What Was The Period Of Vedic Education?

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What Was The Period Of Vedic Education
The Vedic Period (From B.C.1000 to B.C.600): – In ancient Indian literature of the Vedic period the words “Siksha” and “Adhyapana” frequently occur. “Siksha” means to learn to recite. In those days education consisted of learning to recite the Holy text.

The word ‘Adhyapana’ which literally means ‘to go near’ implies the idea of pupils going to some teacher for education. The ancient Indian education emerged from the Vedas, because the Vedas are the source of Indian Philosophy of life. Veda means knowledge. During this period education was divided into two kinds of knowledge this worldly and other worldly.

This worldly education dealt with the social aspect, whereas, the other worldly education was related to intellectual pursuits for achieving salvation. However, the greater emphasis was laid on the latter. Because, education was considered as a means of emancipation from life bondages.
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What is Vedic period of education?

4. Vedic Period in India and Curriculum : – The curriculum during Vedic period, was dominated by the study of the Vedas and Vedic literature, spiritual and moral lessons. The other subjects of teachings were philosophy, grammar, language, literature, astrology and logic.
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What was the period of Vedic education Mcq?

Vedic and later Vedic periods MCQ – Objective Question Answer for Vedic and later Vedic periods Quiz – Download Now! From where the words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ was taken in the state Emblem of India?

  1. Upanishad
  2. Puranas
  3. Ramayana
  4. Sam veda

The correct answer is Upanishad. Key Points

  • “Satyamev Jayate” means ‘Truth alone triumphs’.
  • It is a part of the mantra of the Hindu scripture- Mundaka Upanishad.
  • It was adopted as the motto of India on 26 January 1950.
  • It is inscribed in Devnagari script at the base of the national emblem.
  • The emblem and the words ‘Satyamev Jayate’ are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency.

Thus, we can say that the words ‘Satyamev Jayate’ was taken in the state Emblem of India from Upanishads. Additional Information

Upanishad is one of the genre of texts that together constitute each of the Vedas.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students With reference to Ancient India, Anuloma is a type of marriage in which

  1. The male is of higher caste and the female is of lower caste
  2. The male is of lower caste and female is of higher caste
  3. The male and female both of lower caste
  4. None of the Above

Option 1 : The male is of higher caste and the female is of lower caste The correct answer is option 1, Key Points Anuloma Marriage –

  • Anuloma Marriage in Hinduism refers to the hypergamy form of marriage.
  • During the Vedic Age inter-class marriages used to take place in the form of Anuloma marriage.
  • Anuloma marriage is a social practice in which a boy from upper varna/caste/class can marry a girl from lower varna/caste/class,
  • Hence the correct answer is option 1,
  • Anuloma marriage was recommended by the ancient Hindu law writers for the first three varnas or classes of the then society namely,
    • the Brahmins,
    • the Kshatriyas,
    • the Vaishyas.
  • According to the Dharmashastrakaras, a girl should marry in her own varna, failing which she may marry one in any of the higher varnas.
  • In the Rig Vedic period, the priests who performed Yajnas (sacrifices) arranged by the kings, married Kshatriya girls offered to them as ‘Dakshina” or fees for their services.

Anuloma and Pratiloma Marriage –

  • Anuloma and Pratiloma marriage, as a rule of marriage, is an inseparable part of the Hindu caste system.
  • The rule of Anuloma and Pratiloma marriages has greater significance for the caste structure of Hindu society than for the marriage pattern of the Hindus.

Additional Information ​ Social Impact of Anuloma Marriage

  • Anuloma marriage was normally associated with Hindu polygamy.
  • The association of Anuloma marriage with polygamy led to the ugly practise of dowry.
  • Some young men in India used to marry several girls in order to amass huge sums of money through dowry.
  • The urgency to find out a bridegroom of equal strata or even higher strata also contributed to the practice of child marriages.
  • Educated Indians are critical of the institution of hypergamy, and especially, of the large dowries associated with it.

Pratiloma Marriage

  • Pratiloma refers to the Hypogamy form of Marriage.
  • Pratiloma is a type of marital practice in which a man of lower class/caste/varna marries a girl of higher class/caste,
  • Such cases of Shudra-Aryan connections are also recorded in the Vedic texts

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Which of the following is not a veda?

  1. Yajur
  2. Sama
  3. Tripitaka
  4. Atharva

The correct answer is Tripitaka. Important Points

  • Vedas are the collection of hymns composed during 1500-900 BCE, in the period that is known as the Vedic age.
  • There are four Vedas:
    • Rig Veda: This is the earliest of all Vedas and was composed during 1500-1200 BCE.
    • Sam Veda: This is composed of hymns mostly taken from Rig Veda but it is set in musical tune and rhythm. It is also the shortest of all Vedas,
    • Yajur Veda: It contains rituals and sacrificial formulas.
    • Atharva Veda: It is the last of the four Vedas. It contains magic spells, popular beliefs, and superstitions.

Additional Information

  • Vedas are one of the earliest sources of Indian History.
  • These are religious texts but they also provide us insights into the society and culture of that time.
  • Tripitaka: These are the ancient Buddhist sacred scriptures. Tripitaka means three Pitakas or ‘baskets’.
    • ​These are:
      • Sutta Pitaka
      • Vinaya Pitaka
      • Abhidhamma Pitaka

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Which one is not a suitable statement for Varna Vyavastha?

  1. It means colour and appearance in Rigveda.
  2. It means social classes in Manusmriti.
  3. It means caste system in Vedas.
  4. It signifies attributes and duties in Bhagvadgita.

Option 3 : It means caste system in Vedas. The correct answer is It means caste system in Vedas. Important Points

  • The first mention of the Varna Vyavastha was found in Purusha Suktam verse of the ancient Sanskrit Rig Veda.
  • Purusha is believed to be the first being constituted by a combination of the four Varnas.
  • In Rigveda (one of the four Vedas ), the word Varna means “colour, outward appearance, exterior, form, figure or shape”,
  • The term Varna Vyavastha is used to describe the social class divisions made in the Vedic period in the Brahminical books like the Manusmriti,
  • According to Bhagvad Gita, a person will be referred with the Varna (caste) based on his Karma (activities or deeds or duties) and Guna (attributes or qualities) and not by his birth.

Hence, Varna Vyavastha means caste system in Vedas is not a suitable statement. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Which of the following Vedas contains the famous Gayatri – Mantra ?

  1. Rigveda
  2. Samaveda
  3. Yajurveda
  4. Atharvaveda

The correct answer is Rigveda, Key Points

  • Rigveda contains the Gayatri mantra.
  • Gayatri mantra is a highly revered mantra dedicated to Savitri,
  • Veda, a collection of poems or hymns composed in archaic Sanskrit.
  • There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda.

