Which Commission Was Formed For Secondary Education?


Which Commission Was Formed For Secondary Education
Secondary Education Commission_Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) Secondary Education Commission_Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) Koushik Das July 24, 2022 Recommendations of Secondary Education Commission_ Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) Which Commission Was Formed For Secondary Education After the Independence period several education commissions were formed, one of them being the Secondary Education Commission. The Secondary Education commission was appointed by the government of India in terms of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation.

The Secondary Education commission formed under the chairmanship of Dr.A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar. That’s why it is also called the Mudaliar Commission. He was the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Government of India appointed the Secondary Education Commission on September 23, 1952, under the chairmanship of A.

Mudaliar. After a few months of hard work, the commission submitted a very lengthy report on August 29, 1953. Report containing 311 pages. Members of the Commission : The Commission consisted of 9 members. Dr.A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar (Chairman), Principal John Christie, Dr.

Enneth Rast Williams, Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Shri.J.A. Taraporevala, Dr.K.L. Shrimali, Shri M.T. Vyas, Shri K.G. Saiyidain, Principal A.N. Basu (Assistant Secretary to the Commission). Background of the Commission Formation : The commission has observed the principle that secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period, the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter on the responsibilities of life and take up some useful vocations.

It is now generally recognized that the period of secondary education covers the age-group of about to 17 years. Properly planned education, covering about 7 years should enable the school to give a thorough training in the courses of study taken by the student and also help him/her to attain a reasonable degree of maturity in knowledge, understanding and judgement which would stand him/her I rood stead in life.

And commission founds some defects of Secondary Education, the defects are : (1) The education provided in the schools is isolated from life. (2) Secondary Education was bookish and less practical. (3) Lack of diversified courses. (4) Secondary education primary aim of admission to university. (5) Inadequacy of co-curricular activities.

(6) Method of teaching traditional based. (7) Salaries or other conditions of service of teachers are not satisfactory. Major Recommendations of Secondary Education Commission Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education : (1) To Produce Ideal Citizens of the sovereign republic of India.

  1. 2) Character development of the youth of adolescents.
  2. 3) To Develop Capacity for Earning Money, be able to earn enough for maintaining himself.
  3. 4) Secondary education should develop the quality of leadership in students.
  4. 5) Develop Human Virtues (cooperation, discipline, humility, love, kindness).
  5. 6) To develop vocational capacity and skill according to individual aptitude.

New Organizational pattern of Secondary Education : The Commission has recommended that the secondary education should be for children between 11 to 17 years of age. It has divided this seven years’ education into two parts- (1) Junior High School stage for three years and (2) High School for four years.

  • Curriculum :
  • For Lower Secondary Education :
  • Curriculum for the lower secondary stage would be undiversified, general and common for all children, and would consists of :

(a) English (b) Mother tongue (c) Mathematics (d) General Science (e) Social studies (f) Craft (g) Physical education, Art, Music etc. For Higher Secondary Education : The curriculum of secondary education would be of two types : (a) Core curriculum, which is common for all the students, includes language.

  1. Humanities (Classical language or a third language, history, geography, mathematics, music, logic, domestic science)
  2. Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Mathematics. Physiology and Hygiene not to be taken with Biology),
  3. Technical (Applied Mathematics and Geometrical Drawing, Applied Science, Elements of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering),
  4. Commercial (Book-keeping, Commercial Practice, Commercial Geography. Short-hand and Type-writing),
  5. Agricultural (General Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture and Gardening, Agricultural Chemistry and Botany),
  6. Fine Arts (History of art, Drawing and Designing, painting, Modelling, Music, Dancing),
  7. Home Science (Home Economics, Nutrition and Cooking, Mother Craft and Child Care, Household management and Home Nursing).

The school system (including 12 year school education) proposed by the commission implied abolition of the Intermediate course, Undergraduate education would commence after the higher secondary i.e., Class XII. The schools would now be multipurpose schools, offering different streams in the same school.

The Commission, however, upheld the separate existence of (a) Agricultural schools to offer courses in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry etc, (b) Technical schools, either independent or connected with multipurpose schools, (c) Apprenticeship system should be widely introduced, if necessary by legislation.

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(d) Public schools (for 5 year!), (e) other Residential schools in the interest of close teacher-pupil relation and co-curricular activities, (f) there should not be any different type of education for girls. But special provisions should be made for Home Science for girls.

