Which Has Changed The Field Of Education?
Changes in the Field of Education The future of any society is defined by the learning it provides to its children. These children are the ones who ensure to continue the social and economic progress of a country. The learning and methods of disseminating knowledge has been evolving continuously for better learning and behavioral outcomes.
- When it comes to education in countries like India, the evolution in last few years has been certain and swift.
- Technology has contributed variously to supplement the human effort to improve the reach and the content.
- The advent of smartphones and low-cost data have accelerated this development and has started democratizing the learning.
There are 3 important developments in the field of education –
Improvement in reach – The biggest change that has been effected in the field of education is the universal reach. Students located in the remotest of the places can now be accessed and educated with the help of technology. There have been efforts by various governments to ensure every child is educated and technology is supplementing the governmental efforts effectively. This has resulted in improved literacy rate in the country irrespective of gender, caste and geographical location. Innovation in curriculum – For many years the school level curriculum was only introducing students to the concepts and was not connected to the world around. Of late, there have been conscious efforts to include various mediums in curriculum. The emphasis is on presenting concepts to children in a way, which are easy to understand. Connecting these to various phenomena that children experience regularly has improved their understanding. Use of videos to explain complex processes and including toy models, puppets and folk songs have helped students grasp the lectures much better. Teacher training has played an important role in ensuring that these innovations are executed well in the classrooms, thereby positively influencing both the behaviour and learning. Focus on skills – For far too long, the education in India was focused on rote learning. There was an emphasis on learning languages and basic concepts of STEM subjects. Unfortunately, this learning was not preparing learners to enter a profession. The students were required to join a professional course post their schooling to learn about specific professions and start earning. With changes initiated in schools where extra effort is made to address the above issue is one of the most impactful change felt over last few years.
Pradeep Richa Educare Foundation is contributing to these developments in the educational world. It is using innovative ways to reach students. The focus on career guidance and courses like computer basics, spoken English are creating a confident and self-sufficient student. : Changes in the Field of Education
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- 1 Who changed the field of education?
- 2 What changes will there be in the field of education?
- 3 How has education changed in the last decade?
- 4 How is education nowadays?
Who changed the field of education?
We take so much of today’s education system for granted, as though the way we teach young people has always been the way it is. Truth be told, however, it took years, even generations to develop our present level of understanding when it comes to the process of learning.
One remarkable thing about the development of education, though, is how much of it has been the result of a few individuals with genius and dedication and a sincere desire to improve the lives of young people. This is something we at Tutor Doctor can appreciate, since we’re on the front lines, working with students every single day.
Here are five educators, mostly unknown to those outside the field of education, who really made a difference.1. Horace Mann (1796-1859) Mann was an extraordinary person who lived and worked in the early years of the American republic. He was a politician from Massachusetts, serving in the state legislature and, later, in the House of Representatives in Washington.
The true passion of Horace Mann, however, was to shape the new nation into a modern, prosperous, leading-edge nation, and the main path toward this goal, in his view, was education. He led the charge for an education system that was accessible to all, and for free. But he didn’t just want schools to squeeze knowledge into the mind of children – he wanted to instil character, to make sure that future citizens would be dedicated, hardworking and have loads of character.
Mann not only played a central role in the creation of public education, he was massively influential in creating American values.2. Margaret Bancroft (1854-1912) Margaret Bancroft is truly one of those people to whom “world changer” fully applies. Before she came along, any child who had special needs was pretty much considered a lost cause.
- But Margaret Bancroft saw potential in those kids.
- She started her own school, with the unbelievable name “Haddonfield School for the Mentally Deficient and Peculiarly Backward,” and got to work with a broad regimen of healthy eating, exercise, arts, music and constant experimentation with lessons geared toward every kind of special needs student.
Because she never gave up on her students, she learned techniques that allowed them to get an education instead of being labelled and discarded. She changed society’s thinking, and so now, to this day, kids with exceptionalities are valued.3. Maria Montessori (1870-1952) If the name Montessori rings a bell, it should.
- Maria Montessori lived in Italy, and in fact was the first woman in Italy to become a medical doctor.
