Which Among The Following Is Step To Improve Tribal Education?


Which Among The Following Is Step To Improve Tribal Education
How to improve tribal Education in India?

Context: In order to revamp the tribal education system, the educationists intend to recognise tribal culture, language, cognitive strength, curriculum and inherent learning ability of the tribal children. Although several initiatives like establishment of Ashram Schools, Ekalavya Model Residential Schools, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya have been taken, there are many challen ges in ensur ing holistic education in the tribal hinterlands, What are the reforms required in tribal education system? 

Teacher-student relationships: Teacher-student relationships are a very important factor as healthy relationships will promote meaningful learning in classrooms.

It should be the responsibility of the teachers to spread, respect and value the culture, traditions, mannerisms, languages of the tribal students.

Teaching in mother tongue: The students should be taught in their mother tongue and every state must have adequate facilities for the same, as stated in Article 350A of the Indian Constitution. Resolute efforts by states are needed to overcome the language barrier.

For instance:

The Odisha Government and civil society organizations have made some efforts to educate the Gonds, Bhils, Santals, and other tribal groups in their mother-tongue. The literacy rate among some of these tribes has gradually gone up over the years.

Decentralised syllabus: The deputy director of Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS) has suggested that the syllabus of textbooks should be decentralised and the socio-cultural and economic situations of tribal people should be kept in mind while preparing learning material, Exploring folklore: The schools should explore folklore in primary education, which would help tap tribals’ rich tradition in arts, crafts, music, songs, fables, etc. Similarly, stories and riddles should be collected, documented, and used by teachers.  Making it inclusive: Incorporation of tribal youth in their culture is vital. In order to ensure their active participation and cooperation in sensitisation programmes on the importance of education, the government should work with the tribal leaders.

What is the role of United Nations?

UNICEF, in collaboration with UNESCO, is supporting the Union government to achieve quality education for all children between 6 and 14 years, The key areas for cooperation include:

Reaching out to vulnerable and deprived children. Adapting international practices. Supporting care providers and community advocates to demand inclusive and quality education.

UNICEF is also lending its support for the development of child-friendly schools and systems (CFSS), Assistance has also been provided for monitoring tools and the integration of CFSS indicators into state plans in support of making child-friendly schools. Under Promoting the Rights of Disabled Children to Quality Education  project, UNICEF provides support to states to make primary education curriculum more inclusive for children with disabilities and building the technical capacity of teachers.

Steps by the Indian government to promote tribal education: The formation of Ashram Schools, Ekalavya Model Residential Schools, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya, pre-matric scholarships and vocational training centres. What is the way forward?

Firstly, there should be a collaboration and strategic dialogue between government, policy-makers, and international development institutions to mutually put efforts to address the chronic problems and allocate adequate funds from central and state budget for tribal education. Secondly, policy framers need to focus on a long-term strategy to enhance educational status of tribal children. Thirdly, equal access and opportunities should be given to tribal children to empower them. Lastly, tribal communities will have to be uplifted economically and educationally for promotion of a socio-economically integrated healthy society in the remote pockets.

: How to improve tribal Education in India?
View complete answer

What are the three approaches to solve the problems of tribes?

There are three major approaches ‘Isolation approach’, ‘Assimilation approach’ and ‘Integration approach’ emerge on Indian tribes.
View complete answer

Which of the following problem is due to tribal development?

What are the main problems of Tribal communities? The tribal communities face many challenges and problems. A few common ones are listed below:

Poverty and exploitation. Economic and technological backwardness. Socio-cultural handicaps. Problems of assimilation with the non-tribal population. Illiteracy among tribals is a major hindrance to their development. The problem of health and nutrition is very common among tribals due to the lack of proper medical and sanitary facilities and poverty. Indebtedness due to lack of adequate sources of income. Tribals living in a village along with caste groups, sects and religious groups and maintaining their identity Tribals who have been degraded to the status of untouchables.

Further Reading: : What are the main problems of Tribal communities?
View complete answer

What are 3 native tribes?

Prominent tribes include the Algonquin, Iroquois, Huron, Wampanoag, Mohican, Mohegan, Ojibwa, Ho-chunk (Winnebago), Sauk, Fox, and Illinois.
View complete answer

What are the main problems of tribal community Class 8?

