When Was The Indian Education Commission Formed?

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When Was The Indian Education Commission Formed

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

  • It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission,
  • The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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Who is the first education commission in India?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Who is the founder of Kothari Commission?

Results of Kothari Commission Recommendations –

The education system at the national level was aligned in 10+2+3 pattern, as recommended by the Kothari Commission. One of the most important recommendations of the Kothari Commission was the National Policy on Education. The Bill was passed in the Parliament under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. It has been reported that even the National Policy on Education in 1986 (which was formulated under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi), was influenced by recommendations of Kothari Commission. As per recommendations of Kothari Commission, the education sector in India was stratified into national bodies, state bodies and Central Board.

Kothari Commission – UPSC Notes:- Central Advisory Board of India decided to set up two commissions, University education commission (1948) to report on the status of Indian university education and Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) to deal with secondary education.

  • In accordance with the recommendations of Kothari commission, the National education policy of 1968 was formulated.
  • It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states.
  • It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states.
  • The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English.

The Kothari Commission was appointed by the Central government to look into the educational aspects and revamp the sector in order to set guidelines for the pattern of education in India. The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission.

It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. Kothari Commission was formed on 14 July 1964 under the Chairmanship Daulat Singh Kothari. He was the then chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC). Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the page.

Related Links : Kothari Commission (1964-66) – Facts, Objectives, Recommendations
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Who was the chairman of education Commission 1882?

Hunter Commission Report – Hunter Commission 1882 and 1920 The Hunter Commission of 1882 was presided by Sir William Hunter and was appointed by Lord Ripon, the then viceroy of India. The hunter commission was constituted on 3rd April 1882, after a request of the general council of education was made to Ripon.
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What is the second name of Indian education commission?

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission, The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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How many education commission are there in India?

The major four Education Commissions discussed in the previous chapter lay down the foundation stone of developing education policies in India.
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What is the difference between NPE 1968 and 1986?

1. Introduction – Education policy constitutes of the principles and government policies in the educational field as well as the set of laws and rules that direct the operation of the education systems. Change is the only constant. As our young, progressive land strides towards development and advancing its capabilities internationally, it becomes crucial to take inspiration from our ancient heritage and cultural values to transform the existing status quo with a modern and futuristic approach.

Ever since our nation’s independence in 1947, the government sponsored multiple programmes to tackle the problems of illiteracy in both rural and urban India. It was the Country’s first Minister of Education, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, who envisaged very strong central government control over education all through the country with consistent and standard educational system.

The Union government established the University Education Commission (1948–1949), the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953), University Grants Commission and the Kothari Commission (1964–66) to make proposals to renovate and improvise India’s education system.

The Resolution on Scientific Policy was adopted under the leadership of our first Prime Minister, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. The then government sponsored the development of the premium category of scientific educational institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was formed as an autonomous organization in the year 1961 by the Union Cabinet as an advisory to both the Union and state governments on formulating and implementing education policies.

As education is a coexisting subject (both the Centre and the state governments can make laws on it), the reforms planned can only be implemented jointly by the Centre and the states. Since the Independence, India has had three education policies. The foremost policy that was formulated in 1968 laid emphasis on compulsory education for children up to the age of 14years.

The second NPE was introduced in 1986. Major focus of the second NPE was to overcome the disparity between diverse social groups. While the 1986 policy emphasized on achieving uniformity and standardization of education across the social groups, it did not account for the cutthroat global setting, which became important with the beginning of the globalization of the Indian economy post 1991 reforms.

Let us look at the evolution of the polices and the reforms in the field of education

  • University Education Commission (1948-1949).
  • Secondary Education Commission (1952-1953).
  • Education Commission (1964-66) under the guidance of Dr.D.S. Kothari.
  • National Policy on Education (1968).
  • 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).
  • National Policy on Education (1986).
  • National Policy on Education (1986) redesigned in 1992.
  • T.S.R. Subramanium Committee Report(2016) 2
  • Dr.K. Kasturirangan Committee Report ( 2019)
  • National Policy on Education (2020)

The National Education Policy 1968 Based on the report and recommendations of the Kothari Commission (1964–1966) the first National Policy on Education was introduced in 1968under the governance of Smt. Indira Gandhi aiming towards radical restructuring and provision of equal educational opportunities to all,This was the first attempt of its kind in the nation towards establishing national growth, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration.

  • Education for all children up to the age of 14 was made compulsory, as specified by the Constitution of India
  • Provision for training and development of teachers was considered to be a key factor to increase effectiveness.
  • More attention was to be put towards learning of regional languages, outlining the “three language formula” to be applied in secondary education that was Hindi, English and Regional Language.
  • Hindi being adopted as the national Language the policy put weight on learning Hindi to promote it as a common language for all Indians.
  • The policy also encouraged the values of the ancient Sanskrit language, which will always be an essential part of India’s culture and heritage.
  • The NPE (1968) called for education expenditure to increase to six percent of the national income.
  • With the drawbacks already noted there were other major issues of access, quality, quantity, efficacy and monetary outlay, accumulated over the years, to be tackled with the extreme urgency

When Was The Indian Education Commission Formed The National Policy on Education (1986) The National Policy on Education (1986) proposed a national system for education that would take determined steps for the universalization of primary education and the widening the exposure and scope of adult literacy, thereby becoming an tool for the reduction of disparities. When Was The Indian Education Commission Formed

  • The National Policy on Education (1986).
  • Revision of the NPE 1986
  • The National Policy on Education 2020

The education policy of 1986 recommended starting of All India Educational Service. This suggestion was criticized on the ground of widening of the gulf between the teachers and bureaucracy. The education policies stood for admission to the university classes on the basis of capability.

