading to the siege of their fortress. : 122  The tribe eventually surrendered to Muhammad, who initially wanted to kill the members of Banu Qaynuqa but ultimately yielded to Abdullah ibn Ubayy’s insistence and agreed to expel the Qaynuqa.
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20 First person to try and assassinate Muhammad: during the September 624

Ghwarath ibn al-Harith was the first person to try and assassinate Muhammad during the, According to Muslim scholar Sami Strauch, it is reported in that it was raining, and Muhammad took his garments off and hung it on a tree to dry, while the enemy was watching, Ghwarath ibn al-Harith went to attack Muhammad. He threatened Muhammad with his sword and said “who will protect you from me on this day”. Then according to Muslim Scholars the Angel came and thumped Ghawrath in the chest and forced him to drop his sword. Muhammad then picked up the sword and said “who will protect you from me”.

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21 First defensive military campaign: March 625

The purpose of the was to defend against a Quraysh attack. According to the Muslim scholar Dr. Mosab Hawarey, this battle was the first truly defensive military campaign. All military campaigns prior to this were of an offensive nature

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22 First Muslim missionaries to be killed:, and during the 625
  • Some men requested that Muhammad send instructors to teach them Islam, but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the (chief of the tribe) by Muhammad’s followers.8 or 10 Muslims were killed
  • According to the seven men Muhammad sent may have been spies for Muhammad and instructors for Arab tribes. Watt’s claim that they were spies and not missionaries is mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection, The 7th century Muslim scholar also mentioned that they were spies but a tribe did come to them requesting to teach Islam but Muhammad decided to send them for spying to inform him about the,
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23 First Massacre of Muslims: July 625

Muhammad sends Missionaries at request of some men from the Banu Amir tribe, but the Muslims are killed as revenge for the by Muhammad’s followers.70 Muslims were killed and 2 Non-Muslims were killed

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24 First massacre carried out by Muslims: February–March 627
  • Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel, claims Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was torn apart. and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi. Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable.
  • 600-900 members of the Banu Qurayza were beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham). Another source says all Males and 1 woman beheaded (Sunni Hadith).2 Muslim’s were killed
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25 First woman captured by Muhammad as : March 627

After the as part of his share of the spoils, Muhammad selected one of the women,, for himself and took her as, Muhammad offered to free and marry her and according to some sources she accepted his proposal. She is said to have later become a Muslim. Watt, “Kurayza, Banu”

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26 First Muslim treasurer: 630

Muhammad appointed as the first Muslim after he completed his conquest of the

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Who started Islamic education in India?

Century by one pious Sufi scholar namely Hazrat Khwaja Sheikh Tamiz Uddin (d-1899 AD). He with the help of his wife Saghira Banu was able to establish Islamic School for ladies and female children. During the Muslim period a particular kind of education system was prevalent in all over India.
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Who is known as prophet of education?

Muslims of India – ‘ Sir Sayyid was a prophet of education ‘ (Mahatma Gandhi) ‘The real greatness of the man (Sir Sayyid) consists in the fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it” (Sir Allama Iqbal) ‘Sir Sayyid was an ardent reformer and he wanted to
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Who led the movement for the spread of modern education among Muslims?

Who among the following had led the Aligarh Movement? Option 3 : Syed Ahmad Khan Free 100 Questions 100 Marks 90 Mins The Correct Answer is ” Syed Ahmad Khan “. Important Points

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the greatest Muslim reformers of India. He interpreted Quran in the light of modern rationalism and science. His greatest achievement was the establishment of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (Also known as Aligarh Muslim University ) at Aligarh in 1875, The most important movement for the spread of modern education and social reform among Muslims was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898). In 1864, he founded the Translation Society which was later renamed ‘ The Scientific Society’. The society was located at Aligarh.

Additional Information Abul Kalam Azad Kalam Azad :

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was t he first Education Minister of India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad became the youngest President of the INC in 1923 in a special session held in Delhi. He was also elected presided of the 1940 session in Ramgarh. He was a revolutionary poet, journalist, activist, and freedom fighter who was also awarded the country’s highest honor – Bharat Ratna.

