What Is Psychology In Physical Education?


What Is Psychology In Physical Education
Sport Psychology Sport psychology is a proficiency that uses psychological knowledge and skills to address optimal performance and well-being of athletes, developmental and social aspects of sports participation, and systemic issues associated with sports settings and organizations.
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What is mean by psychology in physical education?

Sport psychology was defined by the European Federation of Sport in 1996, as the study of the psychological basis, processes, and effects of sport. Otherwise, sport is considered as any physical activity where the individuals engage for competition and health.

Sport psychology is recognized as an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology. It involves the study of how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors.

Sport psychologists teach cognitive and behavioral strategies to athletes in order to improve their experience and performance in sports. In addition to instruction and training of psychological skills for performance improvement, applied sport psychology may include work with athletes, coaches, and parents regarding injury, rehabilitation, communication, team building, and career transitions.
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Why is psychology important in physical education?

Sports psychology helps in understanding the behavior of athletes or sportspersons engaged in competitive sports. Coaches also come to know the interest, attitude towards physical activity, instincts, drives and personality of sportspersons.
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What do you mean by psychology?

Body Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychologists are actively involved in studying and understanding mental processes, brain functions, and behavior. The field of psychology is considered a “Hub Science” with strong connections to the medical sciences, social sciences, and education (Boyack, Klavans, & Borner, 2005).
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What is the role of psychology in physical education and sports?

What is sports psychology? – Sports psychology looks at how physical activity and mental well-being intersect. Sports psychologists help athletes maintain high levels of performance by prioritizing mental fitness, They also look at sports participation in relation to skills like teamwork and emotional regulation,
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What is psychology in physical education 11th?

Psychology: Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. Direction everywhere. Sports Psychology: Sports Psychology is an applied Psychology involving applications of psychological principles to the field of physical education and sports.
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What is the meaning of psychology in sports?

Sport Psychology Sport psychology is a proficiency that uses psychological knowledge and skills to address optimal performance and well-being of athletes, developmental and social aspects of sports participation, and systemic issues associated with sports settings and organizations.
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What is the main purpose of psychology?

To sum up, psychology is centered on four major goals: to describe, explain, predict, and change or control behaviors. These goals are the foundation of most theories and studies in an attempt to understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes that people face in their daily lives.
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How does psychology help physical health?

Chronic Disease Management – Psychologists commonly work in primary, acute and long-term care settings to provide services to patients with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and conditions stemming from obesity. These services include an array of individual, group and family psychological interventions that are effective for depression, anxiety, pain and adjustment issues surrounding chronic illness.
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What is psychology and example?

The American Psychological Association defines “psychology ” as the study of mind and behavior. Using this definition, studying psychology is often associated with the experience inside the four walls of a therapist’s office and the common image of someone sitting on a couch.

Or maybe you connect it to the research and statistics found inside academic textbooks. Although each of those examples are certainly part of it, the truth is that psychology is all around us. From the decisions we make each moment of the day, to the people we interact with, understanding human behavior is at the heart of psychology.

Look around your world and you’ll find plenty of everyday examples of psychology in action. Read on to discover how psychology plays a major role in five areas of everyday life. Request info
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What was the first definition of psychology?

Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Understand the importance of Wundt and James in the development of psychology
  • Appreciate Freud’s influence on psychology
  • Understand the basic tenets of Gestalt psychology
  • Appreciate the important role that behaviorism played in psychology’s history
  • Understand basic tenets of humanism
  • Understand how the cognitive revolution shifted psychology’s focus back to the mind

Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century.

Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James. This section will provide an overview of the shifts in paradigms that have influenced psychology from Wundt and James through today.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was a German scientist who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist. His famous book entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology was published in 1873. Wundt viewed psychology as a scientific study of conscious experience, and he believed that the goal of psychology was to identify components of consciousness and how those components combined to result in our conscious experience.

