Which Commission Is Known As The University Education Commission?

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Which Commission Is Known As The University Education Commission
Radhakrishanan Commission Radhakrishanan Commission also known as University Education Commission was set up by the Government of India after independence under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on November 4, 1948.
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What is the other name of University Education commission?

Types of universities – The types of universities regulated by the UGC include:

  • Central universities, or Union universities, are established by an act of parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education, As of 18 October 2022, The list of central universities published by the UGC includes 55 central universities.
  • State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. As of 23 August 2022, the UGC lists 456 state universities. The oldest establishment date listed by the UGC is 1857, shared by the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta, Most State Universities are affiliating universities in that they administer many affiliated colleges (many located in very small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges may even offer PhD programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
  • Deemed university, or “Deemed to be University”, is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act. As of 24 August 2022, the UGC lists 50 Institutions as Deemed to be Universities included under Section 12(B) of the UGC Act, 1956. According to this list, the first institute to be granted deemed university status was Indian Institute of Science, which was granted this status on 12 May 1958. In many cases, the same listing by the UGC covers several institutes. For example, the listing for Homi Bhabha National Institute covers the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and other institutes.
  • Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. As of 23 August 2022, the UGC list of private universities lists 421 universities.

As of 25 August 2022, The University Grants Commission (UGC) has also released the list of 21 fake universities operating in India. UGC has said that these 21 self-styled, unrecognized institutions functioning in contravention of the UGC Act have been declared as fake and are not entitled to confer any degrees.
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What do you mean by Kothari Commission?

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission, The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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Who introduced Kothari Commission?

Educational Commission of India – “Kothari Commission (1964-66)” Kothari commission was set-up in 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr.D.S Kothari. This was the sixth commission in the history of education commission and was most comprehensive in nature.

It reviewed almost all aspects of the education system without limiting itself to any one particular aspect, unlike the commissions that came before and after it. Another unique feature of the Kothari commission was its international composition. Apart from 11 Indian members, it had members from 5 other countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and Japan.

NEED for appointment of commission: 1) Need for a comprehensive policy of education in spite no. of education committees after independence, satisfactory progress would not be achieved.2) Need for detailed study even though a good deal of expansion of education facilities took place; it was at the expense of quality.3) Need to emphasize role of people in national development.

To make people aware that they have a share in the national development along with the government.4) Need for overview of educational development. To create more integration between various parts and consider it as a whole not as fragments. The main task of the Commission was to advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the general policies for the development of education at all stages-ranging from the primary to post-graduate stage and in all its aspects besides examining a host of educational problems in their social and economic context.

The Commission submitted its report to the Government on June 29,1966. The main features of the Commission’s report were as follows: (i) Introduction of work-experience which includes manual work, production experience, etc. and social service as integral part of general education at more or less all level of education.

  • (iii) Vocationalization of secondary education.
  • (iv) Strengthening of the centres of advance study and setting up of a small number of major universities which would aim at achieving highest international standards.
  • (v) Special emphasis on the training and quality of teachers for schools

(vi) Education for agriculture and research in agriculture and allied sciences should be given a high priority in the scheme of educational reconstruction. Energetic and imaginative steps are required to draw a reasonable proportion of talent to go in for advance study and research in agriculture science. Language issues in Kothari Commission:

  • The development of a proper language policy can greatly assist in strengthening national unity. The key programme will be to develop all Indian languages and to adopt them as media of education at all stages.
  • At lower primary level, only one language should be studied compulsory i.e mother tongue or regional language.
  • At the secondary stage (classes I-X) the regional language should ordinarily be the medium of education. Adequate safeguards should be provided for linguistic minorities. In class XI_XII, a pupil should study at least one language of his choice in addition to the medium of education. While facilities to study languages, on an optional basis, should be adequately provided at the university-level, the study of no language should be made compulsory unless such study is an essential part of a prescribed course.

Before Kothari commission the proposal was to promote Hindi as the national language and chosen for formal education purpose as it was spoken by majority of the people, but some of the states were in oppose of that and so this three language formula was proposed in commission report.

  • That is why Hindi wasn’t promoted as a national language rather it became a language as a subject and due to westernization nowadays universally speaking language becomes English which is also promoted in our school education system as well.
  • Work experience: It may be defined as participation in productive work in school, in the home, in a workshop, on a farm, in a factory or in any other productive situation, should be made an integral part of all general education.

It should be varied to suit the age and maturity of students and oriented to technology, industrialization and the application of science to the production process, including agriculture. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: Another programme which can bring education into closer relationship with productivity is Vocational education.

