What Is The Most Important Factor In Physical Education?
Boonsem, Aungkana; Chaoensupmanee, Thongchai International Education Studies, v13 n3 p43-50 2020 The development and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle and the promotion of health-related physical fitness have become two important components of the national standards for physical education.
- Physical education is one of the important aspects of the educational and teaching processes.
- This study was designed to determine the factors of teaching effectiveness for physical education by comparing the opinions of students on teaching courses of King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Thonburi with the totals of six aspects: (1) the purposes of Physical Education learning; (2) content and Physical Education programs; (3) teaching methods and teaching activities; (4) the personality aspects of Physical Education instructors; (5) equipment and facilities; and (6) assessment and evaluation.
The sample included 1,000 students, with 558 male students and 442 female students, selected using the stratified random sampling method and divided into groups based on gender and types of sports. The results of the study showed that the highest percentage for the overall development of teaching physical education were the personalities of Physical Education instructors (59.18%) and the lowest percentage for measurement and evaluation had the lowest percentage (45.53%).
- The comparison between male and female students found that the course content and curriculum were at a minimal percentage for male students (45.42%), while the teaching methods and activities for female students (46.81%).
- Physical education specialists served as an important force in providing health-enhancing physical education for children and adolescents, as they are more effective than classroom teachers in promoting moderate to vigorous physical activity.
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Physical Education, Instructional Effectiveness, National Standards, Comparative Analysis, Student Attitudes, College Students, College Faculty, Personality Traits, Gender Differences, Team Sports, Course Content, Specialists, Physical Activities, Teacher Characteristics, Physical Education Teachers, Foreign Countries, Health Promotion Canadian Center of Science and Education.1120 Finch Avenue West Suite 701-309, Toronto, ON M3J 3H7, Canada.
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- 0.1 What are the factors of physical education?
- 0.2 What is the most important objective of physical education?
- 1 What is the most important factor in learning?
- 2 What are the three most important values of physical education?
- 3 What is the importance of physical education and health?
- 4 What are the major factors that determine physical performances?
- 4.1 What is the physical factor?
- 4.2 What is the important factors of physical development of child?
- 4.3 What is the most important concept of physical fitness?
- 4.4 What is the most important component of physical fitness and why?
What are the factors of physical education?
In the Physical Education Courses, there are four factors which may impact on the performance of physical activities. The four identified factors are: mental, emotional, social, and physical.
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What is the most important objective of physical education?
Position Physical Education is “education through the physical”. It aims to develop students’ physical competence and knowledge of movement and safety, and their ability to use these to perform in a wide range of activities associated with the development of an active and healthy lifestyle.
- It also develops students’ confidence and generic skills, especially those of collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking and aesthetic appreciation.
- These, together with the nurturing of positive values and attitudes in PE, provide a good foundation for students’ lifelong and life-wide learning.
Direction Curriculum development is an on-going improvement process. In the PE KLA, we would
build on strengths to inspire curriculum changes in the light of the new educational trend;
cultivate in students generic skills, positive values and attitudes, in addition to physical competence, for lifelong and life-wide learning; and
encourage schools to make flexible use of time, space, resources and facilities available to enrich their school-based curriculum.
ul> Curriculum Documents What’s New Teacher Education Programmes Collaborative Research & Development (“Seed”) Projects Bulletin Board References & Resources Links Teachers’ Eligibility to Teach PE Contact Us Questions & Answers Healthy Lifestyle – Physical Activities “Active Students, Active People” Campaign
What is the most important factor in learning?
1. Motivation: – It is the most important factor influencing the learner. If the learner has no motivation to learn, any amount of force will be futile. More the motivation better will be the learning. In addition to motivation, the learner should have a definite goal. It will direct the individual appropriately and help him to achieve the goal.
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Which is the most major factor influencing physical fitness?
As affiliate owners and coaches we believe CrossFit develops fitness to the greatest degree. Our program is based on everything we do being measurable, observable, and repeatable so we can track our fitness for a lifetime. CrossFit works, the data proves it.
But there are two factors that have a bigger impact on our health and fitness than making it to the gym every day. This might sound crazy to say as an affiliate owner. But we must understand that many factors affect health and fitness. It is like a puzzle, finding balance in our lives to optimize our health but also enjoy living life.
So what are we talking about here? The two biggest factors that affect our health and fitness are nutrition and sleep. Without these two aspects of our lives being tuned in everything else will suffer, not least our performance and development in the gym.
- Nutrition is the fuel that we provide our bodies with to make it through the day.
- If we fuel our bodies with bad fuel then we get poor (suboptimal) results.