Important Points

  • Rigveda
    • It is the oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text (1800 – 1100 BCE)
    • It has more than 10000 verses.
    • Out of 10 mandalas, Mandala number 1 and 10 are the youngest ones as they were written later than Mandala 2 to 9.
    • The ninth Rigvedic mandala is solely dedicated to Soma.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students The central place of Aryan Culture during the Later Vedic Age was

  1. Sapt-Saindhav Pradesh
  2. Doab of Ganga-Yamuna
  3. Magadh
  4. Deccan

Option 2 : Doab of Ganga-Yamuna The age of Aryans is known as the Vedic age because the four major Vedas were created at this time.

  • These four major Vedas constitute Vedic literature.
  • They are -Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda, and Atharva Veda.
  • The Vedic period spanned from 1500- 600 BC.

Important Points The Aryan Culture and Migration:

  • The Aryan people spoke the Indo-Aryan language, Sanskrit.
  • They were semi-nomadic, pastoral people, who led a rural life as compared to the urban Harappans.
  • They came from central Asia and migrated to Indian subcontinents by 1500BCE. This large group of nomadic cattle herders crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Aryans distribution extends from the dry beds of the river Ghaggar in Bahawalpur and northern Rajasthan, to the watershed of the Indus and Ganges and the Ganga-Yamuna Doab,
  • The eastern limits of this ware are restricted to the northern plains of the Ganges, as the site of Sravasti indicates.

Hence, it becomes clear from the above points that the central place of Aryan Culture during the Later Vedic Age was the Doab of Ganga-Yamuna. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students The veda which deals with the rituals is known as_

  1. Rigveda
  2. Yajurveda
  3. Samaveda
  4. Atharvaveda

Vedas

  • The Vedas are the earliest surviving literature of the Indian subcontinent.
  • There are four Vedas: the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda, and the Atharva Veda.

Important Points Yajurveda:

  • Stands to mean ‘Worship Knowledge’, Yajurveda dates back to 1100-800 BCE; corresponding with Samaveda.
  • It compiles ritual-offering mantras/chants, These chants were offered by the priest alongside a person who used to perform a ritual (in most cases yajna fire.)
  • It has two types – Krishna (Black/Dark) & Shukla (White/Bright)
  • Krishna Yajurveda has an un-arranged, unclear, motley collection of verses
  • Shukla Yajurveda has arranged and clear verses.

Thus, we can say that the veda which deals with the rituals is known as Yajurveda. Additional Information

  • Rigveda:
    • The oldest Veda is the Rigveda. It has 1028 hymns called ‘Suktas’ and is a collection of 10 books called ‘Mandalas.’
    • It is the oldest form of Veda and the oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text(1800 – 1100 BCE)
    • The meaning of the word ‘Rigveda’ is Praise Knowledge
    • It has 10600 verses
  • Samaveda:
    • Known as the Veda of melodies and chants, Samaveda dates back to 1200-800 BCE. This Veda is related to public worship.
    • There are 1549 verses (except 75 verses, all have been taken from Rigveda)
    • There are two Upanishads embedded in Samaveda – Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad
    • The Samaveda is considered the root of Indian classical music and dance
    • It is considered as the storehouse of the melodious chants.
  • Atharvaveda:
    • Stands to mean a tatpurusha compound of Atharvan, an ancient sage, and knowledge (atharvan+knowledge), it dates back to 1000-800 BCE.
    • The daily procedures of life are very well enumerated in this Veda
    • It has 730 hymns/suktas, 6000 mantras, and 20 books
    • Paippalada and the Saunakiya are two surviving recensions of Atharvaveda
    • Called a Veda of magical formulas, it includes three primary Upanishads – Mundaka Upanishad, the Mandukya Upanishad, and the Prashna Upanishad.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Vedic civilization flourished along the river _.

  1. Godavari
  2. Cauvery
  3. Krishna
  4. Saraswati

The correct answer is Saraswati.

  • Vedic civilization and culture of India flourished on the banks of the rive r ‘Saraswati’.
  • In the Vedic period, the Saraswati River was considered to be the ‘ Most Holy’ River,
  • The Saraswati river is one of the main rivers mentioned in the mythological Hindu texts and the Rigveda.
  • The Godavari river originates in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
  • It is the longest river (1465 km) flowing in the South so it is called “The Ganga of South India”.
  • The Cauvery river originates from the Brahmagiri mountain in the Western Ghats.
  • It flows through Karnataka and Tamilnadu. its length is usually 800 Km.
  • The Krishna River originates from the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar in the state of Maharashtra.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Which of the following Vedic Literature contains the ‘Sanskaras’ right from inception to cremation?

  1. Upanishads
  2. Grihya-Sutras
  3. Sraut-Sutras
  4. Dharma-Sutras

Sanskaras: The Vedic seers prescribed a set of observances, known as Samskaras or Sanskaras. There is a diverse number of Sanskaras in Hinduism out of which 16 are referred to as “Shodasha Samskaras”.

Grihya-sutras
  • Grihya-sutra, in Hinduism, any of a number of manuals detailing the domestic (grihya) religious ceremonies performed b y both male and female householders over the fire.
  • The Grihya-sutras describe the ceremonies (samskaras) that mark each stage of an individual’s life, from the moment of conception to the final death rites; the five daily sacrifices (mahayajna); seasonal ceremonies; and those observed on special occasions, such as house building or cattle breeding.
  • Hence, it contains all the sanskaras from inception to cremation.
Sraut-sustras
  • Shrauta-sutra, any of a number of Hindu ritual manuals used by priests engaged in the performance of the grander Vedic sacrifices, those requiring three fires and the services of many specialized priests.
  • The manuals are called shrauta (from Sanskrit shruti, “revelation”; literally “that which is heard”) because they are based directly on the older Vedic literature considered as a class to be shruti, or revealed.
  • Each Shrauta-sutra guides the priests of its own particular Vedic school in the performance of specialized functions.
  • The texts deal with such subjects as the laying of the three fires, the full and new moon ceremonies, and the various animal and soma sacrifices.
Dharma-sutras
  • Dharmasutra (Skt., dharma, ‘law’ + sūtra, ‘aphorism’).
  • Any of a class of Sanskrit prose texts concerned with law and rules of conduct (dharma).
  • Dharmasūtras differ from dharmaśāstras in that the former consist of prose or mingled prose and verse, while the latter consist exclusively of verse.
  • Dharmasūtras tend to be briefer than dharmaśāstras, consisting of terse sūtras or aphorisms which are seldom arranged in any systematic fashion.
Upanishads
  • Upanishads, also called as the Vedanta’s are a part of final chapters of the Vedas.
  • Upanishads are the central object or the highest purpose of Vedas.
  • Of the roughly 200 Upanishads, Mukhya Upanishads is the oldest of them all
  • Upanishads roughly dates back to 600 BC or pre Buddhist period.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students In the Early Vedic Period, who was the vrajapati?