Wundt used introspection (he called it “internal perception”), a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed. Wundt’s version of introspection used only very specific experimental conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable (repeatable) experience of the mind (Danziger, 1980).

The first stringent requirement was the use of “trained” or practiced observers, who could immediately observe and report a reaction. The second requirement was the use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the subject and allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to the inner reaction.

  1. These experimental requirements were put in place to eliminate “interpretation” in the reporting of internal experiences and to counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual is observing their mind or consciousness accurately, since it cannot be seen by any other person.
  2. This attempt to understand the structure or characteristics of the mind was known as structuralism,

Wundt established his psychology laboratory at the University at Leipzig in 1879 ( ). In this laboratory, Wundt and his students conducted experiments on, for example, reaction times. A subject, sometimes in a room isolated from the scientist, would receive a stimulus such as a light, image, or sound.

The subject’s reaction to the stimulus would be to push a button, and an apparatus would record the time to reaction. Wundt could measure reaction time to one-thousandth of a second (Nicolas & Ferrand, 1999). (a) Wilhelm Wundt is credited as one of the founders of psychology. He created the first laboratory for psychological research.

(b) This photo shows him seated and surrounded by fellow researchers and equipment in his laboratory in Germany. What Is Psychology In Physical Education However, despite his efforts to train individuals in the process of introspection, this process remained highly subjective, and there was very little agreement between individuals. As a result, structuralism fell out of favor with the passing of Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener, in 1927 (Gordon, 1995).

William James (1842–1910) was the first American psychologist who espoused a different perspective on how psychology should operate ( ). James was introduced to Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and accepted it as an explanation of an organism’s characteristics. Key to that theory is the idea that natural selection leads to organisms that are adapted to their environment, including their behavior.

Adaptation means that a trait of an organism has a function for the survival and reproduction of the individual, because it has been naturally selected. As James saw it, psychology’s purpose was to study the function of behavior in the world, and as such, his perspective was known as functionalism,

  • Functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism fit into its environment.
  • Functionalism has a second, more subtle meaning in that functionalists were more interested in the operation of the whole mind rather than of its individual parts, which were the focus of structuralism.
  • Like Wundt, James believed that introspection could serve as one means by which someone might study mental activities, but James also relied on more objective measures, including the use of various recording devices, and examinations of concrete products of mental activities and of anatomy and physiology (Gordon, 1995).
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William James, shown here in a self-portrait, was the first American psychologist. Perhaps one of the most influential and well-known figures in psychology’s history was Sigmund Freud ( ). Freud (1856–1939) was an Austrian neurologist who was fascinated by patients suffering from “hysteria” and neurosis. Hysteria was an ancient diagnosis for disorders, primarily of women with a wide variety of symptoms, including physical symptoms and emotional disturbances, none of which had an apparent physical cause.

  1. Freud theorized that many of his patients’ problems arose from the unconscious mind.
  2. In Freud’s view, the unconscious mind was a repository of feelings and urges of which we have no awareness.
  3. Gaining access to the unconscious, then, was crucial to the successful resolution of the patient’s problems.
  4. According to Freud, the unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis, by examinations of the first words that came to people’s minds, and through seemingly innocent slips of the tongue.

Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences, and this particular perspective dominated clinical psychology for several decades (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) Sigmund Freud was a highly influential figure in the history of psychology. What Is Psychology In Physical Education Freud’s ideas were influential, and you will learn more about them when you study lifespan development, personality, and therapy. For instance, many therapists believe strongly in the unconscious and the impact of early childhood experiences on the rest of a person’s life.

The method of psychoanalysis, which involves the patient talking about their experiences and selves, while not invented by Freud, was certainly popularized by him and is still used today. Many of Freud’s other ideas, however, are controversial. Drew Westen (1998) argues that many of the criticisms of Freud’s ideas are misplaced, in that they attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings.

Westen also argues that critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or developed, such as the importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations, the role of unconscious versus conscious motivations in driving our behavior, the fact that motivations can cause conflicts that affect behavior, the effects of mental representations of ourselves and others in guiding our interactions, and the development of personality over time.