- Fuel it with the nutrients it needs and you will feel like a superhero.
- Poor nutrition choices are the kryptonite to health and fitness.
- Poor nutrition choices can mean overeating or under eating, putting poor nutrient-dense foods in our body, or eating at the wrong times.
Look at it this way, each morning we are setting off on a 12-hour journey. The vehicle is our body and each task we have is a destination. In order to make it to each destination efficiently, we must make sure we have enough fuel to get us there and perform the task needed when we arrive.
If we put poor fuel in our vehicle will not perform optimally on the way or once we arrive and our gas mileage will go down (our fuel will not last as long). If we do not put enough fuel in then we will not even make it to the destination. But, if we put good quality fuel in, in the right amounts, then each journey will be smooth and efficient, and the task we have to perform at each destination will be done with better quality.
The first step in improving our nutrition is becoming aware of the nutrients we are putting in our bodies. If you wish to learn more about this speak with one of our coaches and we can set up a consult. Sleep is also vital. Sleep is what helps our body recover from each day.
Sleep quantity and sleep quality are vitally important. Most people understand sleep quantity believing 8-10 hours in bed will provide the body with enough rest. But sleep quality plays a massive role. Food and drink can affect the quality of our sleep. For example, alcohol can leave us feeling drowsy and can help us fall asleep.
Many associate drinking alcohol with helping them sleep. But alcohol, being a depressant, means that the quality of our sleep is negatively affected by its consumption. The stages of sleep we are able to get to with the consumption of alcohol is lessened, we cannot get into that deep sleep our body needs.
- Eating too late or eating large quantities of sugar/refined carbohydrates can also play a huge role in the quality of sleep we get.
- And then there is caffeine, which we all understand can affect and impact sleep length and quality.
- Besides these factors, blue light from electronics such as phones, TV’s, and computers/tablets can impact the amount of time it takes us to fall asleep.
When we stare at these items before bed our eyes and our brains are stimulated which in turn throws off our circadian rhythm. Our sleep conditions can also play a large role in sleep duration and sleep quality. Making sure the room is dark and the temperature is comfortable has its effects.
- With all these factors and more affecting our sleep, it is easy to see why there can be many days where we feel lethargic and our bodies have not recovered from the previous day or days.
- Focusing on getting enough sleep and good quality sleep will go a long way to promoting energy levels and allowing our bodies to recover and perform as optimally as possible.
Sleep is also the time when our body needs to repair itself and by not allowing this to happen we can expose ourselves to high risk of injuries and chronic pain. There is no definitive amount of sleep that an individual needs per night.8-10 hours is thrown out there an awful lot as a baseline but it is a little more complex than this.
- Aiming to hit 35 sleep cycles over 7 days is a more specific way to look at this.
- A sleep cycle is 90 minutes, so gauging each nights sleep based on this and totaling up 7 days will give you an indication of duration.
- As for sleep quality, refraining from the issues above can go a long way to aiding good quality sleep and helping the body recover as it needs to in order to perform.
Without good nutrition and sleep, every other factor is going to be out of whack. It’s like trying to run uphill with your legs tied together. You can still move, but you will never be optimal. Untie those feet and push the limits of our potential.
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What is the importance of physical factors?
Stabilization of SOM by Sequestration in Microporous Structures or on Hydrophobic Surfaces – Physical factors confer biological stability to organic matter in soils through the constraints they place on the opportunities for reactions between substrates and enzymes or decomposer organisms.
Microbial access to substrates when located in small pores or sorbed on solid surfaces may be limited, because they are inaccessible to microorganisms and their enzymes, and are thereby protected from rapid decomposition. Carbohydrates, lignin-degradation products, and nitrogenous substances can interact with soil colloids by sorption, polymerization, or entrapment in voids of inorganic or organic soil constituents.
Xenobiotics such as pesticides or polyaromatic hydrocarbons can be sorbed in the microporous structure of SOM or minerals. Similarly to xenobiotics, also natural SOM can be sorbed in micropores. Since such sorption sites are limited, the mineralization of phenols or phenolic acids, of amino acids, and of glucose or other carbohydrates can be more strongly retarded at low concentrations (10 ppm or less) than at higher concentrations.
It can be presumed that the observed continuous decline in bioavailability (and extractability) is associated with a slow diffusion of the molecules to more remote sites. Intraparticle and intraorganic diffusion into nanopores is believed to account for these slow phases of sorption and desorption of nonionic molecules.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can diffuse into nanopores of primary particles or sorb on active surfaces. Within pores less than 8 nm, DOM is inaccessible to exoenzymes. A conceptual model of the stabilization of sorbed SOM within nanopores is shown in Figure 3, Figure 3, Conceptual model of stabilization of soil organic matter within nanopores. Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123485304005105
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What are three important factors of physical fitness?