  1. The officer who led to battle heads of the fighting hordes
  2. The senior minister of the king
  3. The officer who presided over the meetings of the tribal assemblies
  4. The village headman

Option 1 : The officer who led to battle heads of the fighting hordes The period between 1500 B.C and 600 B.C is divided into the Early Vedic Period and the Later Vedic Period. The Early Vedic period or Rigvedic period is the period in the history of north India at the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation between 1500 B.C -1000 B.C. Officials of Vedic Period:

Ratnis or Officials Description
Purohita Chief priest
Senani Supreme Commander of the army
Vrajapati The officer who led to battle heads of the fighting hordes
Jivagribha Police officer
Palagala Messenger
Gramani Head of the village
Mahishi The Chief Queen

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  • In the early Vedic age, the fundamental unit of power lied within the realm of the patriarchal family which was called Kula,
  • In the Vedic age, the concept of state emerged and the idea of Kingship evolved gradually from clan chieftainship,
  • There are five types of State System during the Vedic period:
    1. Rajya (Central kingdom): Ruled by the Raja.
    2. Bhojya (Southern kingdom): Ruled by the Bhoja.
    3. Swarajya (Western kingdom): Ruled by the Svarat.
    4. Vairajya (Northern kingdom): Ruled by the Virat.
    5. Samrajya (Eastern kingdom): Ruled by the Samrat.
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  • India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students As per the vedic literature the tax given to the king by the people is called :

    1. Revenue (Rajasva)
    2. Kingdom tax (Rajkar)
    3. Sacrifice (Bali)
    4. Part (Ansh)

    Option 3 : Sacrifice (Bali)

    • The correct answer is Sacrifice(Bali).
    • Key Points
    • In the early Vedic period the king collected taxes regularly from his subjects,
    • The taxes were called Bali and consisted of 1/6 the agricultural produce or cattle for a given person.
    • The king, according to Rig Veda, was only entitled to receive Bali from his subjects, which was due to him for the protection granted to his subjects.
    • Manusmriti mentioned ‘Bali’ first as a religious offering, and then as a tax on religious performances.
    • Kautilya used the term Bali as one of the sources of revenue from the Kingdom.
    • Bali primarily means ‘an oblation, a gift or offering (usually religious)’.
    • Another form of ‘Bali’ was tributes extracted from conquered enemies by the king.

    India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students In which Veda, the inhabitant of Aryans is called as Aryavarta?

    1. Yajur Veda
    2. Rig Veda
    3. Sama Veda
    4. None of the above

    There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. One of the best sources of Ancient Indian History is Vedic literature. Vedas have formed the Indian scripture. The ideas and practices of the Vedic religion are codified by the Vedas. Key Points

    • The entire Earth was called the Bharatvarsha but in particular, the area that lied south to the Himalayan Mountain was called the Bharatvarsha,
    • The Bharatvarsha was also known as Aryavarta meaning the land of Aryans.
    • Aryavarta and Bharat are mentioned in Vedas, many scriptures, and Mahabharata.
    • Bharatas were the Vedic tribe mentioned in Rigveda.
    • The Rigveda provides ample evidence that Aryavarta was inhabited by the Aryans and thus the land was known as the Aryavarta. Hence, the correct answer is Rig Veda.

    Important Points Rig Veda:

    • The oldest Veda is the Rigveda. It has 1028 hymns called ‘Suktas’ and is a collection of 10 books called ‘Mandalas.’
    • The meaning of the word ‘Rigveda’ is Praise Knowledge.
    • Rigvedic books 2-9 deal with cosmology and deities. Rigvedic books 1 and 10 deal with philosophical questions and also talk about various virtues including a charity in society.
    • The meters used to form hymns are Gayatri, Anushtubh, Trishtubh, and Jagati (Trishtubh and Gayatri are most important).

    Sama Veda:

    • Known as the Veda of melodies and chants, Samaveda dates back to 1200-800 BCE.
    • This Veda is related to public worship. There are 1549 verses (except 75 verses, all have been taken from Rigveda).
    • There are two Upanishads embedded in Samaveda – Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad.
    • Samaveda Samhita is not meant to be read as a text, it is like a musical score sheet that must be heard.

    ​Yajur Veda:

    • Stands to mean ‘Worship Knowledge’.
    • Yajurveda dates back to 1100-800 BCE.
    • It compiles ritual-offering mantras/chants. These chants were offered by the priest alongside a person who used to perform a ritual (in most cases yajna fire.)
    • It has two types – Krishna (Black/Dark) & Shukla (White/Bright). Krishna Yajurveda has an un-arranged, unclear, motley collection of verses and Shukla Yajurveda has arranged and clear verses.

    ​Atharva Veda:

    • Stands to mean a tatpurusha compound of Atharvan, an ancient sage, and knowledge.
    • It dates back to 1000-800 BCE.
    • It has 730 hymns/suktas, 6000 mantras, and 20 books.
    • It is the Veda of magical formulas, it includes three primary Upanishads – Mundaka Upanishad, the Mandukya Upanishad, and the Prashna Upanishad.

    India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Which of the following Veda contains the famous Gayatri mantra?

    1. Rigveda
    2. Samaveda
    3. Yajurveda
    4. Atharvaveda

    Rigveda

    • It is regarded as one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism. It has an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
    • The Rigveda is divided into ten books which are known as Mandalas.
    • It is a collection of 10,600 verses and 1,028 hymns.
    • Many verses of the Rig Veda are still used as very significant Hindu prayers and during rituals.
    • It contains numerous secrets and clarifications about the origin of the world, the importance of the Gods and a lot of advice for living a satisfying and successful life.
    • The hymns are known as Sukta that were composed to be used in rituals.
    • Indra is the chief deity cited in the Rig Veda.
    • The universally famous Gayatri mantra (Savitri) is also in Rig-Veda.
    • The varna system, Four-fold division of society, ‘Sudra’, Gamester’s Lament, Purusha Shukta Hymns are mentioned in this Vedic text
    • Rig Veda had the original concept of the caste system which is still practised in modern Hindu society today.

    Thus, we can conclude that the Gayatri mantra is associated with Rigveda. Additional Information

    • Samaveda is known as the Veda of melodies and chants, Samaveda dates back to 1200-800 BCE. This Veda is related to public worship.
    • Yajurveda stands to mean ‘Worship Knowledge’, Yajurveda dates back to 1100-800 BCE; corresponding with Samaveda.
      • It compiles ritual-offering mantras/chants.
      • These chants were offered by the priest alongside a person who used to perform a ritual (in most cases yajna fire.)
    • Atharvaveda stands to mean a tatpurusha compound of Atharvan, an ancient sage, and knowledge (atharvan+knowledge), it dates back to 1000-800 BCE.

    India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students Who said, “The only hope of India is from the masses. The upper classes are physically and morally dead”?

    1. Dr.B.R. Ambedkar
    2. Swami Vivekananda
    3. E.V. Ramaswami Naicker
    4. Mahatma Gandhi

    Option 2 : Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda said “The only hope of India is from the masses. The upper classes are physically and morally dead”. Thus, there was the realisation that only the masses could make the immense sacrifices needed to win freedom.

    1. Consider the following statements about the Vedic period:
    2. 1. Grihastha Ashram was the feeder of all other Ashrams
    3. 2. The village officer was called ‘Gramani’
    4. 3. The merchant class was called ‘Vish’
    5. Which of the statements given above is/are true?

