What Is Multicultural Education Discuss Its Relevance In Contemporary Society?


Multicultural education is a set of educational strategies developed to provide students with knowledge about the histories, cultures, and contributions of diverse groups. It draws on insights from multiple fields, including ethnic studies and women studies, and reinterprets content from related academic disciplines.
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What is multicultural education discuss?

The Dimensions of Multicultural Education – I have identified five dimensions of multicultural education. They are: content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy, and an empowering school culture and social structure (Banks, 1995a).

Content integration deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within their subject areas or disciplines. The knowledge construction process describes how teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it (Banks, 1996).

Students also learn how to build knowledge themselves in this dimension. Prejudice reduction describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. Research indicates that children come to school with many negative attitudes toward and misconceptions about different racial and ethnic groups (Phinney & Rotheram, 1987).

Research also indicates that lessons, units, and teaching materials that include content about different racial and ethnic groups can help students to develop more positive intergroup attitudes if certain conditions exist in the teaching situation (Banks, 1995b). These conditions include positive images of the ethnic groups in the materials and the use of multiethnic materials in a consistent and sequential way.

An equity pedagogy exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social-class groups (Banks & Banks, 1995). Research indicates that the academic achievement of African American and Mexican American students is increased when cooperative teaching activities and strategies, rather than competitive ones, are used in instruction (Aronson & Gonzalez, 1988).

  • Cooperative learning activities also help all students, including middle-class White students, to develop more positive racial attitudes.
  • However, to attain these positive outcomes, cooperative learning activities must have several important characteristics (Allport, 1954).
  • The students from different racial and ethnic groups must feel that they have equal status in intergroup interactions, teachers and administrators must value and support cross-racial interactions, and students from different racial groups must work together in teams to pursue common goals.

An empowering school culture and social structure is created when the culture and organization of the school are transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status. The implementation of this dimension requires that the total environment of the school be reformed, including the attitudes, beliefs, and action of teachers and administrators, the curriculum and course of study, assessment and testing procedures, and the styles and strategies used by teachers.

  • To implement multicultural education effectively, teachers and administrators must attend to each of the five dimensions of multicultural education described above.
  • They should use content from diverse groups when teaching concepts and skills, help students to understand how knowledge in the various disciplines is constructed, help students to develop positive intergroup attitudes and behaviors, and modify their teaching strategies so that students from different racial, cultural, and social-class groups will experience equal educational opportunities.

The total environment and culture of the school must also be transformed so that students from diverse ethnic and cultural groups will experience equal status in the culture and life of the school. Although the five dimensions of multicultural education are highly interrelated, each requires deliberate attention and focus.
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What is multiculturalism in contemporary world?

Abstract – Multiculturalism refers to (1) the state of a society or the world in which there exists numerous distinct ethnic and cultural groups seen to be politically relevant; and (2) a program or policy promoting such a society. Political philosophers aspire to deal with the challenges posed by multiculturalism fairly – but there is deep disagreement about what constitutes fair treatment.

  • Multiculturalism might entail the granting of rights (individual or collective) on the grounds of the value cultures have for individuals, or even society as a whole.
  • A multicultural state then might be one in which different forms of recognition are granted to cultural groups to secure the valuable goods cultural membership provides equally and avoid unfairly privileging dominant groups.

On the other hand, it can be argued that precisely because of deep social and cultural diversity, the state should remain neutral between groups and ensure that basic liberal rights are fairly and consistently applied across cultural differences. Granting recognition to groups risks undermining the security and welfare of individuals by ‘politicizing’ forms of cultural identification best kept out of public decision making about the distribution of goods and resources.
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Why is multiculturalism important in society?

Why is it important? – Multiculturalism has many benefits. The main one is that it encourages open-mindedness amongst different groups of people and it dispels negative stereotypes. This is extremely important as the UN reported that 1/3 of the world’s major conflicts have a cultural dimension to them.

  1. Not only does cultural diversity promote peace, but it also makes our society a more interesting place to live.
  2. Different cultures have their own beliefs and interests which they can share to offer alternative ways of doing things.
  3. People from different cultures can give us different insights into food, language, music, arts & literature, history, religion and more.