Muhammad Iqbal :

Sir Muhammad Iqbal was a South Asian Muslim writer, philosopher, and politician. ” Sare Jahan se Accha” known as “Tarānah-e-Hindi” is an Urdu language patriotic song written by poet Muhammad Iqbal.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah :

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a barrister, politician, and founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until the inception of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, and then as the Dominion of Pakistan’s first Governor-General until his death.

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Who is the founder of Aligarh Movement?

Cited sources –

  • Ansari, Asloob Ahmad (2001). Sir Syed Ahmad Khan: A Centenary Tribute, Adam Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7435-276-7,
  • Hasan, Tariq (2006). The Aligarh Movement and the Making of the Indian Muslim Mind, 1857–2002, Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0847-0,
  • Kidwai, Shafey (2020). Sir Syed Ahmad Khan: Reason, Religion and Nation, Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-000-29773-7,
  • Lelyveld, David (1975). Aligarh’s First Generation: Muslim Solidarity and English Education in Northern India, 1875–1900, University of Chicago, Department of History.
  • Minault, Gail; Lelyveld, David (1974). “The Campaign for a Muslim University, 1898–1920”, Modern Asian Studies,8 (2): 145–189. doi : 10.1017/S0026749X00005448, ISSN 0026-749X, JSTOR 311636,
  • Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad (1966). Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Public Resource. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. ISBN 978-8123025131,
  • Jaleel, Shahid (2004). The Aligarh movement, a chapter in the history of Indian education (phd thesis). Aligarh Muslim University.
  • Shan Muhammad (2002). Education and Politics: From Sir Syed to the Present Day : the Aligarh School, APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-275-2,
  • Lambert-Hurley, Siobhan (2004). “Fostering Sisterhood: Muslim Women and the All-India Ladies’ Association”, Journal of Women’s History,16 (2): 40–65. doi : 10.1353/jowh.2004.0047, ISSN 1527-2036, S2CID 144662758,
  • Samiuddin, Abida; Khanam, Rashida (2002). Muslim Feminism and Feminist Movement: India, Global Vision Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-87746-30-0,
  • Sajjad, Mohammad (2014). Contesting Colonialism and Separatism: Muslims of Muzaffarpur since 1857, Delhi: Primus/Ratnasagar. ISBN 978-9384082048,
  • Raza, Syed; Kumar, Subodh (2011). “The Muslim Elite of Bihar and their Responses to the modern education (from the mid of the 19th Century to the beginning of the 20th century)”, Proceedings of the Indian History Congress,72 : 884–891. ISSN 2249-1937, JSTOR 44146779,

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Who was the leader of Aligarh Movement?

A Short Note on Aligarh Movement In the later years of the 19th century, the Aligarh movement was an initiative to set up a system of Western-style scientific education in British India for the Muslim population. The origin of the movement is from Aligarh, which is where it has derived its name from.
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Who promoted the idea of public schools first?

In the 1830s, Horace Mann, a Massachusetts legislator and secretary of that state’s board of education, began to advocate for the creation of public schools that would be universally available to all children, free of charge, and funded by the state.
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Who is the father of two nation theory?

Who gave two nation theory? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was regarded as the principal architect of the Two-Nation theory as he provided a modern idiom in which to express the quest for Islamic identity. The two-nation theory is an ideology of religious nationalism which significantly influenced the Indian subcontinent following its independence from the British Empire. For further reading check the following articles:

: Who gave two nation theory? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Who founded Islam and when did he begin teaching the religion?

Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity, with about 1.8 billion Muslims worldwide. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions.
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Who supported the education movement?

A major reform movement that won widespread support was the effort to make education available to more children. The man who led this movement was Horace Mann, “the father of American public schools.” As a boy in Massachusetts, he attended school only 10 weeks a year.

The rest of the time, he had to work on the family farm. Few areas had public schools-schools paid for by taxes. Wealthy parents sent their children to private school or hired tutors at home. On the frontier, 60 children might attend a part-time, one-room school. Their teachers had limited education and received little pay.