9 Main Problems faced by Indian Tribals – Explained! The main problems the tribals face are: i. They possess small and uneconomical landholdings because of which their crop yield is less and hence they remain chronically indebted. ii. Only a small percentage of the population participates in occupa­tional activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors.

  1. Iii. Literacy rate among tribals is very low.
  2. While in 1961, it was 18.53 per cent, in 1991 it increased to 29.60 per cent which compared to general literacy rate of 52.21 per cent in the country is very lo-w, be­cause while the growth of literacy rate in the past three decades in the country was 28.21 per cent, among the STs it was only 11.7 per cent {The Hindustan Times, July 11, 1995).

Though tribal literacy rate in Mizoram is 82.71 per cent and in Nagaland, Sikkim and Kerala it is between 57 per cent and 61 per cent, lack of literacy among tribal people has been identified as a major development problem. iv. A good portion of the land in tribal areas has been legally transferred to non-tribals.

Tribals demand that this land should be returned to them. In fact, tribals had earlier enjoyed considerable freedom to use forests and hunt animals. Forests not only provide them materials to build their homes but also give them fuel, herbal medicines for curing diseases, fruits, wild game, etc. Their religion makes them believe that many of their spirits live in trees and forests.

Their folk-tales often speak of the relations of human beings and the spirits. Because of such physical and emotional attachment to forests, tribals have re­acted sharply to restrictions imposed by the government on their traditional rights.v. Tribal government programmes have not significantly helped the tribals in raising their economic status.

  • The British policy had led to ruthless exploitation of the tribals in various ways as it favoured the zamindars, landlords, moneylenders, forest contractors, and excise, revenue and police officials. vi.
  • Banking facilities in the tribal areas are so inadequate that the tribals have to depend mainly on moneylenders.

Being miserably bogged down in indebtedness, tribals demand that Agricultural Indebtedness Relief Acts should be enacted so that they may get back their mort­gaged land. vii. About 90 per cent of the tribals are engaged in cultivation and most of them are landless and practise shifting cultivation.

  • They need to be helped in adopting new methods of cultivation. viii.
  • The unemployed and the underemployed want help in finding secon­dary sources of earning by developing animal husbandry, poultry farming, handloom weaving, and the handicrafts sector.
  • Most of the tribals live in sparsely populated hills and communications in the tribal areas remain tough.

The tribals, therefore, need to be protected against leading isolated life, away from towns and cities, through a network of new roads. ix. The tribals are exploited by Christian missionaries. In several tribal areas, mass conversion to Christianity had taken place during the British period.

  • While the missionaries have been pioneers in educa­tion and opened hospitals in tribal areas, they have also been responsible for alienating the tribals from their culture.
  • Christian missionaries are said to have many a time instigated the tribals to revolt against the Indian government.
  • Relations between the tribals and non-tribals thus started worsening and non-tribal residents were increasingly depending for protection on the paramilitary forces.

The demand for separate states for tribals took the shape of insurgency in Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Bihar, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Neighbouring countries, unfriendly to India, were active in exploiting these anti-Indian sentiments.

  • Infiltration of foreign nationals, gun-running, trafficking in narcotics and smuggling even today are very serious problems in these states sur­rounded by tribal belts.
  • In short, the main problems of the tribals are poverty, indebtedness, illiteracy, bondage, exploitation, disease and unemployment.
  • After independence, tribal problems and tribal unrest have become politicised.

An articulate and effective political elite have emerged in sev­eral tribal areas. These elite are conscious of tribal rights and are capable of making calculated moves to gain their acceptance. The tribals of Jharkhand region in Bihar and of Bastar region in Madhya Pradesh are recent examples where tribal political leaders have succeeded in compelling the central government to agree to form separate states.

A separate tribal state in Bihar (Vananchal) would comprise 18 districts of South Bihar, with tribal population of 26 per cent. The demand for greater Jharkhand state consists of 26 predominantly tribal districts of Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. In areas where tribal leadership does not exist, po­litical parties—national, regional or local—are moving in to fill the vacuum.S.C.