- After her education, she got a job in a mental hospital.
- There were children there who were considered mentally ill or deficient, but Montessori found that with attention and skill, these students could be inspired to find a passion for learning no one had thought possible.
Afterwards, working with often-neglected children of poor families, she experimented with the kind of early childhood educational techniques we now take for granted: child-sized furniture, educational activities, and letting kids decide what they want to do and how to do it.
- She found that kids work best when given a bit of freedom rather than under the old approach, which involved strict, often severe discipline.
- She essentially created early childhood education.4.
- John Holt (1923-1985) If you’ve got a kid in public or private school, you’ve probably never heard of John Holt.
But if you homeschool, chances are you’ve read at least some of his work – and if you haven’t you should! You see, Holt’s writing provided much of the scientific basis for homeschooling. Like so many teachers, he went from college to teaching, but very quickly became intensely frustrated with the public school system.
- He found it conformist, rigid and inflexible.
- He later conducted research that indicated most kids perform better in atmospheres with flexibility, using learning approaches tailored to their own specific needs.
- He played a key role in raising the legitimacy of homeschooling, and his book, Teach Your Own, is still the bible of the home-teaching world.
Today homeschooling continues to grow by leaps and bounds, something that’s hard to imagine without Holt’s research and writings.5. Howard Gardner, (1943- Some of the approaches and techniques used throughout the history of education were based on observation, but a lot of it has been based on practical needs, availability of resources and just plain assumptions about what works best – indeed the basic structure of classroom learning, with a teacher standing in front of rows of students behind desks, hasn’t changed much in the past 150 years or so.
- Howard Gardner, however, came along and started asking some tough questions about how the human brain actually learns.
- His research resulted in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which posits the idea that different people have different brains that best learn in different ways.
- His work has been widely supported by research.
His original list of intelligences (also known as learning style) has grown to nine distinct styles, and the list continues to grow. Gardner’s work has thrown into question the idea of a single one-size-fits-all approach to education, but educators still struggle to transform Gardner’s theories into practical change.
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What changes will there be in the field of education?
The formal classroom will be replaced by learning areas that allow individuals, small groups or larger groups to collaborate face-to-face or virtually on learning projects.
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What are the changes that technology has brought in the field of education?
This post has been updated from a 2016 post Here’s an analogy to help understand the potential of technology in learning. It’s a bit clumsy but bear with me. Think of a teacher as an employee at a department store. Using store guidelines and frameworks for merchandising, an employee will go back to the stock room and grab products and widgets to then place on the sales floor in some recognizable way that doesn’t take up too much space and is easy to shop.
- What that employee chooses to put out on the floor depends on a variety of factors, among them what’s selling, what’s in stock, and what priorities managers have placed on specific items.
- While an established process that’s ‘worked for years,’ this model is limited as it is entirely governed by store policy, and the speed of a small handful of employees to stock.
While fine in slower retail environments, in a busy store this system gets taxed very quickly. Missing sizes, incorrect pricing, low inventory on high-demand items, etc. In this (labored) analogy, the teacher is the employee, surveying the sales floor, going back to the ‘stock room’ to ‘grab’ content (in the form of standards), then packaging these standards in a way that ‘shoppers’ (i.e., students) can–and want to–use.
- The students shop (through compulsion) what the teachers put out.
- But if you can add relevant technology to the equation, access changes at the ground level because the teacher is no longer the bottleneck (or, functioning in a well-designed system, the overworked employee).
- To be fair, it’s true that this human ‘bottleneck’ plays a vital role in the process–being capable of a kind of art of understanding both students and content to design learning experiences accordingly.
Unfortunately, this process has still proven artificially limited, placing an enormous burden on the well-intentioned teacher to make magic happen every single day for every single student. (In fact, in response we’ve learned to silently accept much, much less than magic; teachers want proficiency, parents want good grades, and the goals of the students are entirely subverted either way if they are recognized and cultivated at all.) The BBC also cited a study that says that technology actually hurts student achievement but each is more than a decade old now.