Most children simply did not go to school. In the cities, some poor children stole, destroyed property, and set fires. Reformers believed that education would help these children escape poverty and become good citizens. In Massachusetts, Horace Mann became the state’s supervisor of education.

  • The citizens voted to pay taxes to build better schools, to pay teachers higher salaries and to establish special training schools for teachers.
  • In addition, Mann lengthened the school year to 6 months and made improvements in school curriculum.
  • By the mid-1800s, most states had accepted three basic principles of public education: that school should be free and supported by taxes, that teachers should be trained and that children should be required to attend school.

By 1850, many states in the North and West used Mann’s ideas. But America still did not offer education to everyone. Most high schools and colleges did not admit females. When towns did allow African Americans to attend school, most made them go to separate schools that received less money.

  • Education for women did make some progress.
  • In 1837, Ohio’s Oberlin College became the first college to accept women, in addition to men.
  • In 1837, Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke, teh nation’s first permanent women’s college.
  • Some reformers focused on teaching people with disabilities.
  • Thomas Galludet, who developed a method to education people who were hearing impaired, opened the Hartford School for the Deaf in Connecticut in 1817.

At about the same time, Dr. Samuel Howe advanced the cause of those who were visually impaired. He developed books with large raised letters that people with sigh impairments could “read” with their fingers. Howe headed the Perkins Institute, a schools for the blind, in Boston.8th Grade Final Exam in 1895 ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was written about a time during the middle of the 1800s when many people were not able to get a formal education.

  • Huck’s father told Huck what he thought about school learning.
  • ‘And looky here – you drop that school, you hear? I’ll learn people to bring up a boy to put on airs over his own father and let on to be better’n what he is.
  • You lemme catch you fooling around that school again, you hear? Your mother couldn’t read, and she couldn’t write, nuther, before she died.

None of the family couldn’t before they died. I can’t; and here you’re a-swelling yourself up like this. I ain’t the man to stand it – you hear?.'” Eighty years later To Kill a Mockingbird was written about the 1930s. Like Huckleberry Finn’s father, Scout’s father Atticus Finch did not go to school.

“I suppose she chose me because she knew my name; as I read the alphabet a faint line appeared between her eyebrows, and after making me read most of My First Reader and the stock market quotations from The Mobile Register aloud, she discovered that I was literate and looked at me with more than faint distaste.

Miss Caroline told me to tell my father not to teach me any more, it would interfere with my reading. “‘Teach me?’I said in surprise. “He hasn’t taught me anything. Miss Caroline. Atticus ain’t got time to teach me anything,” I added, when Miss Caroline smiled and shook her head.
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Who was the leader of education reform during the 19th century?

ENGL405: Educational Reforms | Saylor Academy Horace Mann championed education reform that helped to expand state-sponsored public education in the 1800s.
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Who is the first boy in Islam?

First male Muslim – The identity of the first male to profess Islam is disputed. Shia and some Sunni sources introduce Ali as the first male convert, aged between nine and eleven. This is reported by the Sunni Ibn Hisham ( d. 833 ) in his recension of al-Sirat al-nabawiya by Ibn Ishaq ( d.

  1. 767 ). Similar reports appear in the works of the Sunni authors Ibn Sa’d ( d.
  2. 845 ) and al-Suyuti ( d. 1505 ).
  3. Ali also claimed to have been the second male Muslim after Muhammad in al-Qasi’a, a sermon attributed to him in Nahj al-balagha,
  4. Among contemporary authors, this is also the view of Momen, Nasr and Afsaruddin, Huart, Esposito, McHugo, Abbas, and Kelen, while Watt ( d.

2006 ) accepts the list of early Muslims in al-Sirat al-nabawiya as “roughly accurate.” Other Sunni sources identify Abu Bakr or Muhammad’s adopted son Zayd as the first male convert. In particular, al-Tabari ( d. 923 ) lists contradictory Sunni traditions about Ali, Abu Bakr, and Zayd, thus leaving the decision to the reader.