Becoming and staying physically fit is an important part of achieving optimal health. A well-rounded exercise program can improve your health in a number of ways. It promotes weight loss, strengthens muscles and bones, keeps the heart and lungs strong, and helps to protect against chronic disease.
There are four essential elements of physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and maintaining a healthful body composition. Each component offers specific health benefits, but optimal health requires some degree of balance between all four. Some forms of exercise confer multiple benefits, which can help you to balance the different elements of physical fitness.
For example, riding a bicycle for thirty minutes or more not only builds cardiorespiratory endurance, it also improves muscle strength and muscle endurance. Some forms of yoga can also build muscle strength and endurance, along with flexibility. However, meeting fitness standards in all four categories generally requires incorporating a range of activities into your regular routine.
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What are the three most important values of physical education?
Home » Learning Values and Skills Through Physical Education We all know that physical fitness is a vital component in leading a healthy lifestyle. However, Physical Education class at RMS not only helps students maintain fitness, develop motor skills and muscular strength (while improving cardiovascular health), but also often improves learning in other areas. Students at RMS thanking their competitors for a great game! Our Physical Education teachers design and lead many fitness drills, demonstrate sports techniques and highlight a different sport each month, all year long, so that students get a good grasp of many different sports.
- Fitness assessments take place three times per year, where students are encouraged to build their stamina through beep tests, build their strength with push-ups, improve core strength with sit ups and work on their flexibility through a plethora of exercises.
- Various health topics are also taught in Phys-Ed class to students, including oral hygiene, personal hygiene, personal safety, body movement and body systems (for example the respiratory system, the nervous system, the digestive system).
Students at RMS in all grades learn many positive attributes from learning about sports and fitness that carry over into their overall academic performance. For example, in Phys-Ed class we teach positive values such as sportsmanship, teamwork and honesty, and skills such as striving for best personal performance, positive self-esteem and group participation.
We believe that learning values and skills important in one area of study can help another. For example, maintaining good sportsmanship is taught in all Phys-Ed classes, and is also extremely beneficial in all other academic areas, especially when working in teams. We also see that participating in team sports is a good way of building positive self-esteem and confidence.
In all grades, self-esteem is very important for students to do their best thinking and to increase interactions with teachers and other students. Students that believe in themselves seem far more able to ask more questions, and are willing to work hard to find the answers when needed. Students playing Cricket after school with friends and family members. According to an article posted by All Gymnastics University, “sports and Physical Education are a great way of teaching discipline and the value of hard work. As with most things in life, there are no shortcuts.
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What is the importance of physical education and health?
Health and physical education provides students with the knowledge and skills that will enable them to achieve and maintain a physically active and healthful life, not only during their time in school but for a lifetime. Health and physical education are integral components of a balanced educational program.
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Which is the most important factor and why?
Human capital is the most important factor of production because of the following reasons: (i) Gifted with life and reasoning power, humans can make use of the land, labour and physical capital.
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Why is education the most important factor?
9. Economic Growth On A National Level – An educated society is crucial for economic growth. We need people to continue to learn and research in order to constantly stay innovative. Countries with higher literacy rates also tend to be in better economic situations. With a more educated population, more employment opportunities are opened.
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What factor has the most impact on student learning?
- Education and Labor
- Research Projects
- Measuring Teacher Effectiveness
- >Teachers Matter
Understanding Teachers’ Impact on Student Achievement People often emphasize the importance of good teachers, and many local, state, and federal policies are designed to promote teacher quality. Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective at improving student test scores than others, although standardized tests provide an incomplete window into teachers’ overall effectiveness.
- Teachers matter more to student achievement than any other aspect of schooling. Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics and family and neighborhood experiences. But research suggests that, among school-related factors, teachers matter most. When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, teachers are estimated to have two to three times the effect of any other school factor, including services, facilities, and even leadership.
- Although researchers do not usually observe nonschool factors, statistical methods can provide valuable estimates of teachers’ effectiveness, but these estimates are imprecise. Researchers cannot directly control for most nonschool factors that affect student test scores. Statistical methods such as value-added modeling have been shown to produce valuable information about teachers’ effectiveness at increasing student test scores, but these estimates can be imprecise, especially for teachers who are early in their careers or who are new to a district. In addition, standardized tests do not measure all the outcomes that teachers are responsible for promoting, so measures based on these scores provide incomplete information about teachers’ effectiveness. Even with these caveats, research shows that high value-added teachers also influence longer-term outcomes, such as graduation, college attendance, and earnings.
