What Is Intellectual Disability Class 12 Physical Education?

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What Is Intellectual Disability Class 12 Physical Education
Physical Education and Sports for Differently-Abled Class 12 Notes Physical Education – Concept of Disability: Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical etc. It affects the everyday activities of the individual to a considerable amount.

  • It may be present in an individual from birth or occur during one’s lifetime.
  • Disability has different meanings in different societies of the world.
  • Disability is an injury that restricts the functions or movements of an individual.
  • It is the consequence of an impairment caused to an individual.
  • Disability is a medical condition which does not permit an individual to perform any activity or movement in a normal way.

Concept of Disorder: Disorder is usually used for mental disabilities. Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of an individual. Disorder creates hindrance in an individual’s performance and reduces his efficiency. In the beginning disorder seems to be ordinary but they usually grow or spread in a harmful manner in an individual.

  • Most probably, a disorder can not be detected on time, as a result of which, a simple disorder is changed into a disability.
  • A disorder disrupts the normal functioning of an individual.
  • Types of disability Cognitive Disability: It is a neurological disorder that creates hindrances or obstruction for an individual to store, process and produce information.

This ability can affect an individual’s ability or capability to read, compute, speak and write. The individual’s, who have this type of disability, usually have following symptoms: i) Memory disorder: An individual who has auditory problems or difficulty in remembering something that he heard, said or saw before sometime.

  1. Ii) Hyperactivity: An individual with cognitive disability may not have attention for a long period.
  2. He finds it difficult to stay at one place.
  3. Iii) Dyslexia: An individual with cognitive disability may exhibit dyslexia.
  4. It means he may have difficulty in writing, reading, speaking, etc.
  5. Intellectual disability: It is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills.

Indeed, this disability is related to the individual’s thought process, communication, money, learning, problem solving and judgment. Physical disability: it is a limitation on individual’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other impairments such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and steep disorders, which limit other facets of daily living are also included in physical disabilities.
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What do you mean by intellectual disability?

What is intellectual disability? Intellectual disability is a term used when there are limits to a person’s ability to learn at an expected level and function in daily life.
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What do you mean by odd class 12 physical education?

Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs – 4.1 Concept of Disability and Disorder Disability and disorder are two separate terms that stand for different types of physical and mental conditions.

Concept of Disability The term disability means any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in physical or mental capacity. The reduction can be related to any kind of physical loss, mental illness, intellectual impairment or reduction in the use of sense organs. This may be present from birth or occur during a person’s lifetime.

This affects a person’s participation in different areas of life and reduces the full use of body structures and functions. Definition – “A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group,” Concept of Disorder Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of a person, hinders a person’s performance and diminishes his/her efficiency.

  • Disorder grows inside a person, they are small in the beginning but may become serious and grow into a disability.
  • There are many kinds of disorders like mental disorder, neurological disorder, hyper activity disorder, eating disorder, addiction disorder, attention disorder etc.
  • Definition – “Disorder can be defined as a blip in the usual functioning of a person.” 4.2 Types of Disability, Its Causes and Nature Disability is conceptualised as being a multidimensional experience as it may affect the organs and body parts which hampers a person’s life in many ways.

Types of Disability There are three types of disabilities which are as follows Cognitive Disability The nature of this disability is mental since cognitive domain is related to using mental abilities and achieving results from it. It is related to impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour.

Intellectual functioning means person’s ability to plan, comprehend and reason while adaptive behaviour refers to applying social and practical skills in everyday life. Children suffering from dyslexia, learning difficulties, speech disorders, problem in solving math calculations, short span of attention and short of memory are said to have cognitive disability.

Causes of cognitive disability are as follows

  • Cognitive impairment may be present at birth and may be genetic or chromosomal or result from complications of pregnancy.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome.
  • Genetic abnormalities such as phenylketonuria, Hunter syndrome etc.
  • Prenatal drug and infections and exposure to alcohol.
  • Lack of oxygen during labour pain or birth.

Intellectual Disability The nature of this disability is also mental since the intellectual domain is related to using the capacity of the mind. It is a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour.