Gleave is certain that these contradictory accounts are affected by later Shia and Sunni preferences, though he writes that the earliest existing records place Ali before Abu Bakr. Watt also comments on this topic, saying that Abu Bakr’s status after Muhammad’s death might have been reflected back into the early Islamic records.

Sunni sources often describe Ali as the first child to embrace Islam, while the significance of Ali’s Islam has been questioned by Watt and the Sunni al-Jahiz ( d. 869 ). Alternatively, the Shia Ibn Shahrashub ( d. 1192 ) writes that Ali understood the message of Muhammad despite his early age, which he views as a merit for Ali.

He adds that Jesus and John the Baptist were given wisdom in childhood, according to the Quran. About three years later, Ali is said to have been the only person to offer his support when Muhammad openly invited his relatives to Islam. Muhammad then called Ali his brother, his trustee, and his successor, which was met with ridicule from the infamous Abu Lahab, as reported by Shia authors and some others, including Ibn Ishaq and al-Tabari.

In Shia sources, not only Ali was the first male convert but he also never practiced idolatry, having been raised by Muhammad from a young age. This places him in Shia view above Abu Bakr, who a middle-aged man at the time of his conversion.
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Who is the brave man in Islamic history?

Muslim military leaders –

  • Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد‎, pronounced ;c.570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was a prophet, Arab religious, social, and political leader. The prophet led the muslims against the tribes of Arabia. Most of Arabia was annexed in his life time in a series of coordinated campaigns. The most notable battles were Battle of Badr, Battle of Uhud, Battle of the trench, and Conquest of Mecca,
  • Khalid ibn al-Walid (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد), also known as “The Sword of Allah” (a title bestowed upon him by prophet Muhammad), was an Arab Muslim commander who was in the service of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the caliphs Abu Bakr ( r.632–634 ) and Umar ( r.634–644 ). He played a leading role in the Ridda wars against rebel tribes in Arabia in 632–633 and the early Muslim conquests of Sasanian Iraq in 633–634 and Byzantine Syria in 634–638. Khalid ibn al-Walid was one of the few undefeated generals in history.
  • Abu Bakr (Arabic: أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ ابي قحافة‎; c.573 CE – 23 August 634 CE) was the first Muslim convert, first Imam, a senior companion as well as the first caliph of Islam and the founder of the Rashidun Caliphate, He has been called “The first to raise sword for Muhammad” when he and Muhammad faced serious oppression from Mecca. During his reign, he overcame a number of uprisings, collectively known as the Ridda wars, as a result of which he was able to consolidate and expand the rule of the Muslim state over the entire Arabian peninsula. He also commanded the initial incursions into the neighboring Sassanian and Byzantine empires, which in the years following his death, would eventually result in the Muslim conquests of Persia and the Levant.
  • Umar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب‎; c. 583/584 – 3 November 644), also known as Umar or Omar, was the second Rashidun caliph. He is generally viewed by historians as one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior companion and father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Under Umar, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire, His attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years (642–644). According to Jewish tradition, Umar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship.
  • Uthman (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان‎, romanized: ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; c. 573/576 – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was a second cousin, son-in-law and notable companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the third of the Rāshidun, or “Rightly Guided Caliphs”. Born into a prominent Meccan clan, Banu Umayya of the Quraysh tribe, he played a major role in early Islamic history, and is known for having ordered the compilation of the standard version of the Quran. When Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab died in office aged 59/60 years, Uthman, aged 64/65 years, succeeded him and was the second-oldest to rule as Caliph.
  • Ali (Arabic: عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب‎, ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661), nicknamed Haidar (‘Lion’), was the fourth Rashidun caliph and the first Shia Imam, He was a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Ali is traditionally considered to be one of the greatest and one of the most valiant Muslim warriors. He took part in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. Saluted as Asadullah (literally, “the lion of God”), After Khalid Bin Walid, Ali has been viewed as the most able warrior in Muhammad’s army and the two were the only Muslim men who represented Islam against a Christian delegation from Najran, His contributions in the Battle of Khyber and the Battle of Badr are very well known.
  • Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib was a foster brother, companion and paternal uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, He was Martyred in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri). His kunyas were “Abū ʿUmārah” : 2  ( أَبُو عُمَارَةَ ) and “Abū Yaʿlā” : 3  ( أَبُو يَعْلَىٰ ). He had the by-names Asad Allāh : 2  ( أَسَد ٱللَّٰه, ” Lion of God “) and Asad al- Jannah ( أَسَد ٱلْجَنَّة, “Lion of Heaven “), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid ash- Shuhadāʾ ( سَيِّد ٱلشُّهَدَاء ).
  • ] Hassan Ibn Ali (Arabic:حسن ابن علی ), also known as ‘Sebt e rasool'(Son of Prophet Muhammadؐ)