    Vedic Period:

    • There are four Ashramas or stages in life, viz., Brahmacharya or the period of studentship, Grihastha or the stage of the householder, Vanaprastha or the stage of the forest-dweller or hermit, and Sannyasa or the life of renunciation or asceticism.
    • Each stage has its own duties. These stages help the evolution of man.
    • Grihastha :
      • The second stage is that of the Grihastha or householder.
      • The household stage is entered at marriage when the student has completed his studentship and is ready to take up the duties and responsibilities of householder life.
      • Of all the Asramas, this is the most important, because it supports all the others.
      • As all creatures live supported by the air, so the other Orders exist supported by the householder.
      • As all streams and rivers flow to rest in the ocean, so all the Asramas flow to rest in the householder.
      • The Grihastha is the very heart of Aryan life. Everything depends on him.
    • During the Rig-Vedic era, the basic unit of power lied within a patriarchal family (Kula).
      • The head of the family was a Kulapa.
      • A group of such families called grama, which was controlled by a village headman Gramini.
      • The groups of the villages belonged to a clan (Vis) and many clans made a community called Jana.
    • T hus, we can conclude that statements 1 and 2 are correct regarding the Vedic period.
    • Additional Information
    • The family was the basic unit of the Rigvedic society.
    • It was patriarchal in nature Monogamy was the usual norm of marriage but the chiefs at times practiced polygamy.
    • Marriages took place after attaining maturity.
    • After marriage, the wife went to her husband’s house.
    • The family was part of a larger grouping called vis or clan, One or more than one clan made Jana or tribe.

    India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Vedic and later Vedic periods MCQ – Objective Question Answer for Vedic and later Vedic periods Quiz – Download Now!
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    When was the Vedic period?

    Vedic Civilization- Important Events The Vedic Age was between 1500 BC and 600 BC. This is the next major civilization that occurred in ancient India after the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization by 1400 BC. The Vedas were composed in this period and this gives this age the name.
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    When did Vedic education start?

    Vedic Education in the Present Day – After the Mughals and Britishers came to India, the value of Vedic education kept reducing. However, in the modern-day, people are again becoming conscious of the importance of Vedic education to lead a simpler and a more euphoric life.

    Many people have made efforts for the revival of the education system. Dayanand Saraswati and Swami Shraddhanand were the ones to first set up the modern Gurukul system in 1886 presently known as Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Public Schools and Universities. Not only private bodies, but the government is also making continuous efforts to find the traces of Indian culture.

    Consequently, they are striving to build more schools and universities that follow the Vedic education system. Shastriji Maharaj Dharamjivan Das Swami, in 1948, initiated the first Swaminarayan Gurukul situated in Gujarat. The Vedic education system, from earlier times, was considered a very rich form of an education system that focused on human enlightenment and simplicity of life.
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    What is Vedic period also known as?

    Early Vedic period

    Geographical range Indian subcontinent
    Period Bronze Age India
    Dates c.  1500 – c.  1100 BCE
    Preceded by Indus Valley civilisation Cemetery H culture Ochre Coloured Pottery culture
    Followed by Late Vedic period, Kuru Kingdom, Panchala, Videha

    table> Late Vedic period

    Geographical range Indian subcontinent Period Iron Age India Dates c.  1100 – c.  600 BCE Preceded by Early Vedic culture Followed by Haryanka dynasty, Mahajanapadas

    The Vedic period, or the Vedic age ( c.  1500 – c.  500 BCE ), is the period in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age of the history of India when the Vedic literature, including the Vedas (ca.1300–900 BCE), was composed in the northern Indian subcontinent, between the end of the urban Indus Valley civilisation and a second urbanisation, which began in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain c.  600 BCE. The Vedas are liturgical texts which formed the basis of modern day Hinduism, which also developed in the Kuru Kingdom, The Vedas contain details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period. These documents, alongside the corresponding archaeological record, allow for the evolution of the Vedic culture to be traced and inferred. The Vedas were composed and orally transmitted in this period. The Vedic society was patriarchal and patrilineal, Early Indo-Aryans were a Late Bronze Age society centred in the Punjab, organised into tribes rather than kingdoms, and primarily sustained by a pastoral way of life. Around c.  1200 –1000 BCE Vedic culture spread eastward to the fertile western Ganges Plain. Iron tools were adopted, which allowed for the clearing of forests and the adoption of a more settled, agricultural way of life. The second half of the Vedic period was characterised by the emergence of towns, kingdoms, and a complex social differentiation distinctive to India, and the Kuru Kingdom ‘s codification of orthodox sacrificial ritual, During this time, the central Ganges Plain was dominated by a related but non-Vedic culture, of Greater Magadha, The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of true cities and large states (called mahajanapadas ) as well as śramaṇa movements (including Jainism and Buddhism ) which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. The Vedic period saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes that would remain influential. Vedic religion developed into Brahmanical orthodoxy, and around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of ” Hindu synthesis “. [ ] ] _8-0″> [ ] ] -8″> Archaeological cultures identified with phases of vedic culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara grave culture, the black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware culture,
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    What are four Vedic periods?

    Types of Vedas – Four Vedas Name & Features (UPSC Ancient History) There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. One of the best sources of Ancient Indian History is Vedic literature. Vedas have formed the Indian scripture.

    • The ideas and practices of Vedic religion are codified by the Vedas and they also form the basis of classical Hinduism.
    • The topic, ‘Types of Vedas’ is important for the, keeping in mind the syllabus of history subject.
    • Questions might be asked from any type of Vedas in the Prelims or Mains stage.
    • Hence, this article will mention the relevant facts about four Vedas for the civil services examination.

    Aspirants can also download the notes PDF from the link provided on the page. Get in the linked article.
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    What is Vedic period class 6?

    Answer: – The correct answer is option (c). Explanation: The era between 1,500 BC and 600 BC is referred as Vedic age because during this period, the most holy scriptures of Hindu religion, Vedas, were composed.
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    What was Vedic period class 8?

    Differentiate between the Early Vedic Age and the Later Vedic Age with reference to its Economy. Answer Verified Hint: The Vedic Age was a pivotal period in Indian history. Early Vedic Period (c.1500 – 1200 BCE) and Later Vedic Period (c.1100 – 500 BCE) are the two periods of Vedic history.

    The explanation for this is that culture changed dramatically between the time the first Vedas were written and the time later Vedic scriptures appeared. Complete answer: The Vedic era, or Vedic age, is the period in India’s history between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and the beginning of a second urbanisation in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain around 600 BCE, when the Vedas were composed in the northern Indian subcontinent.In India, the Vedic era spans the Late Bronze and Early Iron ages.

    After the Indus Valley Civilization, it began in northern India. The Brahmanical philosophy influenced the development of various Vedic texts during the Kuru Reign, which was a tribal union of various Indo-Aryan tribes.