  1. Some other recommendation proposed by commission Medium of Instruction: The mother tongue or the State language should be made the medium of instruction.
  2. The students should be taught at least two languages at the junior high school stage.
  3. And the secondary stage a student should learn at least three languages (three language formula, with state language, regional language and English) Method of Teaching: Teaching should not impart knowledge only, but also inculcate desirable values.

Emphasis should be shifted from verbalism and memorization to learning through purposeful, concrete, realistic situations, (Activity or Project Method might be tried). Emphasis should be placed upon clear thinking and expression. Students should be trained to acquire the qualities of group life and cooperative work.

Selection of textbooks: The Commission has stated that text-books should be selected on the basis of their merits and utility. For this purpose the Commission has recommended the appointment of a High Power Committee which will select books for all the classes. Religious and Moral Instruction: Education of character should be a responsibility of the teacher.

Personal contact should ensure discipline. Co-curricular activities should form a part of education. School self-Govt should be fostered.N.C.C., Junior Red Cross etc. should be encouraged. Examination: There might be two external examinations at the end of class X and at the end of class XII.

Objective tests should be emphasized. Cumulative Records should be maintained with due credit for weekly or monthly tests. Guidance and Counselling: Selection of streams would necessitate guidance of experts. Hence, trained Guidance Officers and Career Masters should be appointed in Secondary Schools. Welfare of Students: All students should be medically examined every year.

School medical services should be organized. Teachers should be given first aid training and physical training. School tiffin or mid-day meal for students should be provided. A complete record of physical activities of every student should be maintained.

  • Inspection of School: The role of school inspector is to examine the problems of schools and view them comprehensively and help the teachers to carry out his advice and recommendations.
  • Teacher Training: Two types of institutions should be conducted for one year training, and for two year training.
  • Refresher courses should be extensively organized.

Training Colleges should conduct research. Trained graduates with 3 years of experience may be allowed to prepare for a Master’s degree in Education. Finance: The Commission has given the following suggestions like,- A cess called the ‘Industrial Education’ cess be levied, the amount collected to be utilized for the furtherance of Technical and Vocational education at the secondary stage.

  • Defects of Secondary Education : The defects of secondary education have been pointed out by a number of commissions.
  • Secondary education is too academic and far removed from the problems of life and therefore it is incapable of fulfilling its second objective of equipping boys and girls to enter life confidently and earn their living.

Let us now summarize the defects of secondary education commission : (1) The commission emphasized on book learning, The instructions are bookish. Answers are crammed. Examinations are passed. But no ability is produced for creative thinking and expression.

(2) In the recommendations of the commission report Co curricular activities are neglected. (3) School education is one-sided. It trains the intellect and leaves other aspects of personality undeveloped. It aims only at mental growth and development. (4) The school education is unilateral. Secondary schools are one-track schools.

They prepare students only for the university. There is little scope for diversification of studies. (5) Guidance and Counselling Facilities Inadequate. To supply a trained guidance worker to every school is difficult. It would be unrealistic to think of providing qualified counsellors to all schools.

Conclusion : The recommendations of Mudaliar commission emphasized on the dominant needs of the present situation and recommended for bringing revolutionary changes in Secondary education. We know the report carries many defects but instead, the report of the Mudaliar Commission was accepted by the Government of India and the new scheme launched with effect from1956.

The reorganized pattern continued till the report of the Kothari Commission (1964-66) was given effect to. Bibliography

  • Banerjee, J.P. (1985). Education in India – Past, Present, Future. Central Library, Kolkata.
  • Purkail, B.R. (1992). Milestone in Modern Indian Education. New Central Book agency (P) Ltd, Kolkata.
  • Saha, Prof. (Dr.) Birbal., Pandit Avijit., Saha, Dr. Gautam., Sinha, Dr. Rudra Prasad. Contemporary India and Education. Aaheli Publishers, Kolkata.
  • Patra, Dr. Goutam. (Dec, 2017). Recommendations of Secondary Education Commission (1952-53).
  • Edufocus.blogspot.com. (April, 2017). The Secondary Education Commission 1952.
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_ Tags : Secondary Education Commission_Mudaliar Commission (1952-53)
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Which commission was formed for secondary education in India?

Secondary Education Commission The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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When was Mudaliar committee established?