  1. Genetic Conditions These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
  2. Problems during Pregnancy This can interfere with fetal brain development.
  3. Alcohol or Drug Use may also cause intellectual disability.
  4. Problems during Childbirth Like if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
  5. Illness or Injury Infection like meningitis, whooping cough or measles can lead to intellectual disability. Extreme malnutrition, infections in the brain, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.

Physical Disability The nature of this disability is physical since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organs. This refers to the limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. This includes upper or lower limb loss, poor manual dexterity, visual impairment, hearing loss or disability in coordination with different organs of the body.

  • Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
  • Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
  • Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
  • Musculoskeletal disorders also cause disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.
  • Genetic causes like gene inheritance can cause this disability.

4.3 Types of Disorder, Its Causes and Nature A disorder is referred to as a disturbance in physical or mental health or functions that causes dysfunction. Some types of disorder are discussed below ADHD The nature of this disorder is related to, behavioural changes or disorders.

  1. About 10% of school going kids suffer from ADHD, Boys are more suspectible to this disorder than girls.
  2. The common symptoms of this disorder are hyperactivity, trouble focusing on a task, very short span of attention and missing details.
  3. Children with ADHD may understand what’s expected of them but have trouble following the instructions required to complete the task.

‘ Young children mostly act in this way when they are excited or anxious but the difference with ADHD is that these symptoms are present over a longer period of time and take place in different settings. The ADHD disorder affects a child’s academic performance as well as social behaviour.

  1. Genes and Heredity Genetic inheritance and abnormalities in genes may cause this disorder.
  2. Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD-like symptoms.
  3. Environmental Causes Prenatal exposure to smoke, exposure to high levels of lead as a toddler and preschooler is possible contributor.

SPD This is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. The SPD is related to mental nature. There the sensory inputs are not organised by the brain in an appropriate manner. The common symptoms are showing heightened reactivity to sound, touch or movement.

  1. Under-reactive in certain situations example not noticing when name is called, lethargic, disinterested, poor motor skills, lack of attention, impulsive behaviours etc.
  2. The SPD interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.
  3. They also have delayed communication and social skills.
  4. SPD also impacts on a person’s ability to interact with different environments.

Causes of SPD are as follows

  • Genetic or hereditary factors such as having a family history of autism, SPD.
  • Have been understimulated during critical periods of neurological development.
  • Have been exposed to variety of environmental toxins.
  • Have food allergies.
  • Having developmental delays and other, neurological disorders.

ASD The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness which then changes the behaviour. It is a complex,developmental disorder that affects normal brain development. The symptoms of ASD are difficulty in communication and interaction with people.

  1. They also have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, smelling everything, flipping objects etc.
  2. Children with ASD also have sensory sensitivities such as not using eye contact, confused by language, repeating a word etc.
  3. Here the brain does not function in the typical’way due to which they face developmental challenges.

Children and adults with ASD do not acquire good social skills and face many behavioural problems. They often stare at a particular person or object, like a few foods, get over excited by certain sounds etc. Causes of ASD are as follows

  1. ASD can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
  2. It can also cause through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.
  3. Environmental factors related to exposure to drugs, toxins like lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons and dietary factors may cause ASD.

ODD The nature of this disorder is related to social behaviours. This behaviour disorder usually takes place in early teens. Apart from teens, ODD also affects young children especially boys. In children it begins from the age of 8 years. About 2-16% of children are affected by ODD.

The main symptoms of ODD are similar patterns of anger, irritable mood, saying hateful things, flaring up at trivial matters, seeking revenge etc. Here children in their early teens try to defy authority every now and then, they express their defiance by arguing, disobeying, talking back to parents, teachers and other adults.

Though this type of behaviour is normally seen among all the teenagers but the difference in ODD is that the behaviour lasts more than 6 months and is excessive in comparison to other children of the same age. This kind of behaviour often disrupts the child’s normal daily activities and hampers academic performance.

  1. Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.
  2. Environment Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also cause ODD.

OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder] The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness. This usually takes place in people of middle ages. Males and females both are equally affected by OCD. About 15-20% of the people experience OCD in mild forms.