A more recent summary offers mixed evidence of positive effects. In a NY Times article from 2012, a neuroscientist made an interesting point, “His own research shows what happens to attention and focus in mice when they undergo the equivalent of heavy digital stimulation. Students saturated by entertainment media, he said, were experiencing a “supernatural” stimulation that teachers might have to keep up with or simulate.
The heavy technology use, Dr. Christakis said, “makes reality by comparison uninteresting.” The Impact Of Education Technology On Student Achievement: What The Most Current Research Has To Say is an overview of the impact of technology on education from 2012 from the Milken Exchange on Education Technology.
While there was clear evidence of positive impact on ‘student achievement’ across the studies, there was a significant caution offered by the study’s summary which will sound familiar to readers: “There is, however, evidence in some of these studies that learning technology is less effective or ineffective when the learning objectives are unclear and the focus of technology use is diffuse.” Put another way, the problem isn’t how effective is or is not, but in how closely it parallels the real world students live in.
But in lieu of seemingly positive data, the study is flawed from the beginning because it asks the wrong question. We continue to measure the ‘effectiveness’ of education in confounding ways. In What Works In Education And How Do We Know?, I speculated that, as it is, it seems that “to be effective in education then means to promote proficiency of academic standards for the greatest number of students.” And that’s crazy.
Changing World, Changing Roles What technology and all of its assorted gadgets do is provide a direct connection between the shoppers and the product–the students and the content. This means students are no longer shopping neatly organized end-cap displays full pre-packaged items, but rather the raw, unfiltered product.
Stuff. Content. Of course, this isn’t perfect–and presents new challenges for schools and districts, as well as thought leaders in education trying to understand how to best leverage all of the simultaneous possibilities: mobile learning, game-based learning, eLearning, blended learning, and project-based learning tools–and all wedged into classrooms (or remote classrooms), curriculum, and other pieces of the puzzle not necessarily built to accommodate them.
Bandwidth, privacy, safety, assessment, cost, access, using new tools in old learning models, and even the reality that all of these tools can end up making teachers work harder rather than saving them time or helping them become more efficient. Textbooks were–for a while and as far as they were–successful because they allowed for ‘1:1′ access of students to content, but that content was built around traditional genres of math, science, history, and literature, and with a dreadfully boring delivery system to boot (a 400-page book loaded with essay questions).
Bad packaging. Instead of a thousand books (on a thousand different topics) classrooms only needed one. But what’s more interesting, the way the Venturi effect literally lifts a 40-ton plane into the sky, or ‘science’? The way viruses mutate in almost sentient ways to respond to their environment, or ‘biology’? Emily Dickinson’s lifelong struggle to understand the will of God, or ‘Language Arts’? The way minor disadvantages in access to resources can ensure a civilization’s ultimate collapse, or ‘History’? So then maybe we need to go back to a thousand.
Or millions, because books, essays, poems, social media, and the internet itself aren’t packaged in ‘content areas’ and if they are–for example, an app designed to deliver pure standards-based math instruction–it probably isn’t significantly better than a good old-fashioned textbook coupled with a charismatic teacher.
This suggests we ask some questions: What is the role then of ‘content areas’? Do they still make sense in the 21st century? How does access to technology impact the way content–whether in traditional areas or not–is delivered? Do modern digital content distribution models (like YouTube’s ) suggest new ways of thinking about information and knowledge, and the difference between the two? How does access to Google impact modern knowledge demands? M ore broadly, how can we best package content in the 21st century in light of the tremendous access to content students have? And what is the role of the teacher as everything, moment by moment, continues to churn and change? The less accurate and intelligent our collective response, the further formal ‘schooling’ will retreat into a shadowy irrelevance.
How has technology changed the way we teach and learn? The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Technology in Education Technology has revolutionized the teaching and learning process in many ways. It has allowed for more effective and efficient communication between teachers and students, between teachers and parents, and between and among students.
Additionally, it has enabled educators to provide more engaging and interactive lessons that better meet the needs of students. Moreover, technology has made it easier for students to access educational materials and resources both online and offline.