It should be emphasized particularly at the secondary stage. At lower secondary stage (age group 11-16) vocational education should ultimately be provided to about 20percent of the enrolment ; at the higher secondary stage (age group 17-18) such enrolment should be increased to 50 percent. In higher education, about one-third of the total enrolment may be in vocational courses.

It is to increase the emphasis on agricultural and technological education at the university level. The main front line activities were handled by nineteen task forces or working groups of Kothari Commission: Task Force on Adult Education: The group’s main objective was the eradication of illiteracy by focusing on adult education.

The group was composed of three foreign members, J.F. McDougall, Welthy Fischer and Hans Simons and fifteen Indian members, V.S. Jha, Abdul Qadir, G.K. Chandiramani, A.R. Deshpande, Durgabai Deshmukh, K.L. Joshi, D.R. Kalia, T.A. Koshy, M.S. Mehra, A.R. Moore, J.P. Naik, M.S. Randhawa, K.G. Saiyidain, Sohan Singh and group secretary, S.M.S.

Chari. Task Force on Agriculture Education : The group had 15 members of which two were foreign members, J.F. McDougall and R.W. Cummings. The Indian members included B.P. Pal, Hashim Amir Ali, Anant Rao, Chintamani Singh, V.M. Dandekar, K.C. Kanungo, A.B. Joshi, S.N.

Mehrotra, S.K. Mukherji, J.P. Naik, K.C. Naik, N.K. Panikar, C.S. Ranganathan, S.C. Verma and secretary, S. Ramanujam. The group focused on the development of agricultural education. Task Force on Educational Administration: This twelve member group examined the shortcomings on the educational administration and had Prem Kirpal, A.C.

Deve Gowda, V. Jagannadham, M.V. Mathur, S.N. Mukherjee, J.P. Naik, H.M. Patel, D.M. Sen, J.D. Sharma, V.D. Sharma, Rudra Dutt Singh and S. Rajan (secretary) as its members. Task Force on Educational Finance: The task before the group was to examine the existing set up with regard to educational finance and identify ways to overcome the shortfalls.

  1. The group had M.V.
  2. Mathur, D.A.
  3. Dabholkar, B.
  4. Dutta, R.A.
  5. Gopalaswami, K.L.
  6. Joshi, D.T.
  7. Lakdawala, Gautam Mathur, Atmanand Misra, Sadashiv Misra, J.P.
  8. Naik, K.A.
  9. Naqvi, Pritam Singh and Gurbax Singh (secretary) as its members.
  10. Task Force on Higher Education: The group’s objective was to coordinate the higher education system in India and advise on ways of improvement.

The group was one of the largest and had 20 members, including three overseas members, J.F. McDougall, Hans Simons and H.J. Taylor. The Indian members were K.G. Saiyidain, J.W. Airan, P.K. Bose, Chandrahasan, V.S. Jha, A.C. Joshi, K.L. Joshi, C.L. Kapur, D.S. Kothari, M.V.

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Mathur, P.G. Mavlankar, J.P. Naik, P.J. Philip, A.B. Shah, Amrik Singh, R.K. Singh and S. Rehman (secretary). Task Force on Manpower: The group had twelve members which included R.A. Gopalaswami, Abdul Qadir, K.L. Joshi, M.V. Mathur, J.P. Naik, R. Prasad, T. Sen and S.P. Aggarwal. The group had its mandate to examine the recruitment and training of teaching and non teaching staff.

Task Force on Techniques and Methods in Education: This seventeen member task force was entrusted with the designing of the functional mechanics of the educational system. The members were V.S. Jha, G.K. Athalye (later replaced by S.L. Ahluwallia), M.L. Bharadwaj, A.R.

  1. Dawood, S.
  2. Dutt, C.L.
  3. Apur, S.S.
  4. Ulkarni, J.C.
  5. Mathur, J.F.
  6. McDougall, S.K.
  7. Mitra, J.P.
  8. Naik, Paul Neurath, S.
  9. Panandikar, Albert J.
  10. Perrelli, S.
  11. Rehman, J.M.
  12. Ure (later replaced by D.A.
  13. Smith) and S.M.S.
  14. Chari, who served as the Secretary.
  15. Task Force on Professional, Vocational and Technical Education: The group trained its focus on the professional and vocational courses.

The group had sixteen members including the associate secretary, J.F. McDougall. The other members were T. Sen, S.K. Bose, G.K. Chandiramani, L.S. Chandrakant, D.R. Dhingra, R.N. Dogra, V.G. Garde, R.A. Gopalaswami, K.L. Joshi, P.K. Kelkar, S.G. Pendse, S.C. Sen, R.K.