Dube (1972:30) has also said that today we find a shift in the political attitudes and strategies of the tribals—from politics of compli­ance and affirmation to politics of pressure and protest. It may be said that the political culture of the tribes is undergoing a radical transforma­tion.

This parochial political culture and ‘participant’ political culture is oriented more to sub-national tribal identities than to a broader national identity. When interests of the smaller unit (tribe) and the larger unit (na­tion) clash, the tendency is to ignore or sacrifice the latter. This perspective resulting in exclusive focus on purely tribal interests and on their solution unlinked with broader national interests imparts parochial overtones to the emerging political culture.

On the other hand, in partici­pative political culture, the tribals take an active interest in formulating policies, questioning the usefulness of political decisions of the govern­ment and suggesting correctives (Ibid-31). The key issue, thus, is of harmonising the national and tribal interests.
View complete answer

You might be interested:  Board Of Secondary Education Rajasthan 10Th Result 2021?

What are the tribal educational issues?

Poor physical facilities, expensive schooling, lack of teaching staff and punitive practices were some of the factors, which added to the prob- lems faced by the tribal students. and females) perceived low, medium and high levels of constraints with respect to physical facilities at the school.
View complete answer

Who are called as tribals?

Who are the indigenous and tribal peoples? “Indigenous and tribal peoples” is a common denominator for more than 370 million people, found in more than 70 countries worldwide. Indigenous and tribal peoples have their own cultures, languages, customs and institutions, which distinguish them from other parts of the societies in which they find themselves.

Subjective criteria Objective criteria
Indigenous peoples Self-identification as belonging to an indigenous people Descent from populations, who inhabited the country or geographical region at the time of conquest, colonisation or establishment of present state boundaries. They retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, irrespective of their legal status.
Tribal peoples Self-identification as belonging to a tribal people Their social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community. Their status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations.

Indigenous and tribal peoples are often known by national terms such as native peoples, aboriginal peoples, first nations, adivasi, janajati, hunter-gatherers, or hill tribes. Given the diversity of peoples it aims at protecting, the Convention uses the inclusive terminology of “indigenous and tribal peoples” and ascribes the same set of rights to both groups.
View complete answer

Which among the following is problem of tribal education?

One of the causes is undoubtedly the very low standard of teaching and facilities in tribal schools.5— The Problem of Tribal Education.

Lack of interest in education among parents 64.5 percent
Poverty 31.5 percent
Lack of interest in education among children 4.0 percent

View complete answer

What is the importance of tribals?

Tribal people have a crucial role in environment conservation No one can look after their forest and environment better than ethnic people because their survival and identity depend on it. They are generally the best conservationists and they have managed their cultivable lands for many generations.

Agriculture is very much a part of the tribal culture in Northeast India and Jhum or Shifting cultivation or slash and burn is one of the primitive practices of cultivation. Due to traditional beliefs, the people of Northeast India has maintained this practice in the region but the effects of jhum cultivation are devastating and far-reaching in degrading the environment and ecology of these regions.

“Earlier slash and burn agriculture was the process of growing crops traditionally by the tribal of hilly regions of Northeast India. But the practice of traditional cultivation is partially responsible for destroying the green cover in the area. The Karbis from a small village named Boalcherra in the Cachar District of Assam realized soon that the present trend of Jhum cultivation was fast becoming detrimental to the environmental health and also that the practice was not producing the expected result.

This ultimately creates deforestation and loss of habitat for plants and animals”, says Ms.Regina Teronpi, an active member of Farmer’s club from Boalcherra, where 29 families are totally depended on agriculture for their livelihood. Bidyasing Hanse, a Farmer Club Secretary shared that in the past, the Jhum cycles were of longer duration from 10 to 15 years, so the land could replenish its lost fertility during this period.buy cipro online no prescription But nowadays owing to increasing pressure of a growing population, deforestation on land the cycles have become shorter from 4 to 7 years, and as such, it cannot replenish its lost fertility.

Therefore, the production from this type of cultivation has also decreased to a greater extent. Thirteen years back, 24 farming families took the initiative to do away with jhum cultivation, given the present context where it was no more a productive practice.buy priligy online no prescription The concern was also to save the fast depleting natural resources around the village.