The symptoms of this disorder are people doing repetative behaviours, performing routine tasks over an over again or having certain thoughts repeatedly. Some examples of this type of disorder are frequent or excessive hand washing, counting to things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked again and again.

These activities occur to such a degree that it affects a person’s life negatively. The OCD can become serious and may cause other problems related to mental illness. Causes of OCD are as follows

  1. Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
  2. Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.
  3. Cognitive Causes This happens when people misinterpret their thoughts like the feeling of dirty hands even when they are cleaned many times.
  4. Environmental Causes This means stressful situation present in the environment such as within the family or society that triggers OCD in people.

4.4 Disability Etiquettes Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with the people facing physical or mental disabilities. It was started as a clinical play on existing rule sheets, written for non-disabled audiences that were seen as demeaning by civil rights activists in 1970s.

  • Always respect the dignity of a disabled person, individuality and desire for independence.
  • Treat a person with disability in the same manner and with the same respect and courtesy as with others.
  • Speak directly to the person rather than through the friend, attendant or sign-language interpreter who may also be present.
  • Never speak about the person as if they are invisible, can’t understand what is being said.,
  • Don’t put people with a disability on a pedestal or talk to them in demeaning terms.

Disability Etiquette Guidelines ill Persons with Speech Difficulties

  1. Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  2. Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
  3. Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
  4. If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

Person with Hearing Loss

  • Get the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder. Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
  • Many persons with hearing loss read lips. Place yourself facing the light source and keep hands, cigarettes and food away from your mouth when talking in order to provide a clear view of your face.
  • When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
  • Look directly at the person and speak expressively.
  • Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.

Persons with Vision Loss

  • When enter the room, indicate who is there. Let the person know when leaving the room.
  • When talking to a person with a visual impairment, begin to identifying yourself by name and that you are speaking to them.
  • When offering your assistance, do not grab the person’s cane or arm.
  • If you are walking with a person who is blind, offer your arm for him/her to hold.
  • Walk at the norma! pace. It is helpful to speak casually and naturally about the environment, objects and buildings you are passing as you walk.
  • Not all visually impaired people read Braille. Ask the person what alternative format they prefer.

(iv) Persons with Cognitive / Language Impairments

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.
  • Give extra time for the person to process what: you are saying and to respond. Look for signs of stress and/Or confusion:
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The rules of etiquettes and good manners to deal with people with disabilities are generally the same as the rules for good etiquettes in society. These guidelines address.specific issues which frequently arise for people with disabilities; Since everyone is different, these guidelines only hold true for most individuals most of the time.4.5 Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Physical Activity According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, physical activity generally refers to movement that enhances health.

It means the movement of the body that uses energy. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous intensity. Exercise is a type of physical activity that’s planned and structured. Lifting weights, taking an aerobics class and playing on a sports team are examples of exercise.

Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Regular physical activity is good for everyone but it’s particularly important for children with special needs. These are most important for their growth and development. There are numbers of advantages of physical activities.

  • It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetative behaviours among disabled children.
  • Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers.
  • This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
  • It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
  • It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
  • It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight and regular exercises help in regulating weight.
  • Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.
  • This also improves motor skills, brings better balance and body awareness which is lacking in these children.
  • Physical exercise finds an outlet to channelise the physical energy which helps these children to cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
  • Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
  • Physical activity decreases anxiety, reduces depression, and improves mood and outlook in children. In addition, their
  • quality of sleep is also improved.

4.6 Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible for Children with Special Need The various strategies or ways by which physical activities can be made accessible for children with special needs are as follows

  1. Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
  2. Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipments that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
  3. Adaptive Physical Education Depending on student’s disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
  4. Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children, so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
  5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
  6. Focus on Creative Games Instead of competitive games and physical activities, the strategy is to develop creative games. This helps in team building and cooperation and prevents unnecessary competition and boosts the confidence of these children.
  7. Accomodations and Modification Since the individual needs of the children with special needs ard different^ it is essential for, the teachers to modify the teaching strategies in order to accommodate the children with disabilities. Therefore constant modification and accommodation is required.
  8. Professional Courses Developing more professional courses and teacher certification programs for teaching physical education to children with special needs is essential to popularise the adaptive physical education programme.

We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.
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What is disability and disorder?