  • Srivastav, H.C.
  • Visvesvaraya and secretary, S.
  • Venkatesh.
  • Task Force on Science Education: The mandate of the group was to focus on the science education excluding medical education and consisted of D.S.
  • Othari, S. Deb, B.D. Jain, P.
  • Florence Nightingale, R.C.
  • Paul, R.N. Rai, T.S.
  • Sadasivan, D.
  • Shankernarayan, Shantinarayan, A.R.

Verma, R.D. Deshpande and I.C. Menon (secretary). Task Force on School Education: The group worked on the modalities of school education excluding primary education in India. It consisted of twelve members including the commission secretary, J.P. Naik along with A.R.

Dawood, K.L. Gupta, G.S. Khair, K. Kuruvila Jacob, D.R. Mankad, P.N. Mathar, R. Muralidharan, S. Panandikar, H. Radhakrishna, S.N. Saraf, and S. Doraiswami (secretary). Task Force on Student Welfare: The welfare aspects of the students including scholarships and other measures of incentives were attended to by this group which had A.R.

Dawood, V.S. Jha, D.R. Mankad, M.S. Mehta, Perin H. Mehta, J.P. Naik, Prem Pasricha, V. Ramakrishna, A.S. Raturi, D.S. Reddy, S.L. Saruparia, Vikram Singh and S. Doraiswami (secretary) as its members. Task Force on Teacher Education and Teacher Status: The group inspected the proficiency of the teachers and their remuneration packages.

  1. One of the tasks before the group was to standardize the public and private sector compensation packages and also to design a machinery for continuous on-job training of the teachers.
  2. The members of the group were S.
  3. Panandikar, S.P.
  4. Aggarwal, Reginald Bell, A.C.
  5. Deve Gowda, G.N.
  6. Aul, J.P. Naik, S.
  7. Natarajan, K.G.

Saiyidain, Salamatullah and M.D. Paul (secretary). Working Group on Educational Buildings: This group had its focus on the educational infrastructure and had several construction and infrastructure experts among its fifteen members. The members were A.R.

  • Dawood, R.K.
  • Chhabra, Dinesh Mohan, B.V.
  • Doshi, J.F.
  • McDougall, M.M.
  • Mistri, J.P.
  • Naik, M.H.
  • Pandya, C.B. Patel, S.
  • Rahaman, J.L.
  • Sehgal, T.S.
  • Vedagiri, H.C.
  • Visvesaraya, H.
  • Williams and S.
  • Venkatesh (secretary).
  • Working Group on Education of the Backward Classes: The group had fifteen members and was mandated to focus on the education of the scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other backward communities in India.L.M.

Shrikant, Sashimeren Aier, N.V. Bapat, S.R. Bhise, P.D. Kulkarani, J. Lakra, D.J. Naik, J.P. Naik, V. Rajlakshmi, T. Sanganna, S.C. Sen Gupta, Manikya Lal Verma, Vimal Chandra, N.M. Wadiwa and the secretary of the group, Gurbax Singh were the members. Working Group on Educational Statistics: The group provided the statistical tools for the commission and had J.P.

  • Naik, S.P.
  • Aggarwal, R.K.
  • Chhabra, G.P. Khare, D.
  • Natarajan, H.
  • Webster and Gurbax Singh (secretary) as members.
  • Working Group on Pre-Primary Education: This group was intended to work on the primary education and its standardization as the primary education till that time was unorganized with several different schools such as basic primary and Montessori systems in practice.

The group had ten women, S. Panandikar, Bilquis Ghufran, L. Jesudian, Shalini Moghe, A. Pakrashi, Grace Tucker, P.K. Varalakshmi, Amrita Varma and R. Muralidharan and two men, M.C. Nanavatty and Shesh Namle as members. Working Group on School Community Relations: The group composed of L.R.

  1. Desai, Hulbe, V.S. Jha, H.B.
  2. Majumder, P.N.
  3. Mathur, J.P.
  4. Naik, M.C.
  5. Nanavatty, H.
  6. Radhakrishna, K.G.
  7. Saiyidain, R.K.
  8. Singh and M.P.
  9. Balakrishnan (secretary) worked on the extra curricular ambience and activities of the education.
  10. Working Group on School Curriculum: This group had one of the major tasks of the commission which included the design and development of a standardized curriculum to be used across the country.S.

Panandikar, J.P. Naik, A.R. Dawood, L.S. Chandrakant, A.J. Perrelli and B. Ghosh (secretary) were the members. Working Group on Women’s Education: The group, consisting the chairman, D.S. Kothari and the commission secretary, J.P. Naik, had Durgabai Deshmukh, Rajammal Devadas, P.N.