  • The households that were practising jhum in their individual plot of land for crops like rice, maize, pumpkin, brinjal, chillies, beans, gourd, papaya etc.
  • Started cultivating crop like of areca nut, coconut, betel leaves, orange, litchi and banana to restore the ecological balance and enhance their income by producing horticultural products.

The absence of unity among the community of Boalcherra, however, was the main impediment to stopping the jhum cultivation. The process was initiated to bring collective decision to avert the detrimental effects of jhum cultivation which was degrading soil and environment leading to the destruction of green land and triggering in soil erosion.

  • But FARM NE II staff of Seva Kendra Silchar (SKS) motivated the community by explaining to them about the ill effects of jhum cultivation, resulting in a community action for a better feature.
  • According to Dipa, the Coordinator, the FARM team helped the community to strengthen their skills in horticultural production through training.

The FARM team also encouraged the community to produce bamboo baskets and other handicrafts. It is worth mentioning here that the FRAM team from SKS have been working hard since 2016 to strengthen the decision of the people on jhum cultivation. The FARM team going by the principle of People Led Empowerment (PLE), helped to the community to stick to their decisions by trying to bring the sense of unity among them.

“We decided that the Boalcherra Farmer’s club will start making basket, honey collection and will convert our jhum land for plantation of areca nut, coconut, bamboo and other fruit trees”, says Farmer Club President.With constant monitoring and follow-up was done by SKS team, it was observed that the farmers are very actively contributing to use their own traditional techniques and indigenous seeds for preparing nursery of betel nut in a common land and preparing the basket for commercial purpose.We need to leave behind a serene environment for the generations to come is the tagline that the people of Boalcherra are using to motivate other villages to Today, the potential farmers of the community at Boalcherra are encouraging and motivating other tribal villages to think and act for a better future.

: Tribal people have a crucial role in environment conservation
View complete answer

Why is tribal development important?

This group aims at bringing together citizens who wish to do their bit in empowering the Scheduled Tribes of the country. The Group collectively seeks solutions to address the issues relating to comprehensive and all encompassing strategy for development of tribals.
View complete answer

How can we protect tribals?

What should be the Way Forward? –

Time to treat them as First-class Citizen:

The benefit of development like education or technology should reach them but at the same time they should not be turned into second-class citizens. They are first-class citizens and they should remain first-class citizens so their confidence, their empowerment and their autonomy and their self-respect must be protected at all cost and this applies to all the tribal communities including the centenaries.

Ensure Adequate Budget Allocations:

The governments both at the Centre and States must recognize improvement in the health status of the tribal population as among the topmost priorities from policy point of view and ensure adequate budget allocations made including under the National Tribal Plan.

Preserving Heritage and Culture:

The efforts should not only be directed at protecting the population of the tribals by ensuring access to quality nutrition and health resources, efforts are also needed to preserve their heritage, culture, language, art, traditions and sensibilities.

Economic Upliftment:

Steps need to be taken to alleviate the position of the tribals by taking measures to ensure the economic upliftment of the tribals. The policies and programmes for the development of the tribals should be tailored to the unique character of the community and should be need-based.

View complete answer

Who are the tribes in India?

The Tribes of India – The most commonly known tribes of India are Gonds, Bhils (or Bheels), Santhal, Munda, Khasi, Garo, Angami, Bhutia, Chenchu, Kodaba, and the Great Andamanese Tribes. Of all these tribes, the Bhil tribal group, as per the, is the largest tribe in India.

  1. It constitutes a staggering 38% of the country’s total scheduled tribal population.
  2. The Bhils have their own language named after them, but most members also speak Marathi and Gujarati, and the official state language where they are based.
  3. The tribe has its roots in Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and even some parts of Tripura, making it the biggest tribe in India.

Additionally, Bhil is one of the very few that is famous for its art form called the Bhil Art. The purpose of these artworks is to portray the everyday life of the tribe members. They make various items using twigs and branches of the Neem tree as brushes and natural colour pigments derived from different leaves and flowers.
View complete answer

What is the current situation of tribes in India Class 8?

They are either Nomadic herders or agriculturist or follow other allied professions. Their geographical isolation, economic backwardness and lack of education have led to the exploitation.
View complete answer

How government is helping the tribes?