Check out our video about what cultural diversity is and why it is important in today’s society. For more information about cultural diversity please visit un.org/en/observances/cultural-diversity-day If you’d like to keep reading about culture then check out our previous blog: ‘How does culture affect international business?’
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Is the concept of multicultural education important and relevant in Philippine society why?

Multicultural Education Introduction The issue of multicultural education in the Philippine is of paramount importance. This is because of the different culture in the world and learners tend to like studying from one place to another. Nowadays, diversity becomes progressively more reflected in the schools.

Poverty is also becoming an increasingly important issue that affects quality of education. Rich students would rather prefer to an exclusive private schools while the poor would rather stay at public school. Admittedly, generally, Philippine public school lacks the necessary technology tools to enhance the skills and ability of their students.

More so, these students lack the necessary foods for themselves. Students with empty stomach will certainly learn not much. These demographic, social, and economic and such other trends have vital implications for education. Multicultural education is intended to decrease religion, race, class, and gender divisions by helping all students attain the knowledge, skills, and abilities they need in order to become productive citizens in a democratic society and participate in social change.

  • It is imperative that teachers be knowledgeable on how to be familiar with, respect, and incorporate the personal abilities of students into their teaching strategies.
  • Teachers must be familiar with what is multi-culture in education.
  • If this is done properly, then school expects the best of achievement.
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: Multicultural Education Introduction
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What is multicultural education PDF?

They further explain that, ‘the term multicultural. education describes a wide variety of programs and. practices related to educational equity, women, ethnic. groups, language minorities, low-income groups, and. people with disabilities ‘ (p.
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What is multicultural and examples?

Including people who have many different customs and beliefs, or relating to a society, organization, city, etc. like this: Britain is increasingly a multicultural society. At the the market, where Turkish, Arab, Slav and Chinese stallholders vie for customers, you get a real sense of the city’s multi-cultural make-up.
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What is multiculturalism and how does it affect society?

multiculturalism, the view that cultures, races, and ethnicities, particularly those of minority groups, deserve special acknowledgment of their differences within a dominant political culture, That acknowledgment can take the forms of recognition of contributions to the cultural life of the political community as a whole, a demand for special protection under the law for certain cultural groups, or autonomous rights of governance for certain cultures.

Multiculturalism is both a response to the fact of cultural pluralism in modern democracies and a way of compensating cultural groups for past exclusion, discrimination, and oppression. Most modern democracies comprise members with diverse cultural viewpoints, practices, and contributions. Many minority cultural groups have experienced exclusion or the denigration of their contributions and identities in the past.

Multiculturalism seeks the inclusion of the views and contributions of diverse members of society while maintaining respect for their differences and withholding the demand for their assimilation into the dominant culture.
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What is multicultural in society?

What Is Multicultural Education Discuss Its Relevance In Contemporary Society « Back to Glossary Index Multiculturalism The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, and of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for ” ethnic pluralism “, with the two terms often used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities.

In reference to political science, multiculturalism can be defined as a state’s capacity to effectively and efficiently deal with cultural plurality within its sovereign borders. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves ideologies and policies which vary widely. It has been described as a ” salad bowl ” and as a ” cultural mosaic “, in contrast to a ” melting pot “.

According to an article by Robert Longley, multiculturalism is the way in which a society deals with cultural diversity, both at the national and at the community level. Sociologically, multiculturalism assumes that society, as a whole, benefits from increased diversity through the harmonious coexistence of different cultures.

  • Multicultural societies are characterized by people of different races, ethnicities, and nationalities living together in the same community.
  • In multicultural communities, people retain, pass down, celebrate, and share their unique cultural ways of life, languages, art, traditions, and behaviors.
  • The characteristics of multiculturalism often spread into the community’s public schools, where curricula are crafted to introduce young people to the qualities and benefits of cultural diversity.

Though sometimes criticized as a form of ” political correctness,” educational systems in multicultural societies stress the histories and traditions of minorities in classrooms and textbooks. Multiculturalism is the key to achieving a high degree of cultural diversity.