Was the 5th Rashidun caliph,

Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet, Saʿd was reportedly the seventh person to embrace Islam, which he did at the age of seventeen. He is mainly known for his commandership in the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah and in the conquest of Persia in 636, his governorship over Persia, and his diplomatic sojourns to China in 651.

  • Amr ibn al-As was the Arab commander who led the raid on Dhat al-Salasil and Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664.
  • Al-Qa’qa’ ibn Amr al-Tamimi was a successful Military Commander who took part in two important victorious battles in early Muslim Conquest, the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantine Empire (commanded by Khalid ibn al-Walid ) and the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah against the Sassanian Empire which was led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, The Caliph Abu Bakr praised him as an equal to eleven thousand men.
  • Abdallah ibn Sa’d, during his time as governor of Egypt (646 CE to 656 CE), Abdallah ibn Sa’d built a strong Arab navy. Under his leadership the Muslim navy won a number of victories including its first major naval battle against the Byzantine emperor Constans II at the Battle of the Masts in 654 CE.

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Who helped to spread Islam?

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The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. Soon after the death of the prophet Muhammad, there were military expeditions, called “futuhat,” or literally “openings,” into what is now Egypt and other parts of North Africa.

In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce. The following is a brief timeline that highlights some of the major occurrences in Islam’s development, as well as the geographical spread of Islam to some of the countries featured in the film.570 C.E. Muhammad is born in Mecca. He comes from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and upright character.610 C.E.

According to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Mecca. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet. Later, Muhammad is told to call his people to the worship of the one God, but they react with hostility and begin to persecute him and his followers.622 C.E.

  1. After enduring persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers migrate to the nearby town of Yathrib (later to be known as Medina), where the people there accepted Islam.
  2. This marks the “hijrah” or “emigration,” and the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
  3. In Medina, Muhammad establishes an Islamic state based on the laws revealed in the Quran and the inspired guidance coming to him from God.

Eventually he begins to invite other tribes and nations to Islam.630 C.E. Muhammad returns to Mecca with a large number of his followers. He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The prophet clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba and rededicates it to the worship of God alone.633 C.E.

  1. Muhammad dies after a prolonged illness.
  2. The Muslim community elects his father-in-law and close associate, Abu Bakr, as caliph, or successor.638 C.E.
  3. Muslims enter the area north of Arabia, known as “Sham,” including Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq.641 C.E.
  4. Muslims enter Egypt and rout the Byzantine army.

Muslims consider their conquest as the liberation of subjugated people, since in most instances they were under oppressive rule.655 C.E. Islam begins to spread throughout North Africa.661 C.E. Imam Ali is killed, bringing to an end the rule of the four “righteous caliphs”: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.

  1. This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad rule.711 C.E.
  2. Muslims enter Spain in the west and India in the east.
  3. Eventually almost the entire Iberian Peninsula is under Islamic control.732 C.E.
  4. Muslims are defeated at Potiers in France by Charles Martel.750 C.E.
  5. The Abbasids take over rule from the Umayyads, shifting the seat of power to Baghdad.1000 C.E.

Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including Nigeria, which served as a trading liaison between the northern and central regions of Africa.1099 C.E. European Crusaders take Jerusalem from the Muslims. Eventually Muslims defeat the Crusaders and regain control of the holy land.1120 C.E.