1. “INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OF TRIBAL PRODUCTS/PRODUCE” – Under the scheme, Grants-in-aid are released to State Tribal Development Cooperative Corporations (STDCCs) and Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. (TRIFED) which is a multi-State Cooperative under MoTA.
View complete answer

Which are the schemes implemented by the government for the development of tribals Class 8?

Several schemes being implemented by the Government for development of the tribal population in the country

S pecial Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS )

Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)is 100% grant from Government of India (since 1977-78). It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for North Eastern States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development.

  • This grant is utilized for economic development of Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) Pockets and Clusters, PVTGs and dispersed tribal population.2.
  • Grants-in-Aid under Article 275(1) of the Constitution Grants-in-aid under Proviso to Article 275(1) of Constitution of India is 100% annual grant from Government of India to States.

It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for North Eastern States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development. Funds are utilized for socio-economic development ofIntegrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) Pockets and Clusters and forPVTGs.

Scheme of Grant-in-Aid to Voluntary Organizations working for the Welfare of Scheduled Tribes

The Scheme was launched in 1953-54 and was last revised w.e.f.1 st April 2008. The prime objective of the scheme is to enhance the reach of welfare schemes of Government and fill the gaps in service deficient tribal areas, in the sectors such as education, health, drinking water, agro-horticultural productivity, social security net etc. through the efforts of voluntary organizations, and to provide favourable environment for socio-economic upliftment and overall development of the Scheduled Tribes (STs). Any other innovative activity having direct positive impact on the socio-economic development or livelihood generation of STs may also be considered through voluntary efforts. The scheme is Central Sector Scheme. The grants are provided to the non-governmental organizations on application, in a prescribed format, duly recommended by the multi-disciplinary State Level Committee of the concerned State Government/UT Administration. Funds are generally provided to the extent of 90% by the Government. The voluntary organization is expected to bear the remaining 10% balance from its own resources.

Scheme of Strengthening Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts

The scheme aims to bridge the gap in literacy levels between the general female population and tribal women, in the identified districts or blocks, more particularly in naxal affected areas and in areas inhabited by Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), by creating the required ambience for education for ST girls.

It is a Central Sector gender specific scheme and the Ministry provides 100% funding. The grants are provided to the eligible NGOs on an application (in the prescribed format) duly recommended by the multidisciplinary State Level Committee of the concerned State Government / UT Administration. The Scheme has been revised with effect from 1.4.2008.

It is being implemented in 54 identified low literacy districts where ST Population is 25% or more and ST female literacy rate is below 35% as per 2001 Census.

Scheme of Vocational Training in Tribal Areas

The main aim of the Scheme is to develop the skills of the ST youth for a variety of jobs as well as self-employment and to improve their socio-economic condition by enhancing their income. The scheme covers all the States and Union Territories. It is not an area-specific scheme, the condition being that free vocational training facilities are extended only to tribal youth, 100% grants under the scheme are provided to the States, Union Territories and other Associations implementing the Scheme.

Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

In 1998-99, a 100% Central Sector Scheme for exclusive development of PVTGs was started. The scheme was revised w.e.f.1.4.2015, to make it more effective. The scheme covers only the 75 identified Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The scheme is very flexible and it enables every State to focus on any developmental activity for PVTGs, viz., housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural growth, cattle development, connectivity, installation of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security or any other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic development of PVTGs.

Scheme of Girls & Boys Hostels for STs

Under the scheme, Central assistance is given to States/UTs/Universities for construction of new hostel buildings and/or extension of existing hostels. The scheme has been revised w.e.f.1.4.2008. Under the revised scheme, State Governments are eligible for 100% central share for construction of all Girls’ hostel and also for construction of Boys’ hostel in naxal affected areas (identified by Ministry of Home Affairs from time to time).

The funding pattern for the other Boys’ Hostel to State Governments is on 50:50 basis. In case of UTs, the Central Government bears the entire cost of construction of both Boys’ and Girls’ hostels. Hostels for Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) for ST Girls and Boys are funded on the same criteria as other hostels.

Members of Parliament could also provide funds as a substitute of State share from their MPLAD scheme for this purpose. Maintenance of the hostel is the responsibility of the concerned States/UTs. The hostels may be for middle, secondary, college or university level education.