Diversity occurs when people of different races, nationalities, religions, ethnicities, and philosophies come together to form a community. A truly diverse society is one that recognizes and values the cultural differences in its people. Proponents of cultural diversity argue that it makes humanity stronger and may, in fact, be vital to its long-term survival.

In 2001, the General Conference of UNESCO took this position when it asserted in its Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity that “cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature.” Ruth Wodak underlines the fact that the idea of multiculturalism involved conciliation, tolerance, respect, interdependence, and universalism, and it was expected to bring about an ‘ inter-cultural community’,

Over time, it became perceived as a way of institutionalizing difference through autonomous cultural discourses. According to Wodak, the debate on the end of multiculturalism has long existed in Europe. It seems that the declaration of the ‘ failure of multiculturalism’ has become a catchphrase not only of right-wing parties but also of centrist political parties throughout the continent.

In 2010 and 2011, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, UK PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy heavily criticized multi-culturalism for dubious reasons. Geert Wilders made no apologies for declaring that ‘ We Christians should be proud that our culture is better than Islamic culture “.

  • Populism blames multi-culturalism for denationalizing one’s own nation, and disunifying one’s own people.
  • Anton Pelinka explains how populism simplifies the complex realities of a globalized world by looking for a scapegoat: ” As the enemy – the foreigner, the foreign culture – has already succeeded in breaking into the fortress of the nation state, someone must be responsible.

The elites are the secondary ‘defining others’, responsible for the liberal democratic policies of accepting cultural diversity. The populist answer to the complexities of a more and more pluralistic society is not multiculturalism Right-wing populism sees multiculturalism as a recipe to denationalize one’s nation, to deconstruct one’s people,” According to an article by Will Kymlicka, across Europe, and around the world, we see popular discontent with diversity, but this new narrative tells people that their discontent is not with diversity as such, but with a misguided and naive ‘ multiculturalism ‘.

  1. Ymlicka writes that ” multiculturalism is offered up as a handy scapegoat for popular discontent, in the hope that this will undercut support for populist, anti-immigrant or anti-Roma, xenophobic parties.
  2. The narrative says ‘don’t take your frustrations out on minorities; your objection is not to diversity, which is a good thing, but to the extreme multiculturalist ideology that we have now safely put behind us’,” To Kymlicka, viewed as a social science diagnosis of popular discontent, this blaming of multiculturalism is implausible.

The evidence suggests that popular discontent with immigrants is in fact higher in countries that didn’t embrace multiculturalism, and there’s no evidence that adopting multiculturalism policies causes or exacerbates anti-immigrant or anti-minority attitudes.
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What are the characteristics of a multicultural society?

Characteristics of a Multicultural Society – What Is Multicultural Education Discuss Its Relevance In Contemporary Society A multicultural society is characterized by people of various races, ethnicities, and nationalities living together in the same community. In a multicultural society, people maintain, pass on, celebrate and share their unique way of life, language, traditions, and cultural behavior.
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Why is cultural education important?

Cultural Education Do children need Cultural Education? Culture is what shapes our world and our personal development. Different languages, traditions, beliefs and folklore reveal a lot about where we come from and who we are. We currently live in multi-cultural societies, as travelling around the world has become so accessible, we often find ourselves in an enriching melting-pot of different cultures.

It is certainly the case here in Brussels, at the heart of Europe. This is also true for schools, and why I believe cultural education has become essential. At a very young age, children don’t notice differences in skin colors, clothing, eating habits or customs. We are all one and the same beautiful human species.

However, when children start school, certain differences can be pointed at, misunderstood or even criticized. It seems obvious that most fears come from the unknown, and we are afraid of what is unusual. By providing knowledge and experience in a safe environment, children develop their natural curiosity, achieve understanding and mutual respect.

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That is exactly what is needed for the future generations to live in harmony together on this beautiful planet. Our differences are what enrich us and make us unique, so let’s share knowledge and build bridges instead of walls. So, what is cultural education ? Cultural education consists in the development of all arts, music, language, literature, and world heritage.