Mudaliar Committee, 1962 | National Health Portal Of India. This committee known as the ‘Health Survey and Planning Committee’, headed by Dr.A.L. Mudaliar, was appointed to assess the performance in health sector since the submission of Bhore Committee report.
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Why was the ominde commission created?

– According to Ominde (1964), the chairman of the first educational commission in the independent Kenya, “during colonial era, there was no such thing as a nation” only several nations living side by side in the same territory. Education, like society, was stratified along racial lines, there existed an ‘African education ‘, a ‘European Education ‘, and an ‘Asian Education ‘; three separate systems divided by rigid boundaries ( Ominde 1964).

This stratification was based on the colonialist’s assertion that the mental development of the average African adult was equivalent to that of the average 7-8 year old European boy ( Gachathi, 1976). African education ‘ therefore tended to be a hybrid, precariously hovering between a European model with a European subject matter, and an education deemed suitable to the place in colonial life considered ‘appropriate’ to the African population ( Ominde 1964).

Thus the eve of independence brought with it sweeping reforms in the educational system. With the creation of a single nation came the emergence of a single educational system, no longer stratified along racial lines. Ominde Commission was formed to introduce changes that would reflect the nation’s sovereignty.

  • The commission focused on identity and unity, which were critical issues at the time.
  • Changes in the subject content of history and geography were made to reflect national cohesion.
  • Between 1964 and 1985, the 7-4-2-3-system was adopted, seven years of primary, four years of lower secondary (form 1 -4), two years of upper secondary (form 5-6), and three years of university.

This does not include the ‘pre-primary’ schooling provided to children under the age of six. The principle preoccupation for Ominde’s report was introduce an education system that promoted national unity and inculcated in the learners the desire to serve their nation (Simuyu, 2001).
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What is the other name of Kothari Commission?

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

  1. It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission,
  2. The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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Why is Kothari Commission called Magna Carta?

Answer: Wood’s Dispatch / Despatch is known as Magna Carta (Magna Charta) of Indian Education. Wood’s Dispatch was an act of 1854 implemented by the British rulers during pre-independent India. The despatch was presented by Sir Charles Wood to the directors of the British East India Company.

Woods was Secretary of State for India at that time. It professed the promotion of the western education in India. As a result of this charter Education Departments were established in every province. Universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were opened for higher education. The act spread western education in India which initially benefitted the Britishers for creating a workforce of clerks.

But after they left, the Indian Education system followed the same pattern but to spread education. That is why it is known as Magna Carta of Indian Education. As for Magna Carta, it is a Latin Term which stands for ‘ Great Charter ‘, meaning a ‘Great Paper’.

Also known as ‘Magna Carta Libertatum’ meaning ‘Great Charter of Freedoms’ it is an English legal charter, originally issued at Runnymede, June 15, 1215, Magna Carta was initiated by the subjects of King John of England, These subjects were Barons who adopted this charter to limit the power of the king through certain laws and protect their privileges.

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What is Srivastava committee?

Shrivastav Committee, 1975. This committee was set up in 1974 as ‘ Group on Medical Education and Support Manpower ‘ to determine steps needed to. (i) reorient medical education in accordance with national needs & priorities and.
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What is the full name of mudaliar?

Sir Arcot Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, FRCOG, FACS (14 October 1887 – 15 April 1974) was an Indian educationist and physician.
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What is Kartar Singh committee?

This committee, headed by the Additional Secretary of Health and titled the “Committee on multipurpose workers under Health and Family Planning” was constituted to form a framework for integration of health and medical services at peripheral and supervisory levels.

Its main recommendations were : a. Various categories of peripheral workers should be amalgamated into a single cadre of multipurpose workers (male and female). The erstwhile auxiliary nurse midwives were to be converted into MPW(F) and the basic health workers, malaria surveillance workers etc. were to be converted to MPW(M).

The work of 3-4 male and female MPWs was to be supervised by one health supervisor (male or female respectively). The existing lady health visitors were to be converted into female health supervisor.b. One Primary Health Centre should cover a population of 50,000.


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Which of the following commission concentrated on the primary and secondary education in India?

Q. Which among the educational commission focused mainly on Primary and Secondary education? Answer: Hunter Commission Notes: Hunter commission was appointed by Lord Ripon in 1882. It focused mainly on Primary and Secondary education and special attention to female education.6
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Which was the first commission of education in India?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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