It has been decided to discontinue the Scheme from 2018-19 and the intervention is to be subsumed under the Scheme Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS).8. Scheme of Ashram Schools in Tribal Sub-Plan Area The objective of the scheme is to provide residential schools for STs in an environment conducive to learning to increase the literacy rate among the tribal students and to bring them at par with other population of the country.

The scheme has been revised with effect from the financial year 2008-09. Under the revised scheme, State Governments are eligible for 100% central share for construction of all Girls’ Ashram Schools and also for construction of Boys’ Ashram Schools in naxal affected areas (identified by Ministry of Home Affairs from time to time).

Scholarship Schemes

The Ministry is implementing the following Scholarship schemes for ST students in the country with a view to provide financial assistance to them, so as to enable them to complete their education: (i) Pre-Matric Scholarship for ST students (9 th & 10 th Std) (ii)Post-Matric Scholarship for ST students (Class 11 th onwards) (iii) National Fellowship and Scholarship for Higher Education of ST students (iv) National Overseas Scholarship (NOS) for ST candidates for studying abroad The Schemes mentioned at (i) and (ii) above are implemented through the States / UTs, and funds are released to States / UTs for disbursement to eligible ST students.

the scheme (iii) above, funds are released to the Institutes / students, and under NOS scheme, funds are released to Ministry of External Affairs on reimbursement basis.

10. Support to Tribal Research Institute (TRIs) Tribal Research Institutes (TRIs) have been set up by various State Governments. The basic objective of the scheme is to strengthen the Tribal Research Institutes (TRIs) in their infrastructural needs, Research & Documentation activities and Training & Capacity Building programmes, etc.

It is envisaged that TRIs should work as body of knowledge & research more or less as a think tank for tribal development, preservation of tribal cultural heritage, providing inputs to States for evidence based planning and appropriate legislations, capacity building of tribals and persons / institutions associated with tribal affairs, dissemination of information and creation of awareness.Funding under this Scheme is 100% Grant-in-Aid by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs to the TRIs on need basis.11.

Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP)and Development of Value Chain for MFP Minimum Support Price for Minor Forest Produce scheme ) MSP for MFP Scheme), started by Ministry of Tribal Affairs in the year 2013-14, was the first step in the direction of providing fair price to tribals.Initially, the scheme included 10 MFPs in 9 States.

  • It was later expanded to 24 MFPs and in all States.The Scheme is implemented through State level agency (SLA) appointed by the State Government.
  • Ministry of Tribal Affairs provides a revolving fund to the SLA.Loss, if any, is shared by Centre and State in the ratio of 75:25.
  • Presently, the scheme has a coverage of 23 MFPs and applicability to all States.12.

National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC), under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, extends financial assistance at concessional rates of interest to Scheduled Tribes for undertaking income generation activities. NSTFDC implements following schemes for self-employment of Scheduled Tribes who are unemployed or underemployed:

Term Loan scheme: NSTFDC provides Term Loan for any income generation scheme costing upto ₹25.00 lakhs per unit. The financial assistance is extended upto 90% of the cost of the scheme and the balance is met by way of subsidy/ promoter’s contribution/ margin money. The interest rate chargeable is 6% p.a. for loan upto ₹ 5 lakhs, 8% p.a. for loans ranging between ₹ 5 lakhs to ₹ 10 lakhs and 10% p.a. for loan exceeding ₹10 lakhs on the entire amount of loan.

  • AdivasiMahilaSashaktikaran Yojana (AMSY): Under the scheme, Scheduled Tribes women can undertake any income generation activity. Loans upto 90% for scheme costing upto ₹1 lakh are provided at a concessional rate of interest of 4% p.a.
  • Micro Credit Scheme for Self Help Groups : The Corporation provides loans upto ₹50,000/- per member and ₹ 5 Lakhs per Self Help Group (SHG). The interest rate chargeable is 6% p.a.
  • Adivasi Shiksha Rrinn Yojana : Under this scheme, financial assistance upto ₹5.00 lakh at concessional rate of interest of 6% per annum is provided to ST students for pursuing professional/ technical education including Ph.D. in India.