Disability: – Any disadvantage due to which an individual is not able to perform the activities of normal human life is known as disability. Disorder: Any disruption due to which an individual is not able to perform his daily human activities is known as disorder.
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Why is an intellectual disability?

What Is an Intellectual Disability? – Intellectual disability (or ID) is a term used when a person has certain limitations in cognitive functioning and skills, including communication, social and self-care skills. These limitations can cause a child to develop and learn more slowly or differently than a typically developing child.

IQ is below 70-75There are significant limitations in two or more adaptive areas (skills that are needed to live, work, and play in the community, such as communication or self-care)The condition manifests itself before the age of 18

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What is intellectual disability and its characteristics?

An intellectual disability is defined as an IQ below 70 and deficits in adaptive behaviour or daily living skills (eating, dressing, communication, participate in group activity). People with intellectual disability learn slowly and have difficulty with abstract concepts.
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What is the difference between disability and disorder Class 12 physical education?

Answer: Disability, whether it is physical or mental, is of permanent nature, but disorder can be temporary or permanent.
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What is disability etiquette class 12?

Physical Education and Sports for CWSN Class 12 Phys Ed Extra Questions – CH- 04 Phy Edu and Sports for CWSN

  1. How disability is different from a disorder?
  2. Give some examples of cognitive disability.
  3. What is cognitive disability?
  4. What do you understand by disability etiquettes?
  5. What do you understand by Physical disability?
  6. Elaborate the causes of OCD.
  7. What do you mean by ‘round shoulders’? Suggest any four physical activities for correcting round shoulders.
  8. Discuss about cognitive disability.
  9. What do you mean by disability etiquettes? Mention any five general disability etiquettes.
  10. Mention the causes, precautions and corrective measures for knock knees.

CH- 04 Phy Edu and Sports for CWSN Answer

  1. Disability means any restriction or lack of ability to perform any activity in a manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Disorder means lack of order or irregular arrangement, confusion or breach of civic order or peace.
  2. Examples of Cognitive Disability
    • Memory Disorder
    • Hyperactivity
    • Dyslexia
  3. It is a neurological disorder that creates hindrances or obstruction for an individual to store, process and produce information. This ability can affect an individual’s ability or capability to read, compute, speak and write.
  4. Basic Disability Etiquette involves treating people with Disabilities with respect. For example, speak to the person directly, not to the person accompanying them. Do not use terms such as “the Disabled” or “the Handicapped.” Avoid referring to people by their Disability.
  5. Physical disability is a long-term loss or impairment of a body part that limits the body’s physical function. A person with a physical disability cannot perform many actions independently.
  6. Causes of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The exact cause of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is still unknown. Research studies suggest that there may be a problem with the way one part of the brain sends information to another part. Serotonin is the chemical in the brain that sends messages from one part to another. Insufficiency of serotonin may help in causing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
  7. Round Shoulders: If ears and shoulders are not in line then an individual is likely to have round shoulders.The body leans forwards, which creates round shoulders and shoulders look like round in shape.Sometime it is because of weakness in muscle or shortening of pectoral (Chest) muscles. Four Physical activities for correcting Round Shoulders are:
    1. Rotate your shoulders in backward directions.
    2. Do push ups regularly to strengthen your shoulder muscles.
    3. Regular physical activities, such as yoga, aerobics, swimming, cycle are recommended to strengthen whole body.
    4. Walk in Vishram position. This will make you conscious every time you sit, stand or walk.
  8. Cognitive Disability: It is a neurological disorder that creates hindrances or obstruction for an individual to store, process and produce information. This ability can affect an individual’s ability or capability to read, compute, speak and write.The individual’s, who have this type of disability, usually have following symptoms:
    1. Memory disorder: An individual who has auditory problems or difficulty in remembering something that he heard, said or saw before sometime.
    2. Hyperactivity: An individual with cognitive disability may not have attention for a long period. He finds it difficult to stay at one place.
    3. Dyslexia: An individual with cognitive disability may exhibit dyslexia. It means he may have difficulty in writing, reading, speaking, etc.
  9. Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines dealing with specifically with how to approach persons with disabilities.The general disability etiquettes are stated below:
    1. Always put the person first i.e. say ‘person with disability’ rather than ‘disabled person’.
    2. In case of introduction to a person with a disability, it is appropriate to shake hands.
    3. When you meet a person with visual impairment, always identify yourself and others who may be with you.
    4. When talking with a person on a wheel chair or a person who use crutches, keep yourself at eyelevel in front of the person to facilitate the talk.
    5. To get attention of a person who is deaf or having hearing impairment, tap the person on the shoulder or wave your hands.
    6. Always introduce yourself to persons who are blind using your name.
    7. Never patronize person who use wheel chairs by patting them on the head or shoulder.
  10. Causes of Knock Knees
    1. Heredity: Defects like kyphosis and other genetic defects may cause poor posture.
    2. Lack of Exercise: Exercise tones up spinal nerves, improves coordination and reduces mental strain, improves physical ability and efficiently. Lack of exercise leads to postural deformity.
    3. Obesity: Overweight puts extra stress or strain on the muscular as well as skeletal structure of the body which may results in postural deviations.
    4. Overload: It may develop round shoulders and problem in spine by continuously lifting heavy load on shoulders.
    5. Weakness of muscles and ligaments.
    6. Long standing.
    7. Because of local foot wear.