As a result, with properly-implemented education technology, students are able to learn at their own pace and in a more customized manner (though this hints at the added complexity technology brings to lesson planning, curriculum mapping, and so on). Increased Connectivity As technology has evolved, so too has the way we use it to connect with others.
In education, this increased connectivity has facilitated new and innovative ways for teachers and students to collaborate and learn from one another. Through online forums, chats, wikis, and other collaborative tools, students are now able to share their ideas and expertise with classmates from around the globe in real time.
- Disadvantage: Increased Cost Technology has changed the way that people live and has had a significant impact on the teaching and learning process.
- The increased cost of technology has led to some schools not being able to afford the latest devices and software, which has impacted their ability to provide quality education.
It adds cost to teacher training, too. Though many schools have been able to find ways to fund the purchase of technology and it is now widely used in the classroom, the increased cost is a significant challenge. And with increased cost comes Disadvantage: Increased Risk However, in a technology-filled world, we would likely risk more by avoiding technology than we do using it in classrooms today.
- Disadvantage: More complex (learning models, curriculum, assessment, instruction, schedules, policies–all of the pieces need to both work together and ‘interface’ well with technology.
- If not, it’s all an expensive, stressful mess that could actually hamper student achievement.
- Benefit: Improved visibility of student work/data Benefit: Access to a Global Learning Community Technology has changed the way people learn and communicate with each other.
With the use of technology, people can now access a global learning community where they can share ideas and connect with people from all over the world. This has allowed for new and innovative ways of teaching and learning to take place. Teachers are now able to connect with their students in a more personal way but more broadly, help connect students with one another inside and between schools, collaborating with one another on projects that span across different cultures, for example.
- Benefit: More Engaging and Interactive Lessons In the last decade, technology has drastically changed the way people learn.
- The traditional learning model, where students are given information by a teacher and then tested on that information, is no longer as effective as it used to be.
- Today’s students need more engaging and interactive lessons that allow for exploration and collaboration.
Technology has made it possible for teachers to create these types of lessons, and as a result, students have a chance to learn in ways that better suit their individual needs. Benefit: Easier to Personalize Learning In the early days of formal education, if you wanted to learn something that wasn’t in the course material, you were out of luck.
- You either had to wait until the next class, hope your teacher would happen to cover that topic, or try to find a book or article on your own.
- These days, with the advent of technology in the classroom, things are a lot different.
- Open Education Resources, eLearning materials, social learning spaces, informal learning tools, games and apps for learning, YouTube, asynchronous discussions (like Quora or reddit) and more have all made personalized learning more accessible than ever.
Benefit: Greater Opportunities for Differentiated Learning In the early days of education, there was a one-size-fits-all model for teaching and learning. However, with the advent of technology, different methods of teaching and learning can be customized to meet the needs of each student.
- This has led to greater opportunities for differentiated learning, which is when students are given different instructional approaches and/or materials based on their individual abilities and needs.
- Benefit: More Opportunities for Collaborative Learning In recent years, technology has revolutionized the way people live and work.
Technology has also had a profound impact on education, making it possible for students to learn in new and innovative ways. One of the most notable changes brought about by technology is the increased use of collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is a teaching and learning strategy that encourages students to work together to achieve a common goal.
Benefit: Increased Availability of Educational Resources The increased availability of educational resources has changed the way teachers teach and students learn. The traditional model of education, where the teacher is the only source of information and all students are passive receptacles of knowledge, is no longer relevant in the digital age.
With the internet and various online tools, students can now access information from all over the world, and they can collaborate with other students to create projects that would have been impossible a few years ago. Conclusion Since the inception of technology, it has been changing the way people live their lives.
- In the early days, technology was used for communication purposes only.
- With time, it started being used for other activities such as teaching and learning.
- Today, technology has become an integral part of the teaching and learning process in most schools across the globe.
- There are a number of reasons why technology has had a positive impact on teaching and learning.
Firstly, it has made learning more fun and interactive. The 21st century has brought about many changes, including how we learn. With the advent of technology, the traditional learning model has changed. Now, students are able to learn in new and innovative ways, thanks to technology.