Westen identifies subsequent research support for all of these ideas. More modern iterations of Freud’s clinical approach have been empirically demonstrated to be effective (Knekt et al., 2008; Shedler, 2010). Some current practices in psychotherapy involve examining unconscious aspects of the self and relationships, often through the relationship between the therapist and the client.

Freud’s historical significance and contributions to clinical practice merit his inclusion in a discussion of the historical movements within psychology. Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) were three German psychologists who immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century to escape Nazi Germany.

These men are credited with introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles. The word Gestalt roughly translates to “whole;” a major emphasis of Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception.

For example, a song may be made up of individual notes played by different instruments, but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of these notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony. In many ways, this particular perspective would have directly contradicted Wundt’s ideas of structuralism (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

  1. Unfortunately, in moving to the United States, these men were forced to abandon much of their work and were unable to continue to conduct research on a large scale.
  2. These factors along with the rise of behaviorism (described next) in the United States prevented principles of Gestalt psychology from being as influential in the United States as they had been in their native Germany (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

Despite these issues, several Gestalt principles are still very influential today. Considering the human individual as a whole rather than as a sum of individually measured parts became an important foundation in humanistic theory late in the century.

  1. The ideas of Gestalt have continued to influence research on sensation and perception.
  2. Structuralism, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists were all concerned in one way or another with describing and understanding inner experience.
  3. But other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose instead to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes.

Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus.

The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted.

Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists. John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University ( ).

While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed. Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control.

Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism, A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism.

  • Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior.
  • Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except such matters as involve society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.” John B.

Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology. Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation.

In addition, it is used in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior modification is commonly used in classroom settings. Behaviorism has also led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) was an American psychologist ( ). Like Watson, Skinner was a behaviorist, and he concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences.

Therefore, Skinner spoke of reinforcement and punishment as major factors in driving behavior. As a part of his research, Skinner developed a chamber that allowed the careful study of the principles of modifying behavior through reinforcement and punishment.

This device, known as an operant conditioning chamber (or more familiarly, a Skinner box), has remained a crucial resource for researchers studying behavior (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) B.F. Skinner is famous for his research on operant conditioning. (b) Modified versions of the operant conditioning chamber, or Skinner box, are still widely used in research settings today.

(credit a: modification of work by “Silly rabbit”/Wikimedia Commons) What Is Psychology In Physical Education The Skinner box is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment and has a behavior indicator such as a lever or a button. When the animal pushes the button or lever, the box is able to deliver a positive reinforcement of the behavior (such as food) or a punishment (such as a noise) or a token conditioner (such as a light) that is correlated with either the positive reinforcement or punishment.

  • Skinner’s focus on positive and negative reinforcement of learned behaviors had a lasting influence in psychology that has waned somewhat since the growth of research in cognitive psychology.
  • Despite this, conditioned learning is still used in human behavioral modification.
  • Skinner’s two widely read and controversial popular science books about the value of operant conditioning for creating happier lives remain as thought-provoking arguments for his approach (Greengrass, 2004).

During the early 20th century, American psychology was dominated by behaviorism and psychoanalysis. However, some psychologists were uncomfortable with what they viewed as limited perspectives being so influential to the field. They objected to the pessimism and determinism (all actions driven by the unconscious) of Freud.

  • They also disliked the reductionism, or simplifying nature, of behaviorism.
  • Behaviorism is also deterministic at its core, because it sees human behavior as entirely determined by a combination of genetics and environment.
  • Some psychologists began to form their own ideas that emphasized personal control, intentionality, and a true predisposition for “good” as important for our self-concept and our behavior.

Thus, humanism emerged. Humanism is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans. Two of the most well-known proponents of humanistic psychology are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (O’Hara, n.d.). Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) was an American psychologist who is best known for proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior ( ).