Mathur, S. Panandikar, K.G. Saiyidain, Raksha Saran, Premlila V. Thackersey and S. Rajan (Secretary) as members. PAY SCALE EQUALISATION: Kothari Commission had, recommended that the scales of pay of school teachers working under different managements such as government, local bodies or private management should be the same.

Almost all the States in the country had agreed to implement the recommendations of the Kothari Commission. PROBLEMS: The Common School System was endorsed by the NPE 1986 and 1992. However, the recommendations never got translated into action. In 1990, the apex Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE), which appraises the extent to which the NPE is implemented by the Central and State governments and other agencies appointed a committee to review NEP 1986.

  1. Minorities groups are given protection by the Constitution to establish and administer their own educational institutions which is not in consonance with the concept of CSS.
  2. In Government run schools, the quality of education has not been very satisfactory.
  3. Lack of any political will.
  4. Public schools and private schools which charge capitation fees and those offering expensive coaching facilities have proliferated.
  5. Proliferation of exclusive sainik schools, Kendriya Vidyalayas run by the Government itself.
  6. EVALUATION:
  • It should be a continuous process, forming an integral part of the total educational system and should be related to the educational objectives. It exercises a great influence on the pupil’s studying habits and the teacher’s methodologies.
  • At the lower primary level, it would be desirable that the students develop at their own pace.
  • At the higher primary level, written test should be taken along with oral tests as part of the internal assessment. They should simple teacher-made diagnostic tests.
  • At the end of the primary stage an examination should be held in the national level so as to place the development of the child.
  • At the secondary level the students have to take up regular tests as well as internal assessment as part of their cumulative growth.

: Educational Commission of India – “Kothari Commission (1964-66)”
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What is the meaning of University Education commission?

The first committee for the most important education in independent India was the University Education Committee of 1948, Radhakrishnan, to report on the status of Indian university education and propose improvements and extensions. Desirable to adapt to the future and future requirements of the nation.
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What is the other name of Mudaliar commission?

Secondary Education Commission The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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Is University Education commission and Radhakrishnan Commission Same?

Radhakrishanan Commission also known as University Education Commission was set up by the Government of India after independence under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on November 4, 1948.
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What was the full name of Kothari?

1906-1993 The “message” of the teacher to the students is not merely to impart knowledge content of books which is largely information fast getting out of date. But more than that it should be inspiration, by his/her example, towards the process of character building and the use of knowledge for welfare of the community.

  1. The total message to the students, and to the community, is the total life of the teacher.D.S.
  2. Othari in his address delivered on the occasion of Golden Jubilee Function of the Faculty of Education, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi October 29, 1988.
  3. The great reality of our age is science.
  4. The understanding of nature which science provides, and the deep harmony it unfolds, are deeply satisfying to the human mind.

The power of science to transform society is immense, perhaps more than of any other activity. Equally real and pervasive is human suffering—starvation, pain, devastation, violence, loneliness and deep anguish of the soul. Science will suffer grievously and in the end reduce to a mockery, if all its power is not yoked to alleviate human suffering.D.S.

Kothari in his Shri Raj Krishen Memorial Lecture delivered at Delhi on October 11, 1977. There was a time about a hundred years ago when a gifted individual could encompass the whole of science. This is no longer true today. Science and technology are now divided into some 100-150 subjects. The division is often arbitrary.

It is hardly possible for any person today to master even one subject. The fragmentation of science, if it is not to become a self-defeating process, has to be supplemented by cross communications cutting across subject-barriers. There must be a continuing re-shuffling of boundaries between subjects.

  1. Fragmentation is artificial: Science, in a sense, is a unity.D.S.
  2. Othari in his Presidential address to Indian Science Congress at Delhi on October 07, 1963.
  3. Daulat Singh Kothari, popularly known as D.S.
  4. Othari, was an outstanding scientist.
  5. He was a great educationist.
  6. His contribution to the entire spectrum of Indian education from elementary school to the university level is well-known.

He was a student of Meghnad Saha. Kothari is regarded as the architect of defence science in India. He also played an important role in development of many other organizations, notable along them are the University Grants Commission and the National Council of Education Research and Training.

  • Above all Kothari was an outstanding teacher.
  • He had the moral and intellectual qualities of a rare human being.
  • He devoted his life to the pursuit of knowledge in its widest sense.
  • He was a multifaceted personality—an outstanding teacher, a great educationist, a renowned physicist and a highly successful leader and organiser.D.S.