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How is education today different from the past?
Education now vs.20 years ago Those who are staring into screens are missing out on everything going on around them. Photo provided by https://www.huffingtonpost.com/hector-l-carral/stop-saying-technology-is-causing-social-isolation_b_8425688.html Twenty years ago, education was based on books and lectures, now, it’s iPads and websites.
- In the past, students would have to spend hours in libraries looking through books for a project or research.
- With the huge advantages of having the Internet at our fingertips, we can change those hours of surfing through books into 30 seconds.
- One major difference that has changed through the curriculum in schools is teaching students skills instead of content.
Principal Mark Grishaber said, “If you walk into a high-functioning classroom, you will see kids in groups. The working world wants people that can work together.” Students that have more skills will tend to be more successful in the real world than students that know when the Civil War started.
In the past, students were sat down and told to memorize the factual information of subjects. Now that curriculum expanded and is making students work in a group to compare, contrast, and discuss those topics to increase their knowledge and work on their communication skills which will come in more helpful in their future rather than knowing facts.
Grishaber said, “The main change is that instead of students sitting in a classroom and the teacher expounding knowledge upon kids, the world has changed to where we need more people working together so that’s why we are more into groups and giving a project to find different alternatives.” The main reason for the curricular change is the changing world around us.
- With the many changes in society, the curriculum is adjusted to change with time.
- In the old days, students would get smacked with a ruler for misbehaving but as times change, teachers and students grow into a new curriculum and new requirements.
- Another major change within the past 20 years was how the student “soak up” the knowledge.
Twenty years ago, the teacher would lecture for an hour which has now changed into interactive apps and informational websites for students to use. Senior Veronica Smialkowska (Div.970) said, “I prefer using websites because it is always more fun than sitting at a desk for a whole period and listening to the teacher talk.” Along with students, the teachers are also getting taught what to teach.
- Teachers are required to go to professional development meetings to learn how to adjust their classroom to fit into the frequently adjusted curriculum.
- A history teacher 20 years ago had a lot of material to teach seeing how much history there is out there.
- But within those 20 years, so much has happened that students need to be taught about.
This is a challenge for those creating the history curriculum because they need to figure out which events are actually worth teaching about. With the many changes in the world around us, our curriculum is adjusted to fit the people we need to become to succeed one day.
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What’s new in education 2022?
What can you expect in education this year? World events over the last two years have driven changes in educational practices as never before. Technology integration is at an all-time high, and everyone is working hard to determine how students truly learn best—and how we can assure that they really are learning, whether at school or home. What will the next year bring? Let’s look at five educational trends that will continue in 2022.1. Student Agency As digital natives, our students have always had information within reach, and they can (and often prefer) to search for it independently.
So, do we, as teachers, continue with a top-down instructional approach, or do we help our students take ownership of their own learning while also teaching them how to evaluate online sources properly? Many educators are moving away from teacher-driven lessons and helping students have more voice and choice in what they learn, putting teachers in a more facilitative role,
This environment leans more toward collaborative learning and gives teachers the flexibility they need to differentiate more easily. Is this going to be an easy transition for everyone? Probably not, but it’s worth the work. The ability to be a self-starter and to stay motivated is essential not only in school but also in the workforce, especially if the work-from-home trend continues.
Teachers who can effectively help students understand how they learn best, as well as how to find, evaluate, and understand information, will be essential in future classrooms.2. Game-Based Learning The first thing to note is that game-based learning is different from gamification. Game-based learning is an approach to learning that purposefully applies gaming principles to help students achieve specific learning objectives.
Gamification is the application of gaming principles to traditional learning methods to increase student engagement. Gamification by itself can play a useful role in learning, but game-based learning makes online learning tools even more powerful. Research suggests that game-based learning can be effective at increasing learning by helping students strategize, build problem-solving skills, and rethink their previous attempts at a task to improve future strategies. 3. AI-Driven Learning Artificial intelligence also was part of our 2021 list of education trends, and it continues as a major trend. AI is not about replacing teachers but about allowing for data-driven decisions that impact the classroom and students.