  • Although this concept will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter, a brief overview will be provided here.
  • Maslow asserted that so long as basic needs necessary for survival were met (e.g., food, water, shelter), higher-level needs (e.g., social needs) would begin to motivate behavior.
  • According to Maslow, the highest-level needs relate to self-actualization, a process by which we achieve our full potential.
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Obviously, the focus on the positive aspects of human nature that are characteristic of the humanistic perspective is evident (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanistic psychologists rejected, on principle, the research approach based on reductionist experimentation in the tradition of the physical and biological sciences, because it missed the “whole” human being.

Beginning with Maslow and Rogers, there was an insistence on a humanistic research program. This program has been largely qualitative (not measurement-based), but there exist a number of quantitative research strains within humanistic psychology, including research on happiness, self-concept, meditation, and the outcomes of humanistic psychotherapy (Friedman, 2008).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is shown. What Is Psychology In Physical Education Carl Rogers (1902–1987) was also an American psychologist who, like Maslow, emphasized the potential for good that exists within all people ( ). Rogers used a therapeutic technique known as client-centered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy.

Unlike a psychoanalytic approach in which the therapist plays an important role in interpreting what conscious behavior reveals about the unconscious mind, client-centered therapy involves the patient taking a lead role in the therapy session. Rogers believed that a therapist needed to display three features to maximize the effectiveness of this particular approach: unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy.

Unconditional positive regard refers to the fact that the therapist accepts their client for who they are, no matter what he or she might say. Provided these factors, Rogers believed that people were more than capable of dealing with and working through their own issues (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanism has been influential to psychology as a whole. Both Maslow and Rogers are well-known names among students of psychology (you will read more about both men later in this text), and their ideas have influenced many scholars. Furthermore, Rogers’ client-centered approach to therapy is still commonly used in psychotherapeutic settings today (O’hara, n.d.) View a brief video of Carl Rogers describing his therapeutic approach. Behaviorism’s emphasis on objectivity and focus on external behavior had pulled psychologists’ attention away from the mind for a prolonged period of time. The early work of the humanistic psychologists redirected attention to the individual human as a whole, and as a conscious and self-aware being.

  • By the 1950s, new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science were emerging, and these areas revived interest in the mind as a focus of scientific inquiry.
  • This particular perspective has come to be known as the cognitive revolution (Miller, 2003).
  • By 1967, Ulric Neisser published the first textbook entitled Cognitive Psychology, which served as a core text in cognitive psychology courses around the country (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

Although no one person is entirely responsible for starting the cognitive revolution, Noam Chomsky was very influential in the early days of this movement ( ). Chomsky (1928–), an American linguist, was dissatisfied with the influence that behaviorism had had on psychology.

  1. He believed that psychology’s focus on behavior was short-sighted and that the field had to re-incorporate mental functioning into its purview if it were to offer any meaningful contributions to understanding behavior (Miller, 2003).
  2. Noam Chomsky was very influential in beginning the cognitive revolution.

In 2010, this mural honoring him was put up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (credit: Robert Moran) What Is Psychology In Physical Education European psychology had never really been as influenced by behaviorism as had American psychology; and thus, the cognitive revolution helped reestablish lines of communication between European psychologists and their American counterparts. Furthermore, psychologists began to cooperate with scientists in other fields, like anthropology, linguistics, computer science, and neuroscience, among others.

  1. This interdisciplinary approach often was referred to as the cognitive sciences, and the influence and prominence of this particular perspective resonates in modern-day psychology (Miller, 2003).
  2. Feminist Psychology The science of psychology has had an impact on human wellbeing, both positive and negative.

The dominant influence of Western, white, and male academics in the early history of psychology meant that psychology developed with the biases inherent in those individuals, which often had negative consequences for members of society that were not white or male.

Women, members of ethnic minorities in both the United States and other countries, and individuals with sexual orientations other than heterosexual had difficulties entering the field of psychology and therefore influencing its development. They also suffered from the attitudes of white, male psychologists, who were not immune to the nonscientific attitudes prevalent in the society in which they developed and worked.