Kothari was born on July 6, 1906 at Udaipur. At that time Udaiput was in the Mewar State of Rajasthan. His father, Shri Fateh Lal Kothari, was a school teacher. Kothari had three brothers and one sister. His father died in 1918 at the age of 38 years and Kothari, who was the eldest of five children, was just 12 years old.

His father’s early death plunged the family into severe economic difficulties. He was brought up by his mother, a devout Jain and a generous lady. She was always willing to help others in need. Kothari was much influenced by his mother. Kothari was much influenced by his mother. After his early education in his hometown Kothari was invited by his father’s friend Sir Siremal Bapna, then Chief Minister of Indore State, to stay with him and study with his children.

Kothari matriculated in 1922 from Maharaja Shivajirao High School of Indore. After his matriculation he came back to Udaipur and joined the Intermediate College. In his Intermediate Examination, which he passed in 1924, he stood first in the Rajputana Board.

  • He secured distinctions in three science subjects – physics, chemistry and Mathematics.
  • For his outstanding performance in Intermediate Examination, the Mahrana of Mewar granted him a monthly scholarship of Rs.50/- for pursuing higher studies.
  • In those days it was an exceedingly generous grant.
  • Othari Passed his BSc in 1926 from the Allahabad University.
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At the time Kothari came to Allahabad University, Meghnad Saha was heading the Physics Department. He passed his MSc in 1928. He speicliased in Wireless (now renamed Electronics). After his MSc, in which he stood first in order of merit, Kothari took an appointment as demonstrator in the Department of Physics of the Allahabad University.

After two years working as Demonstrator he went to England for higher studies. This was possible by the scholarship that he got from the United Province (UP) State Government for going abroad and an interest free loan of Rs.3, 500/- from the Mewar State Government. Because he had to ensure that after his departure his family did not suffer.

In September 1930 he sailed for Engalnd, where he worked at Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge under the supervision of Ernst Rutherford, to whom he was recommended by Meghnad Saha. After obtaining his PhD degree from the Cambridge University he came back to India and resumed his duties as demonstrator in the Physics Department of the Allahabad University.

  1. In May 1934 Kothari Joined the Delhi University as Reader and Head of the Physics Department.
  2. In those days the science departments of the Delhi University functioned in a hired building in Kashmiri Gate.
  3. The University imported education only upto BSc degree.
  4. There was little equipment in the laboratories.

However, soon after his joining a number of developments took place towards the improvement of the university. The university moved to the Viceregal Lodge Estate. The Faculty of Science decided that teaching in chemistry and Physics be extended to MSc level.

  • In 1938 Sir Maurice Gwyer, former Chief Justice of the Federal Court of India, was appointed as the first full time Vice Chancellor of the University.
  • Othari was appointed Professor of Physics in 1942.
  • With active support of the Vice-Chancellor he took the task of establishing the Physics Department.

The first batch of five students passed MSc in 1944. Kothari was able to attract some outstanding physicists to the Department. He established the New Physics Laboratory. While sending his good wishes for the New Laboratory Albert Eisntein advised Kothari : “Keep good comradeship and work with love and without pre-conceived ideas and you will be happy and successful in your work.” Kothari often referred to this remark.

Many eminent physicists frequently visited the department and their visits enhanced the prestige of the Department. Among those who visited included : PMS Blackett, Niels Bohr, PAM Dirac, P Kapitza, I Prigogine, CV Raman, H.J. Bhabha, M.N. Saha and K.S Krishnan. Kothari established an active research group in physical science at Delhi University.

He published a number of research papers in various branches of physics and astrophysics including plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, quantum electrodynamics, and relativistic quantum statistics. His work on pressure ionization was highly acclaimed.

It found wide ranging applications. Sir A.S. Eddington wrote : “I mentioned that we only gradually came to realize that ionization could be produced by high pressure as well as high temperature. I think the first man to state this explicitly was D.S. Kothari. Stimulated by some work of HN Russall, Kothari has made what I think is an extremely interesting application.” Further commenting Dr.

Kothari’s work, Arnold Sommerfeld wrote : “During the times of Galileo and Kepler the planets were at the focus of astronomical interest but in view of the developments of the last few decades the interest has shifted to stellar subjects and spiral nebula.

  1. It is noteworthy that the Indian DS Kothari has developed an audacious relationship between the old fashioned planets and the now discovered newest heavenly bodies, the white dwarfs”.
  2. Othari played an important role in shaping the University Library.
  3. This is because he could realize that without a good library no teaching and research could be done.

In 1936 May he was unanimously elected Secretary to the Library Committee, a post he held till October 1943. He organized the Third All India Library Conference at the University of Delhi in December 1937. He persuaded the Vice Chancellor to invite S.R.