- With COVID-related reductions in teaching staff, AI teaching assistants and automated grading systems are especially welcomed in most schools.
- Why not automate the tedious time-killing tasks so teachers can do what they do best: connecting with students and facilitating learning? Digital learning tools, such as the Fast ForWord ® reading and language program and the 1-to-1 tutoring software MATHia, incorporate artificial intelligence that adapts to individual students’ responses to create personalized learning paths for every student.
Reports are then created to help drive instruction based on students’ strengths and weaknesses. Another important job of AI is in the area of cybersecurity, In recent years, school districts have been brought to their knees by hackers taking control of their systems. We’ve come to realize that there is no “one size fits all” in education and that there is value in appreciating different methodologies and strategies in learning. Cognitive scientists have a deeper understanding of which learning experiences are more impactful on the brain, but, historically, their research hasn’t been fully considered in education.
- Fortunately, more of us are starting to pay attention! The science of learning is the body of research about how we learn, as studied by scientists in fields ranging from neuroscience to psychology to computer science.
- The aim of this research is to optimize learning for all students, and educators are increasingly interested in learning more about it.
If you’re looking for a good book on the cognitive science of how we learn, check out these titles:
How We Learn: Why Brains Learn Better Than Any Machine,, for Now (2020) by Stanislas Dehaene Understanding How We Learn: A Visual Guide (2018) by Yana Weinstein, Megan Sumeracki, and Oliver Caviglioli Cognitive Science for Educators: Practical Suggestions for an Evidence-Based Classroom (2020) by Bob Hausmann Brain-Based Learning: Teaching the Way Students Really Learn (3rd edition, 2020) by Eric Jensen and Liesl McConchie
Any given classroom includes a variety of brains in different places developmentally, but these brains are still on similar paths that lead to the same acquisition of skills. As teachers, we have to understand how the brain is learning if we are to help every student reach their full potential.
Universally applying the science of learning would be a game-changer for students and teachers alike.5. Online Learning While online learning was the bane of many parents’ and teachers’ existence in the first months of the pandemic, it now appears to be here to stay, We had to change the way we taught and develop new strategies for student engagement as government agencies and various companies worked frantically to provide digital content that was aligned to state standards.
But now that we’re more than two years into online learning, some are seeing positives in what initially seemed to be a negative. For some, online learning was a welcomed relief because it could remove barriers to learning such as time constraints, distractions in the classroom, and bullying. Many educators are embracing the option of recording a lesson as they are teaching it virtually so students can watch it again (or for the first time!) later. Recorded lessons allow struggling students to have more in-depth or slower-paced instruction while advanced students can be challenged to move forward on their own.
Don’t Forget I know, there’s a lot to be overwhelmed by these days. But there may also be a part of you that is excited about all the possibilities of a new year. Try not to focus on all the things you have to do; instead, don’t forget what—and who—we’re building as we bring our best selves to the classroom each and every day.
As Tara Westover, author of Educated, said, “I don’t think education is so much about making a living, it’s about making a person.” You, fellow educators, are awesome, and remember that you are in the business of changing brains every day!
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What are the changes in 21st century education?
A 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION – A 21st century education is about giving students the skills they need to succeed in this new world, and helping them grow the confidence to practice those skills. With so much information readily available to them, 21st century skills focus more on making sense of that information, sharing and using it in smart ways.
Creativity Critical thinking Communication Collaboration
These four themes are not to be understood as units or even subjects, but as themes that should be overlaid across all curriculum mapping and strategic planning. They should be part of every lesson in the same way as literacy and numeracy. Creativity is about thinking through information in new ways, making new connections and coming up with innovative solutions to problems.
- Critical thinking is about analysing information and critiquing claims.
- Communication is understanding things well enough to share them clearly with other people.
- Collaboration is about teamwork and the collective genius of a group that is more than the sum of its parts.
- There are other skills that are important, which fall within these four areas.