Until the 1960s, the science of psychology was largely a “womanless” psychology (Crawford & Marecek, 1989), meaning that few women were able to practice psychology, so they had little influence on what was studied. In addition, the experimental subjects of psychology were mostly men, which resulted from underlying assumptions that gender had no influence on psychology and that women were not of sufficient interest to study.

An article by Naomi Weisstein, first published in 1968 (Weisstein, 1993), stimulated a feminist revolution in psychology by presenting a critique of psychology as a science. She also specifically criticized male psychologists for constructing the psychology of women entirely out of their own cultural biases and without careful experimental tests to verify any of their characterizations of women.

Weisstein used, as examples, statements by prominent psychologists in the 1960s, such as this quote by Bruno Bettleheim: “. we must start with the realization that, as much as women want to be good scientists or engineers, they want first and foremost to be womanly companions of men and to be mothers.” Weisstein’s critique formed the foundation for the subsequent development of a feminist psychology that attempted to be free of the influence of male cultural biases on our knowledge of the psychology of women and, indeed, of both genders.

  1. Crawford & Marecek (1989) identify several feminist approaches to psychology that can be described as feminist psychology.
  2. These include re-evaluating and discovering the contributions of women to the history of psychology, studying psychological gender differences, and questioning the male bias present across the practice of the scientific approach to knowledge.

Culture has important impacts on individuals and social psychology, yet the effects of culture on psychology are under-studied. There is a risk that psychological theories and data derived from white, American settings could be assumed to apply to individuals and social groups from other cultures and this is unlikely to be true (Betancourt & López, 1993).

One weakness in the field of cross-cultural psychology is that in looking for differences in psychological attributes across cultures, there remains a need to go beyond simple descriptive statistics (Betancourt & López, 1993). In this sense, it has remained a descriptive science, rather than one seeking to determine cause and effect.

For example, a study of characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for a binge eating disorder in Hispanic American, African American, and Caucasian American individuals found significant differences between groups (Franko et al., 2012). The study concluded that results from studying any one of the groups could not be extended to the other groups, and yet potential causes of the differences were not measured.

This history of multicultural psychology in the United States is a long one. The role of African American psychologists in researching the cultural differences between African American individual and social psychology is but one example. In 1920, Cecil Sumner was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology in the United States.

Sumner established a psychology degree program at Howard University, leading to the education of a new generation of African American psychologists (Black, Spence, and Omari, 2004). Much of the work of early African American psychologists (and a general focus of much work in first half of the 20th century in psychology in the United States) was dedicated to testing and intelligence testing in particular (Black et al., 2004).

That emphasis has continued, particularly because of the importance of testing in determining opportunities for children, but other areas of exploration in African-American psychology research include learning style, sense of community and belonging, and spiritualism (Black et al., 2004). The American Psychological Association has several ethnically based organizations for professional psychologists that facilitate interactions among members.

Since psychologists belonging to specific ethnic groups or cultures have the most interest in studying the psychology of their communities, these organizations provide an opportunity for the growth of research on the impact of culture on individual and social psychology. Read a news story about the influence of an African American’s psychology research on the historic Brown v. Board of Education civil rights case. Before the time of Wundt and James, questions about the mind were considered by philosophers. However, both Wundt and James helped create psychology as a distinct scientific discipline.

Wundt was a structuralist, which meant he believed that our cognitive experience was best understood by breaking that experience into its component parts. He thought this was best accomplished by introspection. William James was the first American psychologist, and he was a proponent of functionalism.

This particular perspective focused on how mental activities served as adaptive responses to an organism’s environment. Like Wundt, James also relied on introspection; however, his research approach also incorporated more objective measures as well. Sigmund Freud believed that understanding the unconscious mind was absolutely critical to understand conscious behavior.