- Effective teachers are best identified by their performance, not by their background or experience. Despite common perceptions, effective teachers cannot reliably be identified based on where they went to school, whether they are licensed, or how long they have taught. A better way to assess teachers’ effectiveness is to look at their on-the-job performance, including what they do in the classroom and how much progress their students make on achievement tests. This has led to policies that require evaluating teachers’ on-the-job performance, based in part on evidence about their students’ learning.
What are the major factors that determine physical performances?
5) Endurance – Adequate amounts of endurance are usually attained by the repetitive movements performed by the skills practice of the chosen sport. To improve the endurance level of the athlete above that of normal skills practice a properly designed conditioning program should be followed.
- An endurance program should mimic the actions of the sport the athlete plays.
- You would have a baseball player running 5 miles a day.
- That does not mimic what a baseball player would do during a game.
- They should instead perform short sprints in repetition.
- That would mimic running down a fly ball and then leading off the next inning with a triple.
Athletes should perform an endurance training program that closely mimics the actions of the sport that they play. Every athlete at every level is always looking to improve sports performance. Some factors that influence sports performance can be improved while others cannot.
- To improve sports performance 5 factors need to be addressed.
- Bodily proportions, skills training, strength, flexibility, and endurance.
- These five factors will influence what sport you play, what position you play, and how good you can be.
- Each of these factors may individually or as a group affect your sports performance.
Improve the ones that you can control and choose the right sport for your body proportions and you’ll improve your sports performance.
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What factors impact physical activity?
Environmental barriers – The environment in which we live has a great influence on our level of physical activity. Many factors in our environment affect us. Obvious factors include the accessibility of walking paths, cycling trails, and recreation facilities.
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What is the physical factor?
Impact of physical factors on performance – Fitness – Physical factors refer to fitness, skills and tactics. Fitness covers agility, CRE, flexibility and power. These can impact performance in different ways. Part of Physical Education Factors impacting on performance
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Physical factors can be placed in to three different categories:
This guide concentrates on fitness-related factors and their impact.
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What is the important factors of physical development of child?
Blog : Factors Affecting The Growth And Development Of Children When raising children,there are many factorsfrom family and environment to genes and biology that influence their growth and development. It is important to understand these factors to help your children achieve a healthy growth and development pattern.Children’s proper growth and development is the most common topic of discussion in the PTMs of, so, a group of teachers is sharing below the major factors affecting the growth and development of children.
Heredity : Environment : Gender : Hormones : Exercise :
Heredity is the biological process of transmission of physical characteristics from parents to children through genes.It strongly influences many aspects of the physical appearances of children such as their height, weight, body structure,the color of the eye, the texture of the hair, and even the intelligence and aptitude skills.Many diseases like heart problems, diabetes, obesity, blood pressure can also transmit through genes, thereby affecting the growth pattern of childrenadversely.
The environment is a major factor that plays a crucial role in the development of children and it represents the overall physical and psychological stimulation they receive.The physical surroundings and the geographical conditions of the place the child lives in, his social environment and relationships with family and peers come under the environmental factors that influence early childhood development in a major way.The safe and secure environment of the Montessori City of Industry, CA as well as the love and care of family contribute positivelytochildren’s healthy development.
The gender of the child is a very common but important factor affecting the physical growth and development of a child. The growth pattern of girls and boys is quite different like boys tend to be taller and physically stronger than girls on the other hand girls tend to mature faster during their adolescencethan the boys.
You must be knowing that hormones belong to the endocrine system and influence the various functions of our bodies.Hormones secreted from different glands that are situated in specific parts of our body and control many of our body functions.The proper functioning of these hormones plays a major role in the normal physical growth and development of the children.
If these hormone-secreting glandscannot function properly, children may suffer from growth defects, obesity, behavioral problems, and some other diseases. In, children are encouraged to participate in different physical activitiesas thiswill help themto gain their muscular strength and put on bone mass.It has been observed that kids who engage in different physical activities, attain developmental milestones on time or sooner.
Nutrition : Nutrition, maybe the most important ofthe lot, has the most profound impact on children’s healthy growth and development.Abalanced diet, rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, provides everything that a child’s body needs to grow properly. Malnutrition can cause deficiency diseases affecting their growth and developmentin a major way.On the other hand,overeating can also lead to obesity and many other health problems in the long run such as diabetes and heart-related problems.
Apart from the above-mentioned factors, family and geographical influence, socioeconomic status of the child and education play a major role in children’s growth and development. : Blog : Factors Affecting The Growth And Development Of Children
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What is the most important concept of physical fitness?