    Early Vedic Age Later Vedic Age
    The title of King was not hereditary. The throne of the King became hereditary.
    As a result of the battle, the king received booty and a voluntary gift in the form of Bali. Officials were appointed to raise money from citizens on a daily basis.
    Sabha and samiti were extremely important. Sabha and samiti had lost a lot of their clout.
    The barter system was more common in the Early Vedic Period, with little or no monetary value transactions taking place. Although the barter system was still in use, it had been largely replaced by the Krishnala system of exchanging gold and silver coins.
    Built rudimentary administration framework. Built an efficient administration system.

    Note: Women were allowed more independence and political participation up to a point during the early Vedic era, and the caste system was based on occupation, but in the later Vedic period, women were assigned more docile roles, and the caste system became more rigid and was based on the person’s birth.
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    What was Vedic period Answers 8?

    This date has been fixed between 1500 BC and 1000 BC. The later Vedic period is placed between 1000 BC and 600 BC. Recently, the Rigveda has been in- cluded by the UNESCO in the list of literature signifying World Human Heritage.1.
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    What are two Vedic periods?

    Difference between Early Vedic and Later Vedic Periods With their Comparisons The Vedic Age was a significant era in Ancient Indian History. As such, the questions from this topic have always been featured in the history segment of the, The Vedic age itself is divided into the Early Vedic Period (1500 – 1000 BCE) and Later Vedic Period (1000 – 600 BCE)*. What Was The Period Of Vedic Education

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    This article will provide details about the transformation of society in the Early and Later Vedic Ages for the, In the table below we have given in detail the differences between the Early Vedic Period and Later Vedic Period Differences Between Early Vedic Age and Later Vedic Age

    Early Vedic Period Later Vedic Period
    The caste system was flexible and based on profession rather than birth The caste system became more rigid in this period with birth being the main criteria
    There was no concept of Shudra or untouchables Shudras became a mainstay in the Later Vedic period. Their sole function was to serve those of the upper-castes
    Women were allowed a greater degree of freedom in this period. They were allowed to participate in the political process of the time to a certain extent Women were restricted from their participation in society by being relegated to subordinate and docile roles
    Kingship was fluid as the kings were elected for a fixed period by the local assembly known as Samiti As society became more urbanized in this period, the need for stable leadership was realized. Thus the absolute rule of the Kings became more and more prominent
    Early Vedic society was pastoralist and semi-nomadic in nature Society became more settled in nature. It became centred around agriculture in general
    In the Early Vedic Period, the barter system was more prevalent with little to no monetary value transaction being part of the exchange Although the barter system was still in practice, it was largely replaced by the exchange of gold and silver coins known as Krishnala
    Rigveda. This text is cited as the earliest text from this period Yajurveda. Samaveda Atharvaveda

    The dates of Early Vedic and Later Vedic Periods are sourced from NIOS. To know more in detail about the Vedic Civilization and the Vedas from both the time periods, you can check the links given below: You can find more, by visiting the linked page Candidates can also check the links given below to know more about other related topics. These linked articles can help will also help UPSC Aspirant with the History segment of the exam.

    Difference Between Early Vedic period and Later Vedic Period – UPSC Notes:- After the 12th century BCE, as the Rigveda had taken its final form, the Vedic society, which is associated with the Kuru-Pancala region but were not the only Indo-Aryan people in northern India, transitioned from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture in north-western India.
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    How many Vedic period are there?

    Answer: Between 1500 B.C. and 600 B.C., the era may be split into two parts: the Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 BC-1000 BC) and the Later Vedic Period (1000 BC – 600 BC).
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    What is the period after Vedic period?

    The period from about 1000 BC to 600 BC is considered to be the post-Vedic period.
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    What is the oldest Vedic period?

    Video transcript – – First civilization that we have evidence of around modern-day India and Pakistan is the Indus Valley Civilization, and it’s right around the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. In other videos we talk about how it really comes into being in the Third Millennium BCE, and as we enter into the Second Millennium BCE it starts to decline.

    We don’t know exactly why it declined. Might have been climate change, drying up of a river. Might have been a natural disaster. It might have been an influence of other peoples. We’re gonna talk about in this video is the next significant period in the history of South Asia, and it involves the migration or the introduction of another group of people, we believe another group of people, and that’s the Indo-Aryans.

    Write this down. Indo-Aryans, sometimes referred to as just the Aryans, who we believe began to migrate into modern-day Pakistan and northwest India at right about the same time that the Indus Valley Civilization was declining. Some historians actually believe maybe Indus Valley Civilization declined because of them.

    1. Maybe it was some type of an invasion.
    2. Although that theory is not as widely held anymore.
    3. Some folks believe that the Indus Valley Civilization and this Indo-Aryan migration somehow merged.
    4. But this period that we’re talking about, with the migration of these Indo-Aryans, this is called the Vedic Period, or the Vedic Period.

    It’s called the Vedic Period because we learn about it from a collection of literary works that we get from that time, most famously the Vedas. Veda comes from Sanskrit, and Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas. Vedas, in Sanskrit, means: knowledge. And they’re the foundation of, one, what we know about the Vedic Period, but they’re also the foundation of modern Indian culture and religion.

    The primary pieces of the Vedas are the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda, and the Atharvaveda. The Rigveda in particular is considered the oldest of the Vedas. It’s believed that it was composed around the early part of that Vedic Period, between maybe 1500 BCE and around 1200 BCE. We’re talking between 3,000 and 3500 years ago, while these three Vedas we believe were composed later.

    Now, these Indo-Aryans, it’s believed, were essentially pastoralists; they were cattle herders, perhaps nomadic. But as they began to settle not just the Indus River Valley, they actually began to settle the entire Gangetic Plain, which would include this area, which would be northeast India as well as countries like Bangladesh.

    • The Indus and the Ganges are two of the most significant rivers in India.
    • But as they started to settle the Gangetic Plain they also became more traditional farmers.
    • In this green here, I’ve highlighted when they became more farmers, and started to have more settled kingdoms, or we believe started to have more settled kingdoms.

    Other significant Hindu epics, we believe the events of the them happened around that late Vedic Period. The events of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Now, the Vedas and these epic poems were originally orally transmitted. But then, later, either in the late Vedic Period or after the Vedic Period was when they were actually written down.

    1. Just so you have some context here, Sanskrit is considered one of the oldest Indo-European languages we have.
    2. I’ll talk more about Indo-European languages in a little bit.
    3. Because it turns out that Sanskrit is related to European languages like Greek and Latin and even Germanic languages.
    4. Sanskrit’s one of the oldest, alongside Mycenaean Greek and the Hittite Language.

    Those were all contemporary civilizations of around this period right over here, in the Second Millennium BCE. Just so have you context, Siddhartha Gautama Buddha, his life was in one of these Vedic kingdoms in the northeast of India. Now, as I mentioned, the Vedas laid the foundation for much of what we consider to be modern-day India.