It contributes to knowledge transfer, personal development and participation in society. It enables children to develop certain talents and introduces them to aesthetics and ethics to express their feelings and assign meaning to the world around them.

  1. Cultural education enables children to discover ways of learning and communicating which are respectful to themselves and others.
  2. It promotes historical awareness, contributes to understanding individual identities and encourages creative, inquisitive attitudes that can benefit them throughout their lives.

Culture Kids was founded on these beliefs, and through collaboration with different embassies, we dive into the heart of different cultures and countries to discover the world through unique learning journeys. These journeys are proposed to schools, and to families for special events and holiday camps.
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What is the role of multicultural education in the transformation of society?

Multicultural Education – History, The Dimensions of Multicultural Education, Evidence of the Effectiveness of Multicultural Education Multicultural education is an idea, an approach to school reform, and a movement for equity, social justice, and democracy.

Specialists within multicultural education emphasize different components and cultural groups. However, a significant degree of consensus exists within the field regarding its major principles, concepts, and goals. A major goal of multicultural education is to restructure schools so that all students acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function in an ethnically and racially diverse nation and world.

Multicultural education seeks to ensure educational equity for members of diverse racial, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic groups, and to facilitate their participation as critical and reflective citizens in an inclusive national civic culture. Multicultural education tries to provide students with educational experiences that enable them to maintain commitments to their community cultures as well as acquire the knowledge, skills, and cultural capital needed to function in the national civic culture and community.

Multicultural theorists view academic knowledge and skills as necessary but not sufficient for functioning in a diverse nation and world. They regard skills in democratic living and the ability to function effectively within and across diverse groups as essential goals of schooling. Multicultural education is highly consistent with the ideals embodied in the U.S.

Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights. It seeks to extend the rights and privileges granted to the nation’s founding elites–the ideals of freedom, equality, justice, and democracy–to all social, cultural and language groups.
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What is the relevance of knowing multi cultural literacy in education?

What value does multicultural literature add to the school library fiction collection? – Multicultural literature serves as a powerful tool in enabling students to gain a better understanding of both their own culture and the cultures of others. Through this deeper knowledge, relationships can be strengthened, bridging the gap between students from diverse cultural backgrounds (Hseu & Hetzel, 2000).

As students of the 21st century are global participants, it is important that they possess cultural sensitivity. Through extensive research, Norton (2009) has discovered that when students can relate global events to the themes, conflicts and characterisations found in multicultural literature, it helps them to better understand current world issues.

Students therefore develop greater cognitive skills as they learn to engage with and critically evaluate the texts that they read. Suzanne Evans (2010) conducted research on critical literacy using a range of multicultural picture books. Her aim was to determine whether student perspectives on diversity and the acceptance of others altered once they were exposed to multicultural texts.
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What is the purpose and benefit of multicultural education?

What Is Multicultural Education? – Multicultural education values different student cultures and prepares students to thrive in a diverse world. At its core, multicultural education fosters equality, justice, and equity, and it establishes the reality of philosophical ideals in classroom environments.

Multicultural education is what schools implement to establish equitable educational opportunities for all their students. It is also an ongoing process of helping students succeed in their academic and personal lives. Teachers, administrators, and school leaders play an important role in ensuring the incorporation of multicultural education by selecting and managing policies, curricula, and teaching styles.

The practice relies on educators who value the histories and experiences of diverse groups of students. Schools and teachers can approach multicultural education in a variety of ways, supporting students as they develop positive perspectives of their own cultures as well as the cultures of their peers.
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What are the effects of multicultural education?

This allows students to become more openminded to other cultures and to be more readily accepting of intercultural differences. By engaging in such multicultural dialogue, students are able to effectively communicate with peers from diverse backgrounds and achieve improved results due to a better understanding.
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What are the benefits of multicultural?

The Benefits of Multiculturalism in the Workplace – Multiculturalism promotes the integration of different cultures and the sharing of one’s ideas and perspectives. The sharing of ideas can lead to new innovations for businesses and more prosperous working relationships.