  1. Ranganathan, who is regarded as father of library science in India, for suggesting a reorganization plan of the University Library. Dr.S.R.
  2. Das Gupta who taught history at St.
  3. Stephen College was appointed the first University Librarian.
  4. Before his appointment he was sent to the Madras University for getting trained for the job.

In 1948 the Government of India appointed Kothari as Scientific Advisor to the Ministry of Defence, a post he held until 1961 when he was appointed Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The Government invited PMS Blacket for advising them in organizing defense science in India.

  1. It may be noted that Kothari and Blacket worked together in the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge under the guidance of Ernst Rutherford.
  2. Blacket had played an important role in organizing defence science in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.
  3. While commenting on the Kothari’s contribution in establishing defence science in India Kothari’s colleague in Defence Science Organization, Nagaratnam wrote : “In giving a direction and coherent shape to the Defence Science Organisation, Professor Kothari had no precedents to go by.

It is a tribute to his clear thinking and visionary foresight that he unerringly identified thrust areas of relevance in the country’s geopolitical (both the then existing and anticipated future) context. Further there were no ready-made specialists in any of these disciplines in the country.

  • He carefully chose through personal contact, scientists (mostly from universities) who had the necessary interest, aptitude and competence.
  • He guided them personally on developing these disciplines on healthy lines.
  • He himself spared no effort to get a mastery over all these areas (most of which were new to him).

He organized weekly seminars on relevant subjects and made it a point to participate actively in each one of them, and particularly encouraged the younger scientists. He believed in humble beginnings and natural growth.” During of Kothari’s term as Advisor to the Defence Ministry the following laboratories were established under the aegis of Defence Sciences Organisation : 1.

  1. Institute of Armament Studies (later renamed Institute of Armament Technology), Pune.2.
  2. Naval Dockyard Laboratory (later renamed Naval Chemical and Metallurgical Laboratory), Mumbai.3.
  3. Indian Naval Physical Laboratory, Kochi 4.
  4. Centre for Fire Research, Delhi 5.
  5. Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 6.
  6. Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore 7.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Chennai 8. Directorate of Psychological Research, New Delhi 9. Defence Electronics and Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 10. Scientific Evaluation Group, Delhi 11. Technical Ballistic Research Laboratory, Chandigarh APJ Abdul Kalam in his recent book, Ignited Minds : Unleashing the Power Within India.

wrote : “Dr.D.S. Kothari, a professor at Delhi University, was an outstanding physicist and astrophysicist. He is well-known for Ionisation of matter by pressure in cold compact object like planets. This theory is complementary to the epoch making theory of thermal inisation of his guru, Dr. Maghnad Saha.

Dr.D.S. Kothari set a scientific tradition in Indian defence tasks when he became Scientific Advisor to Defence Minister in 1948. The first thing he did was to establish the Defence Science Centre to do research in electronic materials, nuclear medicine and ballistic science.

He is considered the architect of defence science in India. We are celebrating this great mind through a Chair research at the Indian Institute of Science”. In 1961 Kothari was appointed the Chairman of the University Grants Commission and he remained in this post for almost 13 years. Kothari initiated a number of new activities in colleges and universities.

Kothari firmly believed that the future of the country depended essentially on education. Describing a university Kothari said: “A university is a society of teachers and students dedicated to the pursuit of learning. It is, above all, a dwelling place of ideas and idealism.

And the contribution that the universities and colleges in our country will or can make to meet the great challenge of our times will be in direct proportion to their being and becoming, in pursuit of their true ideals, places where there is freedom to inquire boldly and readiness to doubt courageously, where knowledge and understanding and true humility go together and grow more and more, and where the highest standards of scholarship, integrity and conduct are expected, respected and cultivated.” He also said: “the level of science and technology in the universities provides a reasonably good and reiable barometer to the standard and health of science and technology in a country.

In a developing country like ours, the strengthening of the universities is fundamental to everything else.” His commitment to education was total. So there is no wonder that when the Government of India appointed the Indian Education Commission in 1964, Kothari became its Chairman.

Other members of the Committee were Bhagwan Sahay, S. Chakravarty, M.L. Dhar, M.V. Mathur and G. Parthasarathi. In the report entitled “Education and National Development” prepared by the Commission Kothari’s vision of education clearly reflected. The Report was hailed as landmark in educational sectors in India and other developing countries.

To quote from the report : “The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, we believe, is no mere rhetoric. In a world based on science and technology, it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the people.

On the quality and number of persons coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success in the great enterprise of national reconstruction, the principal objective of which is to raise the standard of living of our people.” Kotahri’s deep concern for education led to his association with the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), since its inception.