Flexibility is one of the most important, yet often overlooked, components of physical fitness. Without flexibility, the muscles and joints would grow stiff and movement would be limited. Flexibility training ensures that your body can move through its entire range of motion without pain or stiffness.
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What is the most important component of physical fitness and why?
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT An Overview Developed by: Yvette Sparks and Mike Todd First Developed: December, 1997 Citation: Sparks, Y., & Todd, M. (1997). Physical development: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive, Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
- Retrieved, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/physical-biology/physical.html Return to:| Brilliant Star | EdPsyc Interactive: Courses | more in-depth paper | Physical Development & Academics | The word physical means different things to different people.
- Some people look at the term “physical” as simply everything related to anatomy and physiology.
Others believe that the word “physical” has to do with health and fitness components related to the body. And still others believe that “physical” corresponds with wellness. Although all of these definitions fit the word physical, the most popular view is that of wellness (Insel, Roth, Rollins & Petersen, 1996).
In Health and Wellness (1996), Edlin, Golanty & Bum defined wellness as emphasis placed on individual responsibility for well-being through the practice of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Having good wellness involves being free of illness and disease (as often as possible), having viability (being able to live actively, energetically, and fully), and being in good spirits most of the time.
Human beings were designed for physical or bodily activity. Regular physical activity is a positive health habit and is vital to the overall wellness for the individual. The sedentary lifestyle produced by most occupations does not provide adequate physical labor.
The homemaker, secretary, teacher, salesperson, and attorney have hectic, stressful lives but they often fail to engage in the vigorous activity needed to be physically fit. We must all learn to make intelligent decisions about lifetime health and physical fitness that includes planning daily vigorous exercise.
Americans desperately lack adequate physical fitness and suffer from lifestyle diseases called hypokinetic diseases. These conditions, caused by underactivity, include coronary heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, and obesity. In the United States, approximately 250,000 premature deaths every year can be attributed to lack of exercise (Pate, Russell, et.
- Al.1995). According to Dr.
- Steven Blair, epidemiologist for the Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, a sedentary lifestyle is as much a risk factor for disease as is high blood pressure, obesity, and smoking (Powell, Blair 1994).
- The college student shows early symptoms of hypokinetic disease through low levels of energy and creeping obesity.
Can you relate to any of these warning signs? It is known that you reach the peak of your natural fitness during the late teens to early twenties and, unless you maintain physical activity, the body deteriorates and ages even more quickly. Alarming headlines such as “Americans are fatter than ever,” “The number of expanding Americans is expanding,” and “Are Americans the fattest people in the world?” are cause for concern.
Apparently, American waistlines are growing. In the last ten years, American adults have shown an average weight gain of nearly eight pounds per person (Kuczmarski et. al., 1994). Some studies show that a third of Americans are overweight (Kuczmarski). What is the cause of this national problem? Experts place the blame on too many calories consumed and, more significantly, on not enough calories expended in exercise.
The situation is compounded by the number of energy-saving devices Americans use-and the list grows yearly (electric garage door openers, TV remotes, computers, riding lawn mowers, electric car windows, snowblowers, leaf blowers). The amount of energy the average American expended even a decade ago is enormous compared to what we expend in the 1990s.
- Even more appalling, ongoing research shows there is a youth fitness crisis.
- Our nation’s children have increased risk of heart disease-too much body fat, elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, and poor fitness-caused by lack of exercise.
- Several studies have shown that a full third of our nation’s youth are not physically active enough for aerobic benefit (Bar-Or, 1987; Ignico, 1990).
They also weigh more and have more body fat than twenty years ago (JOPHERD, 1987; Bar-Or). If things do not change, our nation’s most precious asset, the adults of tomorrow, will likely contribute to future heart disease and cancer statistics. The National Coalition for Promoting Physical Fitness is an excellent resource for current information related to physical fitness.
- Attaining Wellness An often asked question is “How does a person attain wellness?” Unfortunately, at least for most of those who ask this question, one cannot just attain wellness.
- Wellness is ongoing and needs to be a lifestyle a person chooses.
- It is not and end result, but rather a process by which an individual takes control of the way they live through developing every aspect of the body, mind, and emotions in order to produce and keep equilibrium in one’s life.
Physical Wellness can be defined as choosing and maintaining healthy habits pertaining to the body. Healthy habits include such things as: 1) eating well, 2) exercising regularly, 3) responsible decisions about sex, 4) routine medical examinations, and 5) staying free of injury and disease.
- For a person to maintain a high level of Physical Wellness he/she should understand the principles related to these five areas of health.
- Physical fitness is multifaceted and involves both skill-related and health-related components.