  1. Open-mindedness and communication are core benefits of multiculturalism that can benefit the workplace.
  2. It encourages open dialogue which creates understanding, collaboration, and teamwork among staff.
  3. Above all, multiculturalism demonstrates tolerance, respect, and acceptance which improves company culture and reduces conflict within the workplace.

A diverse workforce gives a company a competitive advantage, especially when trading internationally. Employees with different cultural backgrounds make it easier to communicate globally and increase a company’s understanding of different cultures and environments. What Is Multicultural Education Discuss Its Relevance In Contemporary Society
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What are the types of multicultural?

Multiculturalism and Identity Politics: Cultural Concerns – A. Gutmann, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 Multiculturalism is a social perspective that is committed to publicly recognizing and respecting many cultures and cultural identities.

Identity politics is one means by which members of a society strive for public recognition of their cultures and cultural identities. One conception of multiculturalism that animates identity politics is that people primarily identify as members of groups defined by ethnicity, race, gender, religion, or sexual orientation, and therefore can be expected to pressure their government for greater positive political recognition of, and public benefits for, their own group.

Another conception of multiculturalism is critical of identity politics because it rejects the idea of a one-to-one correspondence between a person and a particular cultural identity, and views individual identities as themselves multicultural. Although societies have long been multicultural, the use of multiculturalism as a term in social and political discourse is relatively recent.

  • Three kinds of multiculturalism can be identified as coexisting in the same society: ethnic, linguistic, and national multiculturalism.
  • Different perspectives on various dimensions of multiculturalism—personal identity, public recognition, and standards of assessment—help elucidate the controversies that multiculturalism generates and the policies that it supports.

Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767046222
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Who is the father of multicultural?

James Albert Banks is an educator who has been called the “father of multicultural education,” a discipline that seeks to develop awareness and skills in teachers and students for living in a culturally diverse United States and world. Growing up as an African-American youth in the Arkansas Delta during the Jim Crow years, Banks developed a commitment to social justice.

  1. Banks became the first black professor in the College of Education at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle and was also founding director of UW’s Center for Multicultural Education, which was renamed the Banks Center for Educational Justice when Banks retired from UW in 2019.
  2. James Banks was born on September 24, 1941, near Marianna (Lee County) to Matthew Banks and Lula Holt Banks, both farmers.
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His formal education began at the McCullough Union School, which he walked five miles to attend. During his second year of schooling, rural schools consolidated, and he was bused to the Newsome Training School in Aubrey (Lee County), where he attended elementary and junior high school between 1948 and 1957.

  1. He graduated in 1960 from the Robert Russa Moton High School in Marianna, located about ten miles from his home.
  2. Banks obtained his associate of arts degree with high scholastic honors from Chicago City Junior College in 1963.
  3. The following year, he received his bachelor’s degree in elementary education and social science with honors from Chicago Teachers College (now Chicago State University), and between 1966 and 1969, he received his master’s and PhD degrees in these fields from Michigan State University.

Banks taught at Forrest Park School in Joliet, Illinois, and at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago between 1965 and 1966. Banks married Cherry A. McGee, a college professor and author, on February 15, 1969; the two have written several books and articles together.

  • They had two daughters, Angela Banks and Patricia Banks, who both became college professors.
  • Banks joined the faculty of the UW College of Education in 1969.
  • He served as assistant professor and associate professor until 1971 and 1973, respectively, becoming a full professor in 1973.
  • In 1992, Banks founded the Center for Multicultural Education at the university and became its director.

Banks was named Russell F. Stark University Professor in 2000 and then Kerry and Linda Killinger Professor of Diversity Studies in 2006. During his childhood, Banks felt that the images of happy slaves in his social studies textbooks were a contradiction to the stark reality of racial segregation that he and his community experienced, and he began asking who created the images of happy slaves, and who develops curriculum.

  1. These became crucial social justice research questions.
  2. In time, they have taken newer forms.
  3. Through his teaching, research, and writings, Banks has continually tried to explain issues in black studies, ethnic studies, multiethnic studies, multicultural education, and citizenship education.
  4. The demographics of the United States and its schools have been rapidly changing.