He not only conceptualized the role and functions of NCERT but also gave a blueprint for its future development in the Report of the Education Commission (1964-66). Kothari’s role in reorganizing the examination and selection process for central services of the Government of India is quite significant.

  • Othari believed that education, specially scientific and technical education, was directly linked to national development and prosperity.
  • He said: “The role of education is to improve the material standard of the people and to enrich the quality of life.
  • Besides knowledge and skills, education should be also concerned with the ‘inner content’ of our lives, with ideas and idealism and strengthening of the spirit.

We need a balance between three overlapping divisions of education (at all levels) which may perhaps be described as: tactical, strategic and humanistic. The first refers to theoretical and practical knowledge of life-long utility, the second to knowledge of life-long utility and value, and the third relates to quality and meaning of life.” He emphasized the need for improving the conditions for primary education in the country.

  1. He said: “No country, whatever its stage of economic development, can in the modern world afford to do anything less than provide primary education to all its people.
  2. That is essential to survival and development.
  3. Illiteracy is expensive in the long run.” He believed without promoting excellence in educational institutions nothing could be achieved.
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He said: “Education which does not value and promote excellence is, in the end, a waste of effort and resources. Excellence is to be understood as extending over a wide range of interests and activities, that is, studies, research, teaching, technical skills, promotion of social and moral values, sports, etc.

  1. The meaning of excellence, and how to identify it, needs to be examined continually.” Kothari had immense faith in the youth of the country and he did everything whatever he could do to encourage the young scientists.
  2. He was keen on identifying talented students and nurturing them.
  3. The National Science Talent Search Programme and the subsequent National Talent Search Programme started by the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) owe their origin to Kothari’s vision.

He had the highest regard for truth and non-violence. He had the greatest tolerance for all religious beliefs. Above all he believed in rationality. While talking on science and religion, Kothari said: “Anti-science, negation of science, is to be totally rejected.

  1. It is most important to make an unequivocal distinction, even if it cannot be sharply made, between rational, beyond-rational, (beyond-reason), and anti-rational (anti-reason).
  2. Anti-rational or anti-science has no place in the affairs of man.
  3. It is untruth.
  4. But beyond-reason is not anti-reason.
  5. And beyond-physics is not anti-physics.

It is not negation of physicsThe reign of reason is supreme in science. Its loyalty is to nothing else. But the very existence of science, the great kingdom of reason, the very fact that nature is comprehensible to human mind, is unfathomable mysteryScience, through understanding of nature, enables us to transform matter into energy—clay into gold, as it were.

  1. Faith can transform men of “clay” into men of love, compassion and without fear.” Further he said: “Science provides an understanding of and control over Nature.
  2. But it is moral and spiritual insight which gives a meaning and purpose to life, individually and collectively.
  3. In the end both science and religion are to judged by their achievements, and not by their pretensions or their promises.” Kothari’s book, Nuclear Explosions and Their Effects, jointly written with Homi J.

Bhabha, is regarded as an important contribution to the subject. The book has been translated into German, Russian and Japanese. Kothari received several honours and awards. Kothari was Chancellor of the Jawaharlal Nehru University for two terms (1882-92).

He was the President of the Indian National Science Academy from 1973 to 1974. He was the General President of the Indian Science Congress held in Delhi in 1962. The Government of India honoured him with Padma Bhushan in 1962 and Padma Vibhushan in 1973. After his retirement from the Delhi University in 1971, he was appointed Emeritus Professor and he continued to maintain close contact with students and teachers almost till his death on February 4, 1993.

In honour of Kothari the Delhi University has established the D.S. Kothari Centre for Science, Ethics and Education. One of the objectives of this centre is to collect technical and non-technical writings of Kothari in book form. We would like to end this article by Kothari on the aim of education: “The true aim of all education is to understand the wonderful world around us, to develop self-discipline and contribute to the happiness to our home and the community.

  • This makes education enjoyable and most exciting, inspiring adventure.” For Further Reading: 1 – Atom and Self: Collection of Lectures Delivered by D.S. Kothari.
  • Edited by Feroz Ahmed.
  • New Age International Publishers.
  • New Delhi 2002.2 – Knowledge and Wisdom: Collection of Lectures Delivered by D.S. Kothari.

Edited by Feroz Ahmed. New Age International Publishers. New Delhi 2002.3 – Education and Character Building: Convocation Addresses Delivered by D.S. Kothari. National Institute of Science Communication (now renamed as National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources).
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Who is the chairman of NPE 1986?

The National Policy on Education (NPE) was adopted by Parliament in May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti in May 1990 to review NPE hand to make recommendations for its modifications.
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Which is the first education commission in India?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Why was the hunter commission formed?