- The skill-related components of fitness (speed, power, agility, balance, reaction time, and coordination) are primarily important in achieving success in athletics and are not as crucial for the development of better health.
The five health-related components of physical fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition and nutrition, CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE Probably the most important fitness component is cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE).
- It is the ability to deliver essential nutrients, especially oxygen, to the working muscles of the body and to remove waste products during prolonged physical exertion.
- It involves the efficient functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs.
- Vigorous exercise improves the functioning of the cardiorespiratory system and is directly related to reduced coronary risk.
The American Medical Association states that exercise is the most significant factor contributing to the health of the individual (Blair, Kohl, Paffenbarger, Clark, Cooper & Gibbons, 1989). When levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are low, the heart has to work very hard during normal daily activities and may not be able to work hard enough to sustain high-intensity physical activity in an emergency.
As cardiorespiratory fitness improves, the heart begins to function more efficiently. It doesn’t have to work as hard at rest or during low levels of exercise. The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat, resting heart rate slows down, blood volume increases, blood supply to the tissues improves, the body is better able to cool itself, and resting blood pressure decreases.
A healthy heart can better withstand the strains of everyday life, the stress of occasional emergencies, and the wear and tear of time. Cardiorespiratory endurance training also improves the functioning of the muscles and liver which enhances the body’s ability to use energy supplied by food.
Cardiorespiratory endurance is considered the most important component of health-related fitness because the functioning of the heart and lungs is so essential to overall wellness. A person simply cannot live very long or very well without a healthy heart. Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are linked with heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States.
Cardiorespiratory endurance is developed by activities that involve continuous rhythmic movements of large muscle groups like those in the legs – for example, walking, jogging, cycling, and aerobic dance. MUSCULAR STRENGTH Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
It is characterized by activities of short duration at high intensity. Lifting a heavy object such as a suitcase or 100-pound weight one time are examples. Strong muscles are important for the smooth and easy performance of everyday activities, such as carrying groceries, lifting boxes, and climbing stairs, as well as for emergency situations.
They help keep the skeleton in proper alignment, preventing back and leg pain and providing the support necessary for good posture. Muscular strength has obvious importance in recreational activities. Strong people can hit a tennis ball harder, kick a soccer a ball farther, and ride a bicycle uphill more easily.
Muscle tissue is an important element of overall body composition. Greater muscle mass (or lean body mass) makes possible a higher rate of metabolism and faster energy use. Maintaining strength and muscle mass is vital for healthy aging because muscular strength and endurance tend to decline with age.
This loss can be delayed and strength can be maintained by participating in a strength program. Muscular strength can be developed by training with weights or by using the weight of the body for resistance during calisthenic exercises such as push-ups or sit-ups.
- Many people have joined health clubs and are enjoying the benefits of using weight equipment such as Universal, Nautilus, and Cybex.
- The result is a better physical appearance and greater efficiency in both everyday activities and sudden emergencies.
- MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Muscular endurance is the ability to sustain a given level of muscle tension – that is, to hold a muscle contraction for a long period of time, or to contract a muscle over and over again.
It is characterized by activities of long duration but low intensity. Muscular endurance is important for good posture and for injury prevention. For example, if abdominal and back muscles are not strong enough to hold the spine correctly, the chances of lower-back pain and back injury are increased.
Muscular endurance helps people cope with the physical demands of everyday life and enhances performance in sports and work. It is also important for most leisure and fitness activities. Like muscular strength, muscular endurance is developed by stressing the muscles with a greater load (weight) than they are used to.
The degree to which strength or endurance develops depends on the type and amount of stress that is applied. Examples of muscular endurance are performing repetitions of push-ups, sit-ups, or chin ups. Strength and endurance are essential in everyday activities such as housework, yard work, and recreational sports.
FLEXIBILITY Flexibility is the ability to move body joints through a full range of motion (ROM). By experimenting with your own body, you can immediately tell that joints can be moved to different degrees of motion and that they do not all move in the same way. There are four major joints in the body and each joint because of their limitations move body parts differently.
These four joints are fixed, pivot, hinge, and ball and socket. Limitations of ROM in a joint is due to the bony structure holding the joint together and the soft tissue surrounding the particular joint. Three examples of soft tissue that effects flexibility are muscles (meaty tissue surrounding bone), tendons (connect muscle to bone), and ligaments (connect bone to bone).
Benefits of having good flexibility are numerous and increase the quality of life for many people, especially the elderly. There is a saying that goes something like, “Use it or lose it!” Many of us have seen senior citizens that walk “hunched” over and some with canes to aid in walking. Most of the time, members of the older population have to walk this way because they have gradually lost flexibility over the years.