***** NB/RN
View complete answer

What type of protection is given by government to tribes?

Protecting the Tribal Rights The word ‘Tribe’ denotes a group of people living in fixed territory. These tribes are a social group living in a fixed territory having no such specialisation of functions and the people living inthese social groups are known as tribes or tribal people.

Tribes also have several sub groups and collectively they are known primitive and ruthless conditions. As ‘Tribal Society’. Tribes are theinhabitants of forests since pre history and even in this modern world this trend is followed by many people. Tribes constitute around 9.6 percent of the total Indian population, and of the total tribal population around 80 percent are found in Central India.

India has the second largest tribalpopulation in the world. In India, Scheduled Tribes are mainly spread across the forests and hilly regions of India. Tribes in India are mainly characterised by their geographical location and distinct culture. In India, tribes are treated very low, are execrated and are even treated as untouchables by the prevailing adherence to social norms and caste system.

  • Thai is ” The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”, so there was a need to provide these tribal people some rights for their welfare and development.
  • In earlier times, Mahatma Gandhi fought for the rights of the tribal people and recognized them as Girijans or the Children of the Forest God and after Independence in 1947, the Government of India spent lot of resources to improve the standard of living of tribal people and also helped them through legislations and developmental programmes and in safeguarding their rights.
  • RKIA an Emirati investor, recently initiated an investment treaty arbitration (ITA) claim against India under the India-UAE Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT).

It sought compensation of $44.71 million after claim arose after a MoU between Andhra Pradesh and RAKIA to supply bauxite to Anrak Aluminum Limited, in which RAKIA has 13% shareholding, was cancelled.

  1. It is alleged that the concerns of the tribal population in those areas led to cancellation of the MoU.
  2. Similarly, in 2014, Bear Creek Mining Corporation initiated an ITA against Peru under the investment chapter of the Canada-Peru Free Trade Agreement, claiming violation of the investment obligations due to the withdrawal of mining concessions, allegedly as a result of the protests by indigenous peoples.
  3. These cases present an opportunity to evaluate the impact of the obligations of the host states under BITs on the rights of the tribal people.
  4. Bilateral Investment Treaty
  5. A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state.
  6. These types of investments are called FDIs.
  7. BITs are established through trade pacts.
  8. Most BITs grant investments made by an investor of one Contracting State in the territory of the other a number of guarantees, which typically include fair and equitable treatment, protection from expropriation, free transfer of means and full protection and security.
  9. Criticism- NGOs have spoken against the use of BITs, stating that they are mostly designed to protect the foreign investors and do not take into account obligations and standards to protect the environment, labour rights, social provisions or natural resources.
  10. Constitutional rights to tribal people
  11. The Constitution of India has provided special provisions to the tribal people to safeguard their interests.

Article 15 of the Indian Constitution states that the state shall not discriminate any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. This explains that every citizen of India is provided equal rights and opportunities without any discrimination.

  • Government of India has made reservation for the tribes in employment under Article 16(4) of the Constitution of India.
  • The Government of India has reserved seats in The House of People (Lok Sabha) and The State Legislative Assemblies under Article 330 and 332 of The Constitution of India.
  • Article 19(5) of the Constitution of India guarantees the tribal people right to own property and enjoy it in any part of the country.
  • Article 338 of The Constitution of India grants the right to appoint a Commissioner to look after welfare activities of tribes.
  • Article 46 of the Constitution of India states that, The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and in particular, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
  • Under Article 275(i) of the Constitution of India the Centre Government is required to give grants-in-aid to the State Government for approved Tribal Welfare Schemes.
  • Tribal protection under law
  • The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP), 2007 recognises indigenous peoples’ rights to self-determination, autonomy and their right against forcible displacement and relocation from their lands or territories without free, prior and informed consent, among other things.
  • India has voted for in favour of this Declaration.

Also, there is International Labour Organisation (ILO) convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989. It is based on the “respect for the cultures and ways of life of indigenous peoples” and recognises their “right to land and natural resources and to define their own priorities for development.” India is not a party to this convention but is a party to the ILO Convention concerning the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries, 1957.