  1. This was especially true for individuals that he saw who suffered from various hysterias and neuroses.
  2. Freud relied on dream analysis, slips of the tongue, and free association as means to access the unconscious.
  3. Psychoanalytic theory remained a dominant force in clinical psychology for several decades.

Gestalt psychology was very influential in Europe. Gestalt psychology takes a holistic view of an individual and his experiences. As the Nazis came to power in Germany, Wertheimer, Koffka, and Köhler immigrated to the United States. Although they left their laboratories and their research behind, they did introduce America to Gestalt ideas.

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Some of the principles of Gestalt psychology are still very influential in the study of sensation and perception. One of the most influential schools of thought within psychology’s history was behaviorism. Behaviorism focused on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes.

John Watson is often considered the father of behaviorism, and B.F. Skinner’s contributions to our understanding of principles of operant conditioning cannot be underestimated. As behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory took hold of so many aspects of psychology, some began to become dissatisfied with psychology’s picture of human nature.

Thus, a humanistic movement within psychology began to take hold. Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for good. Both Maslow and Rogers were influential in shaping humanistic psychology. During the 1950s, the landscape of psychology began to change. A science of behavior began to shift back to its roots of focus on mental processes.

The emergence of neuroscience and computer science aided this transition. Ultimately, the cognitive revolution took hold, and people came to realize that cognition was crucial to a true appreciation and understanding of behavior. Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

  1. William James
  2. Max Wertheimer
  3. Carl Rogers
  4. Noam Chomsky

B _ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

  1. Noam Chomsky
  2. Carl Rogers
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Sigmund Freud

C Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and _ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

  1. structuralism
  2. functionalism
  3. Gestalt
  4. unconditional positive regard

D The operant conditioning chamber (aka _ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

  1. Skinner
  2. Watson
  3. James
  4. Koffka

A How did the object of study in psychology change over the history of the field since the 19th century? In its early days, psychology could be defined as the scientific study of mind or mental processes. Over time, psychology began to shift more towards the scientific study of behavior.

However, as the cognitive revolution took hold, psychology once again began to focus on mental processes as necessary to the understanding of behavior. In part, what aspect of psychology was the behaviorist approach to psychology a reaction to? Behaviorists studied objectively observable behavior partly in reaction to the psychologists of the mind who were studying things that were not directly observable.

Freud is probably one of the most well-known historical figures in psychology. Where have you encountered references to Freud or his ideas about the role that the unconscious mind plays in determining conscious behavior?
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Why is it called psychology?

Etymology and definitions – The word psychology derives from the Greek word psyche, for spirit or soul, The latter part of the word “psychology” derives from -λογία -logia, which refers to “study” or “research”. The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae ( Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul ) in the late 15th century or early 16th century.

  1. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary,
  2. The dictionary refers to “Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul.” In 1890, William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.” This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades.

However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in 1913 asserted that the discipline is a “natural science”, the theoretical goal of which “is the prediction and control of behavior.” Since James defined “psychology”, the term more strongly implicates scientific experimentation,
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What is the importance of psychology in physical education and sports class 11?

Improve performances – The Knowledge of sports psychology helps to improve performance and personality of players’s by scientific ways of modifying behaviour.2. Motivation and feedback -proper motivation and proper feedback enhances the performance of players. It gives counseling to players.
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What is the importance of psychology to sports injuries?

Key takeaways. An athlete’s psychological response to injury can either delay or enhance physical recovery. Shame or stigma may prevent an athlete who is struggling emotionally from seeking help.
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How does psychology play a role in physical therapy?

1. Introduction – Musculoskeletal pain remains one of the leading health complaints prompting individuals to seek medical care. Not only is musculoskeletal pain highly prevalent in both developed and developing societies, 20, 62 the effects can dramatically impact quality of life.