Entrepreneurship can be considered a skill of its own. Inquiry and problem solving are key. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is one of the most important keys to successful work and relationships. The bottom line? Education needs to be all about empowering students with transferable skills that will hold up to a rapidly changing world, not prescribed content that has been chosen for its past relevance.
|Chatting with Edward de Bono in Spain at the ICOT Conference. De Bono has world acclaim for his theories on creativity and lateral thinking.|
How has education changed in the last decade?
Humanity Welfare Council – Mission 2030 Developed India
Posted On Tuesday, September 13, 2022
The education system in India has seen rapid changes in the past decade. With the emergence of blended learning, online classes, and experiential learning, the education system has changed regarding students’ interaction with the educational content. The dramatic shift in the system has already become the new normal within the institutions.
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How is education nowadays?
Education nowadays has become prominent thing as it involves most people to take part in this matter. In addition, it cannot be separated from human’s life. Both males and females need to be educated. Education plays an important role in the development of a country.
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Who started the education movement?
A major reform movement that won widespread support was the effort to make education available to more children. The man who led this movement was Horace Mann, “the father of American public schools.” As a boy in Massachusetts, he attended school only 10 weeks a year.
- The rest of the time, he had to work on the family farm.
- Few areas had public schools-schools paid for by taxes.
- Wealthy parents sent their children to private school or hired tutors at home.
- On the frontier, 60 children might attend a part-time, one-room school.
- Their teachers had limited education and received little pay.
Most children simply did not go to school. In the cities, some poor children stole, destroyed property, and set fires. Reformers believed that education would help these children escape poverty and become good citizens. In Massachusetts, Horace Mann became the state’s supervisor of education.
- The citizens voted to pay taxes to build better schools, to pay teachers higher salaries and to establish special training schools for teachers.
- In addition, Mann lengthened the school year to 6 months and made improvements in school curriculum.
- By the mid-1800s, most states had accepted three basic principles of public education: that school should be free and supported by taxes, that teachers should be trained and that children should be required to attend school.
By 1850, many states in the North and West used Mann’s ideas. But America still did not offer education to everyone. Most high schools and colleges did not admit females. When towns did allow African Americans to attend school, most made them go to separate schools that received less money.
Education for women did make some progress. In 1837, Ohio’s Oberlin College became the first college to accept women, in addition to men. In 1837, Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke, teh nation’s first permanent women’s college. Some reformers focused on teaching people with disabilities. Thomas Galludet, who developed a method to education people who were hearing impaired, opened the Hartford School for the Deaf in Connecticut in 1817.
At about the same time, Dr. Samuel Howe advanced the cause of those who were visually impaired. He developed books with large raised letters that people with sigh impairments could “read” with their fingers. Howe headed the Perkins Institute, a schools for the blind, in Boston.8th Grade Final Exam in 1895 ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was written about a time during the middle of the 1800s when many people were not able to get a formal education.
- Huck’s father told Huck what he thought about school learning.
- ‘And looky here – you drop that school, you hear? I’ll learn people to bring up a boy to put on airs over his own father and let on to be better’n what he is.
- You lemme catch you fooling around that school again, you hear? Your mother couldn’t read, and she couldn’t write, nuther, before she died.
None of the family couldn’t before they died. I can’t; and here you’re a-swelling yourself up like this. I ain’t the man to stand it – you hear?.'” Eighty years later To Kill a Mockingbird was written about the 1930s. Like Huckleberry Finn’s father, Scout’s father Atticus Finch did not go to school.
“I suppose she chose me because she knew my name; as I read the alphabet a faint line appeared between her eyebrows, and after making me read most of My First Reader and the stock market quotations from The Mobile Register aloud, she discovered that I was literate and looked at me with more than faint distaste.
Miss Caroline told me to tell my father not to teach me any more, it would interfere with my reading. “‘Teach me?’I said in surprise. “He hasn’t taught me anything. Miss Caroline. Atticus ain’t got time to teach me anything,” I added, when Miss Caroline smiled and shook her head.
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Who started the idea of education?