These feature deprived many youth of university education. According to some critics the Open University can never be a good substitute for regular university classes. The education policy of 1986 has suggested the institutions of capitation fees for admitting students in technical institutions. This could not be acknowledged as a hale and hearty policy, as this deprives worthy students of obtaining technical education on their capacity to pay.

The National Policy on Education (1986) after its implementation got opposition from the non congress parties but then Prime Minister Sh. Rajiv Gandhi sustained its implementation. In May 1990, a new committee was setup under the chairmanship of Acharya Ram Murti for the review suggesting modification on the NPE.

Then in 1992, the HRD minister Sh. Arjun Singh presented the revised National Policy on Education in the parliament. The Programme of Action 1992 under NPE 1986 was designed to conduct common entrance examination on All India basis for admission to professional and technical programs in the country. The primary objective of the POA was to correct social and regional imbalances, empowerment of women and securing rightful place for the underprivileged and the minorities.

The NEP 2020 announced by Ministry of Education has received earnest welcome from the countrymen. It was approved by the Union Cabinet of India on 29 July 2020. This is the first education policy of the 21st century to substitute the thirty-four-year-old National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986.

  • The NEP proposes far-reaching changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE),
  • Introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with numerous exit options, and discontinuance of the M Phil programme.
  • For school education, the policy focuses on redesigning of the curriculum, “easier”,In the Board exams, a reduction in the syllabus is to be sought to retain “core essentials” and thrust on “experiential learning and critical thinking”.
  • In a significant change from the 1986 policy, which pushed for a 10+2 structure of school education, the new NEP pitches for a “5+3+3+4” plan corresponding to the age groups of 3-8 years (foundational stage), 8-11 (preparatory stage, 11-14 (middle stage), and 14-18 (secondary stage). This brings early childhood education (also known as pre-school education for children of ages 3 to 5) under the sphere of formal schooling. The mid-day meal programme will be extended to pre-school children. The NEP proposes that the students until Class 5 should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language.
  • No hard separation between curricular, extracurricular, co-curricular, amongst arts, humanities and sciences, or amongst vocational and academic streams.
  • The policy also proposes phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and that all universities and colleges must seek to become multidisciplinary by 2040.
  1. There are seven significant features or objectives of the National education policy other than from what is clearly appearing in its documentation and is in great agreement with different programs and initiatives of Government of India since 2014 like the make in India, skill India, start-up India and latest being atma-nirbhar India.
  2. Hindrances for the current Policy on Education.
  • Knowledge-Jobs disparity: There is visible disparity between the knowledge & skills imparted and the availability of the jobs. This has been one of the main challenges that have affected the Indian education system since Independence.
  • Less stress on the emerging fields: NEP 2020 is silent on education related to up-and-coming technological fields like artificial intelligence, cyberspace, nanotech, etc.
  • The necessity of Enormous Resources. A determined target of public spending at 6% of GDP has been stated. Mobilizing financial resources will be a major challenge, given the low tax-to-GDP ratio and challenging claims on the national exchequer of healthcare, national security and other key sectors.

Conclusion The new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 is a good policy as it aims at making the education system holistic, bendable, multidisciplinary, aligned to the needs of the 21st century and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The aim of the policy seems to be perfect in many ways but it is the execution where lies the key to success. References

  1. https://www.mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/NPE-1968.pdf
  2. https://www.indiaeducation.net/indiaedudestination/policy/education-policy.aspx
  3. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/reading-new-education-policy-india-schools-colleges-6531603/https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/reading-new-education-policy-india-schools-colleges-6531603/
  4. https://www.nationalskillsnetwork.in/highlights-of-the-national-education-policy-2020/https://www.nationalskillsnetwork.in/highlights-of-the-national-education-policy-2020/

  5. http://thepubliceconomist.com/?p=139981
  6. https://blog.edsense.in/new-education-policy-2020-highlights-and-comparison-with-other-educational-policies-of-the-world/

: The Significant Shift in the Education Policy of India
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Who is the founder of Indian education?

The Education System in India – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home.

This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house. The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics. The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach.

All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information. The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary.

Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.

In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution.

But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step.

The expenditure by the Government of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, which is recognized to be very low. “In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.

  1. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP.
  2. B) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes.
  3. C) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty.

(d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.” ()
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What is Indian education commission 1882?

The Hunter Commission, officially known as the Indian Education Commission, was established in 1882 and was the first education commission in modern Indian history. The Commission issued its report in October 1883, and its thirty-six recommendations for primary education gave it a boost in its slow progress.
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