This being the case, in more than four decades of research, Banks has created a fund of knowledge—dimensions, approaches, paradigms, principles of curriculum, teaching, and assessment—for curriculum developers and educators, all aimed at helping students from diverse ethnic, language, and other cultural groups to develop knowledge, attitudes, and skills to become effective citizens in a multicultural nation and a diverse world.

Stated simply, Banks has provided teachers with detailed answers as to what to teach, how to teach, and how to assess students from different ethnic groups such as Native American, African American, European American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and Arab American, and other cultural categories such as gender.

Banks has emphasized that textbooks must not merely describe concepts from the perspective of the dominant culture. Rather, they must also include viewpoints of different cultural groups. For example, in explaining westward expansion, it is imperative that textbooks include the perspectives of Native Americans.

  • Teachers have a responsibility to reduce prejudice and empower “all” students with the goal of creating a just society.
  • Banks has authored or edited more than twenty books, as well as over sixty book chapters and written about 100 journal articles.
  • Banks is editor of two landmark publications: Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (1995, second edition 2004) and Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education (2012).

He also edits a multicultural education book series published by Teachers College Press at Columbia University. In 1971, Banks was appointed a member of the Task Force to Reevaluate Social Science Textbooks in California. He visited Hawaii, Mexico, Puerto Rico, France, and Great Britain to examine multiethnic education during the 1976–77 school year.

In 2000, he was elected a member of the National Academy of Education. Banks was president of the National Council for the Social Studies (1982) and the American Educational Research Association (1997–1998). He has received honorary doctorates from six colleges and universities, as well as the UCLA Medal.

Banks was the twenty-ninth annual faculty lecturer at the University of Washington in 2004–05, the university’s highest honor for a faculty member. In 2004, the American Educational Research Association (AERA) awarded its first Social Justice in Education Award to Banks for a career of research that advances social justice through education research.

In the fall of 2007, he was the Tisch Distinguished Visiting Professor at Teachers College, Columbia University, in New York. In January 2019, he retired from the University of Washington. For additional information: Banks, James A. Diversity, Transformative Knowledge, and Civic Education: Selected Essays,

New York and London: Routledge, 2020. Brown, Quinn Russell. “Thanks, Professor Banks: ‘The Father of Multicultural Education’ Is Retiring after 50 Years at UW.” Columns: The University of Washington Alumni Magazine, Online at https://magazine.washington.edu/feature/james-banks-uw-retires-multicultural-education/ (accessed December 9, 2020).
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Who has defined multicultural education?

Meira Levinson – According to Levinson, three groups present different conceptions of “multicultural education.” These groups are: political and educational philosophers, educational theorists, and educational practitioners. She claims that they offer different, and sometimes conflicting, aims for schools.

Philosophers see multicultural education as a method of response to minorities within a society who advocate for their own group’s rights or who advocate for special considerations for members of that group, as a means for developing a child’s sense of autonomy, and as a function of the civic good. Educational theorists seek to restructure schools and curriculum to enact “social justice and real equality”.

: 433  By restructuring schools in this way, educational theorists hope that society will thus be restructured as students who received a multicultural education become contributing members of the political landscape. The third and final group, educational practitioners, holds the view that multicultural education increases the self-esteem of students from minority cultures and prepares them to become successful in the global marketplace.
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What is the main goal of multicultural education?

How can multicultural education accomplish these goals? – Multicultural education focuses the most upon the knowledge inequality that currently exists. This lack of access to education can be attributed to the absence of social justice and equity in our society.

  1. The goal of multicultural education is to advocate for better opportunities for learning, especially for those who are marginalised based on the colour of their skin, or where they come from.
  2. The goal of multicultural education is to lead debate and discussion on topics such as educational, economic and social equity.

It can shape public discourse through advocacy, position papers, policy statements, press releases, and other strategies. It separates itself from conventional wisdom to look beyond for fresh vein of thoughts and ideas (The National Association for Multicultural Education, 2020).
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What is multiculturalism short answer?

Multiculturalism, the view that cultures, races, and ethnicities, particularly those of minority groups, deserve special acknowledgment of their differences within a dominant political culture.
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