Estimates suggest that 10.6 million adults within the United States have high-impact pain conditions that result in substantial disability.70 Musculoskeletal conditions such as low back pain, neck pain, and lower-extremity osteoarthritis are listed among the top diseases contributing to years lived with disability.20, 79 The costs associated with managing chronic pain exceeds costs for conditions such as heart disease and cancer.27 The problem of musculoskeletal pain is complex and there is wide recognition that the optimal management approach uses a biopsychosocial model of care.28 Psychological factors are considered important risk factors for disability and pain outcomes.4 Psychologically based treatments that target maladaptive cognitions, emotions, or behavior with physical rehabilitation through multidisciplinary team approaches are more effective than physical treatment alone.41 However, substantial barriers including access and cost may prevent some patients from receiving this type of care.67 To address these barriers, recent efforts have focused on training nonpsychologist practitioners to integrate psychological strategies within primary care for prevention and management of chronic pain.9, 14, 57 Psychologically informed physical therapy (PIPT) is an approach initially advocated by Main and George in a 2011 Physical Therapy article.56 Psychologically informed physical therapy represents a multimodal rehabilitation approach for pain that incorporates behavioral strategies from the mental health realm into physical therapist practice.

This integrated form of pain management by a physical therapist is a marked shift in how therapy is commonly delivered. Although most physical therapists would accept the central principles of PIPT and recognize the importance of mitigating psychosocial risk, 21 there may be challenges in delivering PIPT in everyday practice.

As an initial step towards PIPT implementation, efficacy of this approach should be clearly established. To date, there have been several systematic reviews around the topic of PIPT.1, 17, 33, 75, 90 These prior reviews have summarized studies focused on different pain conditions (ie, postoperative pain, general musculoskeletal pain, and low back pain) and using a range of PIPT delivery modes (ie, in-person, group-based, and remotely delivered) and control groups (ie, no/minimal treatment, attention control, education, and usual care).

Most of the prior studies reviewed have included a PIPT intervention based on cognitive-behavioral approaches. Two meta-analyses by Silva Guerrero et al.75 and Wilson and Cramp 90 demonstrate that PIPT has a small, but significant, effect on improving physical function, disability, and pain compared to standard physical therapy.

  • In the meta-analysis by Wilson and Cramp, 90 the authors included interventions where the psychological component could be delivered by either a psychologist or physical therapist.
  • This may limit applicability of the review findings to PIPT if adhering to the description by Main and George.
  • The primary aim and scope of this narrative review was to build upon existing reviews and examine evidence since the publication of Main and George 56 on PIPT vs standard physical therapy approaches for musculoskeletal pain.

We modeled our approach similar to the high-quality review by Silva Guerrero et al.75 by focusing on studies that compare interventions that include psychological strategies delivered by physical therapists to standard physical therapy. Summarizing studies that compare PIPT to standard physical therapy would help establish the transformative value of PIPT.

Important advancements to the review by Silva Guerrero et al.75 involve the inclusion of more recent studies after 2016 and greater description of the individual studies and interventions. Specifically, we aimed to categorize the types of psychological interventions used, report on aspects of dosage and training, and discuss clinical implications and future directions.

Our hope is that this review describing recent PIPT methods and data will inspire continued efforts to optimize pain rehabilitation.
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What is an example of Sports psychology?

Sports psychology acknowledges the major impact of emotional and psychological factors can have on athletes competing in sports. For example, confidence, self-esteem, motivation, and determination are just a few of the psychological components that can influence how an individual athlete or team performs.
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What is the importance of psychology in physical education and sports class 11?

Improve performances – The Knowledge of sports psychology helps to improve performance and personality of players’s by scientific ways of modifying behaviour.2. Motivation and feedback -proper motivation and proper feedback enhances the performance of players. It gives counseling to players.
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How is psychology important for sports persons?

When is sports psychology used? – Sports psychology is often used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to maintaining strong performance from athletes and coaches. What Is Psychology In Physical Education Sports psychology can be an excellent option for professional athletes, and has been heavily utilized within a professional basketball context. Modern day athletes come under a huge amount of pressure from sponsors, fans and the media, and as such can find themselves under an enormous amount of physical and mental strain.
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