Incidentally, this convention is outdated and closed for ratification. In India, the Constitution provides autonomy to tribal areas in matters of governance under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules. It was further fortified by the Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh & Ors (1997) judgment where the Supreme Court declared that the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining was null and void under the Fifth Schedule.

The framework for protection of the rights of tribal and indigenous people is further strengthened by the Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006. It protects the individual and community rights of tribal people in forest areas and their right to free and prior informed consent in event of their displacement and resettlement.

  1. Business and investment promotion
  2. Xaxa committee report 2014 has highlighted that though the protection of the rights of tribal people are in place, they are regularly flouted.
  3. The state becomes more concerned about fulfilling contractual obligations towards the private investor instead of ensuring that tribals are not ousted from the land to which they are historically and culturally connected.
  4. Hence, the state has been clearly flouting the constitutional and legal principles.
  5. The evidence is in the fact that there have been increase in number of MoUs being signed by natural resources-endowed states with investors for facilitation of developmental projects.
  6. For instance, till 2014, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand have reportedly entered into 121 and 74 such MoUs, respectively, with various private players.
  7. Thus, these kind of stands and actions alter the role of the state vis-à-vis the tribal people as the state prefers economic expediency at the cost of the rights of tribal people.
  8. Economic Development
  9. The states invite investments from domestic investors as well as foreign players whose interests are not only protected under domestic laws but also under the BITs.
  10. The purpose of BITs is to give protection to foreign investors while imposing certain obligations on the host state.
  11. For example, if a development project involving a foreign investor in tribal areas leading to acquisition of tribal land is met with protest, there may be two possible scenarios.
  12. The State government due to socio-legal and political pressures may yield to the demand of the tribal people to the detriment of the foreign investor, which is what has happened in the case of RAKIA.
  13. Or, assuming that the government continues with the project, the judiciary may order the cancellation of permits given to the foreign investor, which is what happened in the case of Vedanta in 2013.
  14. In both the cases, foreign investors may drag India to ITA claiming violation of obligations under the BIT, such as fair and equitable treatment or indirect expropriation.
  15. This perceived threat of ITA against the state may compel the latter to refrain from implementing tribal rights in the development project area.
  16. A recent report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognises three main reasons for serious impact that foreign investments have on the rights of indigenous people:
  17. Failure to adequately address human rights issues of tribal people in BITs
  18. The perceived threat of ITA for enforcement of investor protection
  19. Exclusion of indigenous people from the policymaking process.
  20. Possible solutions
  21. Economic development and protection of tribal rights have to happen together as both have equal importance in country’s development which is aimed at being inclusive. Some suggestions that can be looked forward to are:
  22. Including the tribal angle

None of the 80-plus BITs signed by India contains even a single provision on the rights of tribals. Even the 2015 model Indian BIT does not contain any such provision.

  • Thus, to avoid ITA cases by foreign investors, the government’s approach should be to include provisions relating to the protection of indigenous people in BITs.
  • Examples from world:
  • Canada has several exceptions to protect the rights of indigenous people in many of its BITs.
  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement incorporates the rights of the Maoris from New Zealand also.
  • Since India is going to renegotiate its existing BITs, it should create a special exception for taking regulatory measures for protecting the rights of tribal people, in which case it should have a textual basis in the BITs to derogate from investment protection obligations under BITs.
  • Maintaining balance
  • The strengthening of BITs must go hand in hand with the implementation of domestic legislation for the protection of the rights of tribal’s, where the state does not consider tribal’s as impediments in the development process.
  • Involvement in policy making
  • Tribal people should be given representation even in investment policymaking.
  • This will help the state to bring in their concerns as well as development possibilities.
  • Expected Questions

Protecting tribal rights and driving investments for economic development require a balanced approach. Critically evaluate.

  1. Coverage of Syllabus
  2. General Studies 1
  3. Effects of globalization on Indian society
  4. Social empowerment
  5. General Studies 2 Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  6. General Studies 3
  7. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  8. By:Gudipati Rajendera Kumar

: Protecting the Tribal Rights
View complete answer

What are the provisions taken by the government to uplift the tribals?

Article 243D provides reservation of Seats for Scheduled Tribes in Panchayats. Article 330 provides reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People. Article 332 provides reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in Legislative Assemblies of the States.
View complete answer