Hunter Commission of 1920 – While the Hunter Commission of 1882 was appointed by the then Governor-General in circumstances of relative peace, the Hunter Commission of 1920 was appointed by the then Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu under far more tragic circumstances during a time of turmoil.

  • The official name of the Hunter Committee of 1920 was the Disorders Inquiry Committee and was constituted after the massacre at Jallianwalla Bagh on 13 April 1919.
  • The events leading up to the actions of General Dyer at Jallianwalla Bagh are well known and form an important part of the History of the Freedom Movement.

The, also known as the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 took place when General Dyer of the British Indian Army ordered his troops to open fire and keep firing into a crowd of unarmed people inside Jallianwalla Bagh. The Hunter Commission of 1920 appointed to investigate the Amritsar Massacre had the following members:

  • Lord William Hunter, Chairman of the Hunter Commission, former Solicitor General of Scotland
  • W.F. Rice, Home Department member
  • Thomas Smith, Member, Legislative Council, United Provinces
  • Pandit Jagat Narayan, Member, Legislative Council, United Provinces and lawyer
  • H.C. Stokes, Secretary of the Commission and Home Department member
  • Sardar Sahibzada Sultan Ahmad Khan, Gwalior State lawyer
  • Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Vice-Chancellor, Bombay University and advocate, Bombay High Court
  • Mr Justice George C. Rankin, Calcutta
  • Major-General Sir George Barrow, KCB, KCMG, GOC Peshawar Division

Due to the commission being composed of both British and Indian officials, there were reports of racial tension between them. In spite of this, the committee unanimously condemned General Dyer’s actions and published the following findings:

  • Dyer did not ask the crowd to disperse before opening fire into the crowd and continued firing until ammunition was exhausted. This constituted a serious error.
  • Dyer’s intention of producing moral effect through the use of force was condemnable and he had exceeded the limits of authority assigned to him.

There was no conspiracy to oust British Rule from Punjab that had led to the assembly of people at Jallianwalla Bagh. The Indian members added to these findings, the following observations:

  • Orders prohibiting public meetings had not been sufficiently circulated in Punjab in general and in Amritsar in particular which could have prevented the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
  • Innocent people formed the crowd at Jallianwalla Bagh and there was no violence before the massacre.
  • Dyer should have ordered troops to help the wounded people or informed civilian authorities to arrange aid. His actions were condemned as inhuman and greatly damaged the image of the British in India.
  • The Hunter Commission report was important in the context that its findings paved the way for public opinion in both Britain and India gradually turning against British rule in India. In particular, General Dyer was relieved of command and officially rebuked by the House of Commons of the UK based on his actions and statements during the massacre and afterwards.
  • The Hunter Commission report findings were also instrumental in the development of the use of minimum force in crowd control worldwide.

Due to the impact of the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre on the freedom movement and the scale of brutality shown by the British Indian Army troops, the Hunter Commission of 1920 is an important part of the static syllabus on History of the Freedom Movement for Prelims and General Studies for IAS Mains.2019 being the centenary year of the tragedy at Jallianwalla, the Government of India has decided to mark the remembrance of the people killed in the Amritsar Massacre.

This means that the Amritsar Massacre and the Hunter Commission is also part of the dynamic syllabus of UPSC 2022 exam and questions from this concept could be asked in Current Affairs for IAS. The two administrative reforms suggested by Hunter Commission 1882 in the field of Secondary education are: (i) Gradual withdrawal of the Government from direct enterprise in secondary education.

(ii) Maintenance of some Secondary schools by the Govt. as Model to aided schools. Hunter Education Commission was a landmark commission appointed by Viceroy Lord Ripon with objectives to look into the complaints of the non-implementation of the Wood’s Despatch of 1854; the contemporary status of elementary education in the British territories; and suggest means by which this can be extended and improved.

  1. Hunter Commission Report – UPSC Notes:-
  2. UPSC aspirants should brush up their History knowledge for UPSC 2022 by referring to as well as by reading on current affairs based on major historical events. They can also read some important Modern History topics linked in the table below:
  3. For more information on UPSC Preparation, please visit:

: Hunter Commission Report – Hunter Commission 1882 and 1920
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What is Radha Krishna Commission?

What is Radhakrishnan Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation

The Radha Krishna Commission was a commission set up to look into the condition of Indian University Education and suggest improvements and extensions that may help in improving university education.One of the recommendations made by the Radhakrishnan Commission was that a percentage of higher salaries for the teachers so that they could get the motivation for teachingFor further reading check the following articles:

: What is Radhakrishnan Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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