    In fact, the first documented reference to the Indus River we have from the Vedas. The Indus Valley Civilization, we haven’t been able to decipher their writing. They didn’t write down the word Indus. It was in the Vedas that we have the word sindhu, and sindhu was later changed or mispronounced or pronounced differently into other words that we now associate with India.

    Words like Hindu, Indus, and India, they all derived from Sindhu, which was the River referred to in the Vedas, and then changed into Hindu, Indus, and things like India. Now, also in the Vedas is the first time that we have reference to a stratified social structure, and we see that with the varnas that are referred to.

    You could view these as social roles or classes. At the top you have the brahmins: the priests, the scholars, and the teachers. Then the next you have the kings and the warriors referred to as the kshatriyas. Then the vaishyas, who are the farmers, the merchants, the artisans. Then the shudras: the laborers.

    Now, some historians and Vedic scholars believe that these reference to the varnas were added after the Vedic Period to things like the Rigveda; and some believe that these weren’t traditional casts, as it’s sometimes perceived today, but just a reference to different social strata, that it wasn’t necessarily inherited.

    We are not actually sure about that. But just to give you a feel of what was in the Rigveda. I encourage you to go look at the actual primary text, and there’s a lot out there to read. It includes prayers; it includes praise of the gods; it includes rituals; but it also has a lot of interesting philosophy.

    And, for example, this is from the Rigveda. This is a hymn referred to as Nasadiya Sukta, and it’s in the 10th book, the 129th hymn. I find it really interesting because it shows a fairly mature philosophical attitude. This is actually the origin hymn, and this is just a part of it.

    We’re talking about the origin of the universe. “Who really knows? “Who will here proclaim it? “Whence was it produced? “Whence is this creation? “Gods came afterward, with the creation of this universe. “Who then knows whence it has arisen? “Whether God’s will created it, or whether He was mute. “Perhaps it formed itself, or perhaps it did not.

    “Only He who is the overseer in highest heaven knows. “Only He knows, or perhaps He does not know.” I just find it interesting because it takes a very philosophical view towards this very fundamental question of the origin of the actual universe. So the Vedic Period, very important period in India.
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    How did Vedic period start?

    In addition to the archaeological legacy discussed above, there remains from this period the earliest literary record of Indian culture, the Vedas, Composed in archaic, or Vedic, Sanskrit, generally dated between 1500 and 800 bce, and transmitted orally, the Vedas comprise four major texts—the Rig-, the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda.

    1. Of these, the Rigveda is believed to be the earliest.
    2. The texts consist of hymns, charms, spells, and ritual observations current among the Indo-European-speaking people known as Aryans (from Sanskrit arya, “noble”), who presumably entered India from the Iranian regions.
    3. Theories concerning the origins of the Aryans, whose language is also called Aryan, relate to the question of what has been called the Indo-European homeland.

    In the 17th and 18th centuries ce, European scholars who first studied Sanskrit were struck by the similarity in its syntax and vocabulary to Greek and Latin. This resulted in the theory that there had been a common ancestry for these and other related languages, which came to be called the Indo-European group of languages,

    • This in turn resulted in the notion that Indo-European -speaking peoples had a common homeland from which they migrated to various parts of Asia and Europe,
    • The theory stirred intense speculation, which continues to the present day, regarding the original homeland and the period or periods of the dispersal from it.

    The study of Vedic India is still beset by “the Aryan problem,” which often clouds the genuine search for historical insight into this period. That there was a migration of Indo-European speakers, possibly in waves, dating from the 2nd millennium bce, is clear from archaeological and epigraphic evidence in western Asia.

    • Mesopotamia witnessed the arrival about 1760 bce of the Kassites, who introduced the horse and the chariot and bore Indo-European names.
    • A treaty from about 1400 bce between the Hittites, who had arrived in Anatolia about the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce, and the Mitanni empire invoked several deities—Indara, Uruvna, Mitira, and the Nasatyas (names that occur in the Rigveda as Indra, Varuna, Mitra, and the Ashvins).

    An inscription at Bogazköy in Anatolia of about the same date contains Indo-European technical terms pertaining to the training of horses, which suggests cultural origins in Central Asia or the southern Russian steppes. Clay tablets dating to about 1400 bce, written at Tell el-Amarna (in Upper Egypt) in Akkadian cuneiform, mention names of princes that are also Indo-European.

    Nearer India, the Iranian plateau was subject to a similar migration. Comparison of Iranian Aryan literature with the Vedas reveals striking correspondences. Possibly a branch of the Iranian Aryans migrated to northern India and settled in the Sapta Sindhu region, extending from the Kābul River in the north to the Sarasvati and upper Ganges–Yamuna Doab in the south.

    The Sarasvati, the sacred river at the time, is thought to have dried up during the later Vedic period. Conceived as a goddess ( see Sarasvati ), it was personified in later Hinduism as the inventor of spoken and written Sanskrit and the consort of Brahma, promulgator of the Vedas.

    It was in the Sapta Sindhu region that the majority of the hymns of the Rigveda were composed. The Rigveda is divided into 10 mandala s (books), of which the 10th is believed to be somewhat later than the others. Each mandala consists of a number of hymns, and most mandala s are ascribed to priestly families.

    The texts include invocations to the gods, ritual hymns, battle hymns, and narrative dialogues, The 9th mandala is a collection of all the hymns dedicated to soma, the unidentified hallucinogenic juice that was drunk on ritual occasions. Few events of political importance are related in the hymns.

    Perhaps the most impressive is a description of the battle of the 10 chiefs or kings: when Sudas, the king of the preeminent Bharatas of southern Punjab, replaced his priest Vishvamitra with Vasishtha, Vishvamitra organized a confederacy of 10 tribes, including the Puru, Yadu, Turvashas, Anu, and Druhyu, which went to war against Sudas.

    The Bharatas survived and continued to play an important role in historical tradition. In the Rigveda the head of a clan is called the raja ; this term commonly has been translated as “king,” but more recent scholarship has suggested “chief” as more appropriate in this early context,

    1. If such a distinction is recognized, the entire corpus of Vedic literature can be interpreted as recording the gradual evolution of the concept of kingship from earlier clan organization.
    2. Among the clans there is little distinction between Aryan and non-Aryan, but the hymns refer to a people, called the dasyu s, who are said to have had an alien language and a dark complexion and to worship strange gods.

    Some dasyu s were rich in cattle and lived in fortified places ( pura s) that were often attacked by the god Indra. In addition to the dasyu s, there were the wealthy Panis, who were hostile and stole cattle. The early Vedic was the period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities intermixing pastoral and agrarian economies.

    1. Cattle were initially the dominant commodity, as indicated by the use of the words gotra (“cowpen”) to signify the endogamous kinship group and gavishti (“searching for cows”) to denote war.
    2. A patriarchal extended family structure gave rise to the practice of niyoga (levirate), which permitted a widow to marry her husband’s brother.

    A community of families constituted a grama, The term vish is generally interpreted to mean “clan.” Clan assemblies appear to have been frequent in the early stages. Various categories of assemblies are mentioned, such as vidatha, samiti, and sabha, although the precise distinctions between these categories are not clear.
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    Who is the founder of Vedic education?