Islam continues to spread throughout Asia. Malaysian traders interact with Muslims who teach them about Islam.1299 C.E. The earliest Ottoman state is formed in Anatolia, Turkey.1453 C.E. Ottomans conquer the Byzantine seat of Constantinople and change its name to Istanbul. Circa 1800 C.E. Approximately 30 percent of Africans forced into slavery in the United States are Muslim.1870-1924 C.E.

Muslim immigrants from the Arab world voluntarily come to the United States until the Asian Exclusion Act is passed in 1924. World War I ends with the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, which was the last of the Islamic empires. Many regions populated by Muslims in Africa and Asia are colonized by Europeans.

  1. Traditional religious ways of life are threatened and, in some cases, destroyed.1930 C.E.
  2. The Nation of Islam is created in the U.S. by W.D. Fard.
  3. It is based on some Islamic ideas, but contains innovations, such as the appointment or declaration of Elijah Muhammad as a prophet.1948 C.E.
  4. The state of Israel is created.

Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees flee to the United States, among them, Muslims and Christians.1952 C.E. The McCarren-Walter Act relaxes the U.S. ban on Asian immigration. Muslim students come to the U.S. from many nations.1965 C.E. Revisions of immigration law further open the doors for Muslim immigration.1975 C.E.
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Who was a great teacher of Islam?

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: The First Teacher and Practitioner in Islamic Finance. The most beloved personality is the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. He is unlike any other human being. He is the final messenger of Allah and the noblest creation.
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Who started Islamic education in India?

Century by one pious Sufi scholar namely Hazrat Khwaja Sheikh Tamiz Uddin (d-1899 AD). He with the help of his wife Saghira Banu was able to establish Islamic School for ladies and female children. During the Muslim period a particular kind of education system was prevalent in all over India.
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Who started preaching about Islam?

The Holy Prophet Muhammad
مُحَمَّد
“Muhammad, the Messenger of God.” inscribed on the gates of the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina
Personal
Born c.  570 CE (53 BH ) Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
Died 8 June 632 (11 AH ) (aged 61–62) Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
Resting place Green Dome at al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina, Arabia 24°28′03″N 39°36′41″E  /  24.46750°N 39.61139°E
Spouse See Muhammad’s wives
Children See Muhammad’s children
Parent(s) Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (father) Amina bint Wahb (mother)
Known for Founding Islam
Other names
  • Rasūl Allāh (Messenger of God)
  • (see Names and titles of Muhammad )
Relatives Family tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt (“Family of the House”)
Arabic name
Personal ( Ism ) Muḥammad
Patronymic ( Nasab ) Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭālib ibn Hāshim ibn ʿAbd Manāf ibn Quṣayy ibn Kilāb
Teknonymic ( Kunya ) ʾAbu al-Qāsim
Epithet ( Laqab ) Ḵhātam an-Nabiyyīn (Seal of the Prophets)

Muhammad ( Arabic : مُحَمَّد ; c.570 – 8 June 632 CE ) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam, According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets,

  1. He is believed to be the Seal of the Prophets within Islam.
  2. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.
  3. Muhammad was born approximately 570 CE in Mecca,
  4. He was the son of Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Amina bint Wahb,

His father Abdullah was the son of Quraysh tribal leader Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, and he died a few months before Muhammad’s birth. His mother Amina died when he was six, leaving Muhammad an orphan. He was raised under the care of his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, and paternal uncle, Abu Talib,

  • In later years, he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer.
  • When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave and receiving his first revelation from God.
  • In 613, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that ” God is One “, that complete “submission” ( islām ) to God is the right way of life ( dīn ), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam,

Muhammad’s followers were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists for 13 years. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622.

  • This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar.
  • In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina,
  • In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca,

The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam,
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Who is known as prophet of education?

Muslims of India – ‘ Sir Sayyid was a prophet of education ‘ (Mahatma Gandhi) ‘The real greatness of the man (Sir Sayyid) consists in the fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it” (Sir Allama Iqbal) ‘Sir Sayyid was an ardent reformer and he wanted to
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