If an individual wants to reduce injury, inhibit lower back pain, prevent post-exercise pain, and relieve emotional tension that person will work on attaining adequate flexibility. There are some basic stretching techniques and flexibility exercises a person can employ to obtain good flexibility.
These techniques are static (slowly move muscle to mild tension and hold for 8-15 seconds), dynamic (same positions as static but movement is continuous) and partner assisted (partner helps hold position during stretch). For a person to attain adequate flexibility through the use of these techniques, Williams, Harageones, Johnson & Smith (1988) recommend to participate in a stretching program with a frequency of at least three days a week, at a intensity level of mild tension on the muscle, and holding stretches (static) between 8-15 seconds.
BODY COMPOSITION Body composition refers to the amount of fat in proportion to lean body tissue (muscle, bone, and water). The ratio between body fat and fat-free weight is a better gauge of fatness than is body weight. There are various ways to measure body composition: body mass index, skinfold calipers, bioelectrical impedance, and hydrostatic underwater weighing technique.
- The ratio between body fat and lean body tissue is a better gauge of fatness than is body weight measured by use of a scale or height/weight chart method.
- For instance, a height /weight chart may label a 6-foot, 210-pound football player as overweight, when in reality he has only 10 percent body fat, as measured with skinfold calipers.
On the other hand, someone who looks good in her size eight jeans may have 32 percent body fat. The best advice is to have your body composition analyzed by a professional. Obesity is not only unhealthy and uncomfortable, it is associated with increased risk for heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, gallbladder disease, and joint and lower back problems.
- Healthy body composition involves a high proportion of lean body tissue and an acceptably low level of body fat, adjusted for age and gender.
- A person with excessive body fat is more likely to experience a variety of health problems,
- The best way to lose fat is through a lifestyle that includes a sensible diet and exercise.
The best way to add lean body tissue is through weight training, also know as strength or resistance training. NUTRITION Scientifically, nutrition is the study of food and how the body uses food in health and disease. But in terms that may be better understood, nutrition can be described in three words: 1) Variety, 2) Balance, and 3) Moderation,
Choosing to eat a balanced diet by consuming a variety of foods, while keeping serving sizes and intake of fats, salts, and sugars moderate will help a person obtain a higher level of wellness and fight against disease. Fortunately for us there is a food table and dietary guidelines we can use that will enable us to eat correctly no matter how big, small, young, or old we might be.
The table is called The Food Guide Pyramid and was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Now, here is the unfortunate part. A better understanding is needed by consumers in four areas of nutrition, These areas are essential nutrients, recommended daily allowances (RDA), nutrient supplement intake, and the dietary guidelines.
Donatelle, R., & Davis, L, (1994). Health: The b asics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. Insel, P,, & Roth, W. (1988). Core c oncepts i n h ealth ( 8 th ed.), Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Insel, P., Roth, W., Rollins, L.M., & Peterson, R. (1996).1996 u pdate: Core c oncepts i n h ealth, Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Pate, Russel et al. (1995).U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Robbins, G., Powers, D., & Burgess, S. (1997). A w ellness w ay, USA: Times Mirror Higher Education, Inc.
Graff, C., Foreyt, J., & Holderman, J. (2001). Lean for life: Phase two-Lifetime solutions (2nd ed.). Irving, CA. Griffin Pub lishing Group. Retrieved July 2002, from http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1580000894/qid=1027190882/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/102-3213515-1352936 Johnson, T. (2002). Dr. Timothy Johnson’s o n c all g uide to m en’s h ealth: Authoritative a nswers to y our m ost i mportant q uestions, New York: Hyperion. Retrieved July 2002, from http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0786886692/qid=1027190010/sr=2-1/ref=sr_2_1/102-3213515-1352936 Sears, W., & Sears, M. (1999). The family nutrition book: Everything you need to know about feeding your children-From birth through adolescence, New York: Little, Brown. Retrieved December 2003, from http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316777153/qid=1138633124/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/102-3275234-6604957?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Sears, W., Sears, P., & Foy, S. (2003). Dr. Sears’ L.E.A.N. kids: A total health program for children ages 6-12, New York: New American Library. Retrieved December 2003, from http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0451209761/ref=ed_oe_p/102-3275234-6604957?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Willett, W., Skerrett, P., & Giovannuci, E. (2001). Eat, drink, and be healthy: The Harvard medical guide to healthy eating, New York: Simon & Schuster. Retrieved July, 2002, from http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684863375/qid=1027189523/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_1/102-3213515-1352936
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What are the 5 physical fitness factors?
What Are the Components of Physical Fitness? A: The five components of physical fitness are cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition, according to Fit Day.