    Relevance of Vedic Education in 21st Century – Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj and Swami Shraddhanand, were the pioneers of the modern gurukul system, who in 1886 founded now-widespread Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Public Schools and Universities.

    In 1948, Shastriji Maharaj Dharamjivan Das Swami followed suit and initiated first Swaminarayan Gurukul in Rajkot in Gujarat. Recently, several gurukuls have opened up to retrace the roots of Indian culture. This urge is being driven by the government, academics and parents. Simplicity of living, a strict schedule and respect for the teacher are principles emphasized at a gurukul.

    Equality and independence is impressed upon the students by having all of them clean and pick up after themselves. Spirituality is impressed upon the students through prayer, yoga and meditation. In today’s competitive world, this can help children reduce stress and anxiety.
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    Who wrote Vedic period?

    – Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeyā, which means “not of a man, superhuman” and “impersonal, authorless.” The Vedas, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations seen by ancient sages after intense meditation, and texts that have been more carefully preserved since ancient times.

    • In the Hindu Epic Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma,
    • The Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot.
    • The oldest part of the Rig Veda Samhita was orally composed in north-western India ( Punjab ) between c.1500 and 1200 BC, while book 10 of the Rig Veda, and the other Samhitas were composed between 1200 and 900 BCE more eastward, between the Yamuna and the Ganges rivers, the heartland of Aryavarta and the Kuru Kingdom (c.1200 – c.900 BCE).
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    The “circum-Vedic” texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c.1000–500 BCE. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas (Collections).
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    What is the other name of Vedic education?

    VEDIC EDUCATION MAJOR FEATURES OF THE VEDIC SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA

    • CONTENTS
    • v Introduction
    • v Salient Features Of Vedic Education In Ancient India
    • v Forms Of Educational Institutions In Vedic Period
    • v Role Of Teacher And Students
    • v Conclusion
    • INTRODUCTION

    The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient system of education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name of Vedic Educational System. Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life.

    1. The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda, Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.
    2. Some scholars have sub divided Vedic Educational period into Rig Veda period, Brahmani period, Upanishada period, Sutra (Hymn) period, Smriti period etc but all these period, due to predominance of the Vedas, there was no change in the aims and ideals of educations.

    That is why, the education of these periods, is studied under Vedic period. “Swadesh Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate” This verse widely quoted in India illustrates the significance of education in India. The education system of Vedic period has unique characteristics and qualities which were not found in the ancient education system of any other country of the world.

    • According to Dr.F.E.
    • Ey, “To achieve their aim not only did Brahmans develop a system of education which, survived even in the events of the crumbling of empires and the changes of society, but they, also through all those thousands of years, kept a glow of torch of higher learning.” In the words of Dr.P.N.

    Prabhu, “Education in ancient India was free from any external control like that of the state and government or any party politics. It was the kings duties to see that learned Pundits, pursued their studies and performed their duty of imparting knowledge without interference from any source what so ever.” The education system that prevailed during the Vedic times had some unique characteristics.

    1. Education was confined to the upper castes, and to those who were BRAHMACHARIS.
    2. In Indian tradition, a person’s life cycle is divided into four stages of which BRAHMACHARI is the second phase.
    3. This is the time set aside for learning and acquiring skills.
    4. During Vedic period, most of the upper castes, which were either Brahmins or Kshatriyas had their education in a unique system called GURUKULAM.

    Students had their education by living with their preceptors in forests far removed from cities, towns or villages. The life of students who were called SHISYAS was very rigorous and demanding. Those who failed to live up to these high standards would simply fall by the wayside.

    There were legendary acharyas like Sanandeepani and Dronacharya who taught epic heroes like Krishna and Arjuna martial skills, but what makes the Vedic period unique is the existence of sages like Gautama and Jaimini who were founder of different schools of Indian philosophy like Nyaya and Purva Mimamsa,

    This was a period of intense intellectual activity and speculation, which we hardly find even now. While Nyaya and Vaisheshika were theistic philosophies, Sankhya was atheistic.

    1. There were of two types of BRAHMACHARIS who attended such GURUKULAMS, they were: UPAKURVANA BRAHMACHARI who remains a student for a limited time period after which he marries and becomes a householder and NAISHTHIKA BRAHMACHARI who remains a student and celibate throughout life dedicated to the pursuit of learning.
    2. SALIENT FEATURES OF VEDIC EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA
    3. 1. Infusion of Spiritual & Religious Values:

    The primary aim of ancient education was instilling into the minds, of pupils a spirit of being pious and religious for glory of God and good of man. The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. Education without religions instructions was not education at all.

    • It was believed that a keener appreciation of spiritual values could be fostered only through a strict observance if religious rites.2.
    • Character Formation and Personality Development In no period of the History of India, was so much stress laid on character building as in the Vedic period.
    • Wisdom consisted in the practice of moral values.

    Control of senses and practice of virtues made one a man of character. Moral excellence could come only through practising moral values. The teacher and the taught were ideals of morality, for both practiced it all through their lives. The Guru in the ancient times realized that the development of personality is the sole aim of education.

    • The qualities of self-esteem, self confidence, self restraint and self respect were the personality traits that the educator tried to inoculate in his pupils through example.3.
    • Development of Civic Responsibilities and Social Values The inculcation of civic virtues and social values was an equally important objective of education in India.

    The Brahmachari after his education in the Gurukulas went back to the society to serve the rich and the poor, to relieve the diseased and the distressed. He was required to be hospitable to the guests and charitable to the needy. After a certain period of studies he was required to become a householder and to perpetuate his race and transmit his culture to his own off springs.4.

    • 5. Aims of Education:
    • The ultimate aim of education in ancient Indian was not knowledge as preparation for life in this world or for life beyond, but for complete realization of self for liberation of the soul from the chains of life both present and future.
    • 6. Methods of Instruction

    It was a pupil centered education. No single method of instruction was adopted, though recitation by the pupil followed by explanation by the teacher, was generally followed. Besides question – Answer, Debate and Discussion, Story telling was also adopted according to need.

    1. 7. Medium of Instruction
    2. As these educational institutions were managed and organized by Brahmans and all the books written in Sanskrit, therefore the medium of instruction was Sanskrit.
    3. 8. The ‘Upnayana’ Ritual

    The word ‗upnayana ‗means to take close to, or to being in touch with. A ceremony called the upnayana ceremony was performed before the child was taken to his teacher. This ceremony was performed at the ages of 8,11 and 12 for the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, respectively.

    The ceremony signaled the childs transition from infancy to childhood and his initiation into educational life. In this context, the term ‗upanayana‘ means putting the students in touch with his teacher.9. Celibacy or Brahamacharya Every student was required to observe celibacy in his specific path of life.

    Purity of conduct was regarded as of supreme importance. Only the unmarried could become students in a Gurukul. On entering student life, the student was made to wear a special girdle called a ‗makhla‘. Its quality depended on the caste of the student. The students were not allowed to make use of fragrant, cosmetic or intoxicating things.10.