Horace Mann By David Carleton Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction. His vision of public education was a precursor to the Supreme Court’s eventual interpretation of the and church-state separation principles in public schools.
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Who changed the Indian education system?
Development of Modern Education –
- The company wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in the administration of the land.
- Also, they wanted to understand the local customs and laws well.
- For this purpose, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Madrassa in 1781 for the teaching of Muslim law.
- In 1791, a Sanskrit College was started in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan for the study of Hindu philosophy and laws.
- The missionaries supported the spread of Western education in India primarily for their proselytising activities. They established many schools with education only being a means to an end which was Christianising and ‘civilising’ the natives.
- The Baptist missionary William Carey had come to India in 1793 and by 1800 there was a Baptist Mission in Serampore, Bengal, and also a number of primary schools there and in nearby areas.
- The Indian reformers believed that to keep up with times, a modern educational system was needed to spread rational thinking and scientific principles.
- The Charter Act of 1813 was the first step towards education being made an objective of the government.
- The act sanctioned a sum of Rs.1 lakh towards the education of Indians in British ruled India. This act also gave an impetus to the missionaries who were given official permission to come to India.
- But there was a split in the government over what kind of education was to be offered to the Indians.
- The orientalists preferred Indians to be given traditional Indian education. Some others, however, wanted Indians to be educated in the western style of education and be taught western subjects.
- There was also another difficulty regarding the language of instruction. Some wanted the use of Indian languages (called vernaculars) while others preferred English.
- Due to these issues, the sum of money allotted was not given until 1823 when the General Committee of Public Instruction decided to impart oriental education.
- In 1835, it was decided that western sciences and literature would be imparted to Indians through the medium of English by Lord William Bentinck’s government.
- Bentinck had appointed Thomas Babington Macaulay as the Chairman of the General Committee of Public Instruction.
- Macaulay was an ardent anglicist who had absolute contempt for Indian learning of any kind. He was supported by Reverend Alexander Duff, JR Colvin, etc.
- On the side of the orientalists were James Prinsep, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, etc.
- Macaulay minutes refer to his proposal of education for the Indians.
- According to him:
- English education should be imparted in place of traditional Indian learning because the oriental culture was ‘defective’ and ‘unholy’.
- He believed in education a few upper and middle-class students.
- In the course of time, education would trickle down to the masses. This was called the infiltration theory.
- He wished to create a class of Indians who were Indian in colour and appearance but English in taste and affiliation.
- In 1835, the Elphinstone College (Bombay) and the Calcutta Medical College were established.
Wood’s Despatch (1854)
- Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control of the company in 1854 when he sent a despatch to the then Governor-General of India, Lord Dalhousie.
- This is called the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India.’
- Recommendations of the Wood’s Despatch:
- Regularise education system from the primary to the university levels.
- Indians were to be educated in English and their native language.
- The education system was to be set up in every province.
- Every district should have at least one government school.
- Affiliated private schools could be granted aids.
- Education of women should be emphasised.
- Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay were set up by 1857.
- University of Punjab – 1882; University of Allahabad – 1887
- This despatch asked the government to take up the responsibility of education of the people.
Assessment of the British efforts on education
- Although there were a few Englishmen who wanted to spread education for its own sake, the government was chiefly concerned only with its own concerns.
- There was a huge demand for clerks and other administrative roles in the company’s functioning.
- It was cheaper to get Indians rather than Englishmen from England for these jobs. This was the prime motive.
- No doubt it spread western education among Indians, but the rate of literacy was abysmally low during British rule.
- The state of women education was pathetic. This was because the government did not want to displease the orthodox nature of Indians and also because women could not generally be employed as clerks.
- In 1911, the illiteracy rate in British India was 94%. In 1921, it was 92%.
- Scientific and technical education was ignored by the British government.
The English Education Act 1835 was a legislative Act of the Council of India, gave effect to a decision in 1835 by Lord William Bentinck, then Governor-General of the British East India Company, to reallocate funds it was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.
- Education System In India During British Rule (UPSC Notes):-
- Also Read:
- UPSC Related Articles
: NCERT Notes: Indian Education System During British Rule
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