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What are the four factors of education?
Chronic absence, which is typically defined as a student missing 10 percent or more of school for any reason, signifies that a student is missing so much school that they are academically at risk. In addition, the four school conditions for learning include physical and emotional health and safety; sense of belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and social and emotional competence for students and adults.
- A new Hamilton Project data interactive, “Chronic Absence: School and Community Factors,” examines the factors that affect learning at local elementary, middle, and high schools across the United States.
- The interactive provides a range of information for every school in the nation, including: • Student Chronic Absence (2015-16): the share of students at a school who missed more than 15 days; • Exclusionary Discipline/Week (2015-16): the frequency of in- and out-of-school suspensions; • English and Math Proficient (2016-17; 2017-18): the share of students who were proficient in English/Language Arts or Math by state-determined standards; • Student:Teacher Ratio (2015-16): the ratio of students to full-time equivalent classroom teachers; • Student:Support Staff Ratio (2015-16): the ratio of students to nurses, psychologists, social workers, and counselors; and, • Teacher Attendance (2015-16): the share of full-time equivalent classroom teachers who were absent more than 10 days.
The interactive allows users to search by zip code or school name and click on schools to discover more information. The interactive also shows whether a school is in the top or bottom quintile of a given measure, so users can see how a school compares to others throughout the nation.
Chronic Absence: School and Community Factors” accompanies a new paper titled, ” Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning ” that I co-authored with Hedy Chang and Jane Sundius of Attendance Works and David Osher and Mara Schanfield of the American Institutes for Research. In this paper, we describe how education leaders, community partners, and policymakers can address inequities and improve student outcomes by creating conducive learning environments that encourage students to come to school.
The paper also details the complex relationships between community, school, and public policy factors that affect both student outcomes and the set of policies and practices to improve attendance and conditions for learning. While national chronic absence data are increasingly accurate and widely available, the same is not true of national data on the level of physical, social, and emotional health and safety in schools or the other three conditions for learning that we have described in the report.
- In response, the interactive provides data points for each school that proxy these concepts, such as suspension rates and student–teacher ratios.
- The data interactive also goes outside the school building, displaying an index of community factors that affect learning by zip code.
- The variables that compose the index include: the share of the adult population who are high school dropouts, the adult employment-to-population ratio, the share of children living in poverty, the share of children without health insurance, the share of children living in the same home as the previous year, household median income in the zip code, the extent of residential racial segregation, life expectancy, and average daily air quality in the county.
In the interactive, light blue shading reflects more supportive community conditions (i.e. higher values of the index) and darker blue shading reflects less-supportive community conditions (i.e. lower values of the index). While the zip code in which a school is located may not fully represent a particular school’s attendance zone, where a school is situated provides context for school-level conditions for learning.
- The map also shows school rates of chronic absence by grade level, from lower levels of chronic absence (yellow) to higher (red).
- By clicking on a school, users will see a set of proxies that reflect school conditions for learning.
- These proxies include the frequency of exclusionary disciplinary incidents (suspensions), student achievement as measured by proficiency in English/language arts and math, student–teacher ratio, student–support staff ratio, and the share of teachers who missed 10 or more days of school.
The data for community factors are from 2013–17; for chronic absence, discipline, and teacher factors from 2015–16; and student achievement from 2016–17 or 2017–18 where available. Student achievement data from 2017-18 is italicized. The Every Student Succeeds Act’s enactment and the decision of 36 states and Washington DC to hold schools accountable for reducing rates of chronic absence signifies the priority given to improving school attendance.
The Hamilton Project has many resources for tackling chronic absence: • Those interested in looking more closely at how rates of chronic absence vary across different student characteristics and schools can find those details in two interactives: ” Chronic Absence across the United States ” and ” Chronic School Absenteeism in the United States,” These Hamilton Project interactive maps allow anyone to explore rates of chronic absence at the school, district, state, and national levels by student and school characteristics.
• Those interested in the relationship between chronic absence and school accountability policy can find two Hamilton Project strategy papers, ” Lessons for Broadening School Accountability under the Every Student Succeeds Act ” and ” Reducing Chronic Absenteeism under the Every Student Succeeds Act,” These reports lay out a rationale for holding schools accountable for improving attendance and a framework for states as they oversee ESSA implementation.
These papers describe the incidence of chronic absence, present analyses of factors that relate to chronic absence, and describe evidence-based strategies for schools as they work to reduce rates of chronic absence among students. These resources jointly shine a light on the problem of chronic absence and illuminate actionable paths forward for school leaders and policymakers working toward improving school conditions for learning.
You can read a technical appendix here.
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