    • Alms System The student had to bear the responsibility of feeding both himself and his teacher, this was done through begging for alms, which was not considered bad.
    • Since every domestic knew that his own son must be begging for alms in the same way at some other place.
    • The reason behind the introduction of such a practice was that accepting alms induces humility.

    The student realized that both education and subsequent earning of livelihood were made possible for him only through society‘s service and its sympathy. For the poor students, Begging for alms was compulsory and unavoidable, but even among the prosperous, it was generally accepted practice.11.

    • 12. Duration of Education
    • In the house of the teacher, the student was required to obtain education up to the age of 24, after which he was expected to enter domestic life students were divided into three categories:
    • a) These obtaining education up to the age of 24 – Vasu
    • b) These obtaining education up to the age of 36 – Rudra

    c) These obtaining education up to the age of 48.- Auditya.13. Curriculum Although the education of this period was dominated by the study of Vedic Literature, historical study, stories of heroic lives and discourses on the puranas also formed a part of the syllabus.

    Students had necessarily to obtain knowledge of metrics. Arithmetic was supplemented by the knowledge of geometry. Students were given knowledge of four Vedas – Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. The syllabus took with in its compass such subjects as spiritual as well as materialistic knowledge, Vedas, Vedic grammar, arithmetic knowledge of gods, knowledge of the absolute, knowledge of ghosts, astronomy, logic philosophy ethics, conduct etc.

    The richness of the syllabus was responsible of the creation of Brahman literature in this period.14. Plain Living and High Thinking The education institutions were residential in the form of Gurukulas situated in forest, where teachers and pupils lived together.

    1. 15. Academic Freedom
    2. Due to academic freedom students remained busy in thinking and meditation. It enhanced originality among them
    3. 16. High place to Indian culture

    Indian culture was full of religious feelings and it was assigned a very high place in the field of education. Vedic culture was kept intact and transmitted through word of mouth to succeeding generations. The ancient Indian education system was also successful in Preserving and spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing, it was only because of the destruction of temples and monasteries by invaders that literature was lost.

    The cultural unity that exists even today in the vast- sub continent in due to the successful preservation and spread of culture and the credit goes to Ancient Education System.17. Commercial Education and Mathematics Education Commercial education and Mathematics education is also one of the chief features of vedic period.

    The ideas of the scope and nature of commercial education can be held from manu. Knowledge of Commercial geography, needs of the people of various localities, exchange value and quality of articles and language spoken at different trade centre were considered necessary.

    • Theory of banking was also included in the course.
    • Though there were no organized educational institutional training was usually imparted in the family.
    • As far as Mathematics education is concerned, ancient Indian quite early evolved simple system of geometry.
    • Shulva sutra are the oldest mathematical works probably compased between 400 BC and 200 A.D.

    Aryabhata (476.52 BC) is the first great name in Indian Mathematics. The concept of Zero also belonged to this period.18. Female Education During the Vedic age women were given full status with men. For girls also the Upanayan (initiation ceremony) was performed and after that their education began.

    They were also required to lead a life of celibacy during education. They used to study the Vedas and other religious and philosophy books, they were free to participate in religious and philosophical discourses. Many ‘Sanhitas’ of Rigveda were composed by women. In Gurukulas the gurus treated male and female pupils alike and made no distinction what-so-ever.

    FORMS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN VEDIC PERIOD 1. Gurukulas Gurukulas were the dwelling houses of gurus situated in natural surroundings away from noise and bustle of cities. Parents sent their wards at the age of five years to nine years according to their castes after celebrating their Upanayan Sanskar.

    • Pupils lived under the roof of their guru called ‘antevasin’ under the direct supervision of their Guru.
    • Gurukula as the name indicates was the family of the teacher and his residence where the students used to stay during the period of study.
    • Gradually, the Gurukula were extended to include a number of buildings.

    However the institution was built up around the family of teacher. The primary duty of the student was to serve the teacher and his family. The students were like sons of the teacher and the whole institution lived like family.2. Parishads Parishads were bigger educational institutions where several teachers used to teach different subjects.

    This may be compared to a college parishad in Upanishads, has been used for a conference of learned men, assembled for deliberations upon philosophical problems. Later on the ‘Parishads’ were set up at the places where learned men lived in good number and gradually these institutions became permanent centres of imparting knowledge.

    In the words of Dr.R.K. Mukherjee Parishad correspondences to University of students belonging to different colleges.3. Sammelan Sammelan literally means getting together for a particular purpose. In this type of educational institutions scholars gathered at one place for learned discussions and competitions generally on the invitation of the king.

    1. Scholars were appropriately rewarded.
    2. ROLE OF TEACHER AND STUDENTS In Bhartiya Darshan ‘Guru‘has significant place.
    3. It consists of two words, Gu-ru.
    4. The word ‘Gu’ indicated darkness and ‘ru’ means controller.
    5. It means to avoid darkness or ignorance.
    6. In Vedas the term achariya is used for guru.
    7. Guru is considered greatest treasure of knowledge.

    In educative process teacher and students are the two components; a teacher provides physical, materialistic and spiritual knowledge to his students. The educative process is teacher centred. Guru satisfies the curiosity and needs of his students. Guru was the spiritual father of his pupils.

    Gurus were taking care of their pupil in same manner as a father takes care of his son. When a student was to become a pupil of any Guru, the recognized way of making application to him was to approach him with fuel in his hands as a sign that he wished to serve him and help to maintain his sacred fire.

    With ‘Upanayan’ ceremony the disciple (shishya) gained the generous shelter and patronage of his gurus. The term ‘shishya’ indicates the following qualities.

    • a) He is to be administered guru
    • b) He is able to obey his guru
    • c) He may be punished by his guru
    • d) He is be wished by his guru
    • e) He is to be Preached by his guru
    • f) He is to be treated equality
    • g) He is devoted committed to acquired wisdom

    In the Dharam Sutra, there are rules laid down for the conduct of both teachers and pupils. The pupil was subjected to a rigid discipline and was under certain obligations towards his teacher. He should remain with his teacher as long as his course lasted and not live with anybody else.

    CONCLUSION In Vedic era education had the prominent place in society. It was considered as pious and important for society. Education was must for everybody for becoming cultured. Relationship between Guru and pupils were very cordial during vedic and post- vedic period. By means of education efforts were being made to infuse ―Satyam Shivam and Sundaram‖ inside the students.

    A great importance was attached to veda in education system, self study Swadhyaya was considered more important during that period. The vedic period favored women education. The ancient Indian education system was successful in preserving end spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing.

    1. It was only because of the destruction of temples and monasteries by invaders that the literature was lost.
    2. The cultural unity that exists even today in the vast sub-continent is due to successful preservation & spread of culture.
    3. The education system infused a sense of responsibilities and social values.

    The ancient education system achieved its aims to the fullest extent. Ancient education emerged from Vedas. The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas. READ ALSO : : VEDIC EDUCATION
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