    Precautions

    1. Be careful while you walk and avoid prolonged standing.
    2. Always wear branded shoes/slippers.

    Remedial Exercise

    1. Massage under expert’s guidance.
    2. Reduce your weight by regular exercise or Yoga.
    3. Walking on outer inclined surface and applying pressure on the outer edges of the feet, can help in preventing knock knee.
    4. Sit with legs crossed and now press your knees in downward direction.
    5. Do Padmasana

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What is ODD and PDA?

A Brief History of Pathological Demand Avoidance Introducing Pathological Demand Avoidance There is an emerging awareness of a distinct profile of currently termed Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA). Children with PDA do not respond to typical behavioural interventions and strategies, in fact any attempts to correct behaviours are usually met with escalation or even outright aggression.

These are the kids who inhabit the ‘too hard basket’ in and many families resort to homeschooling as the education system is unable to manage the unique features and challenges of the PDA child. There is however a growing understanding of PDA across educational sectors, as well as within psychology, paediatrics and psychiatry, and thankfully slowly but surely families are starting to have a better chance of finding supportive professionals.

Despite this the concept of PDA isn’t new. In 1980, child psychologist Elizabeth Newson came to note a cluster of children attending with an atypical autism presentation at the Child Development Clinic within Nottingham University. Twenty-three years later she published an article in the Archives of Disease in Childhood journal arguing for the presentation of PDA to be recognised as a unique profile within the autism spectrum.

  1. She was supported in this by the many parents who continued to bring their ‘autistic but not quite autistic’ children to her.
  2. Whilst it was clear these children met many markers for autism such as communication difficulties, social challenges and emotional and sensory dysregulation, they were unusual in that there was often capacity for superficial social interaction, imaginative or fantasy play and a persistent lack of positive responses to the usual early childhood,

These children would most likely meet criteria for what was once known as Pervasive Developmental Delay Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) considered part of the autism spectrum. Professor Newson died in 2014, but her work has been continued by former students and colleagues at the Elizabeth Newson Centre, who advocate for ongoing research in the area of Pathological Demand Avoidance.

‍ Where are we now? Looking to present day 2021, the DSM-5 now recognises autism as a spectrum, although neither the DSM-5 nor the ICD-2 make reference to PDA. However, the Autism CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism) released a national guideline in 2018 acknowledging the PDA profile as part of the autism spectrum.

This guideline document has been endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) so represents optimal clinical care in Australia. Autism CRC is now in consultation with Australian state and federal governments about how to implement the guideline into clinical practice.

  • Furthermore, as paediatricians are becoming increasingly aware of this profile, they are connecting families with PDA aware child psychiatrists, occupational therapist, psychologists, behavioural therapists and support workers.
  • Why does PDA remain controversial?

Autistic people may routinely avoid demands or situations that trigger anxiety or sensory overload, disrupt routines, involve transitioning from one activity to another, and activities/events that they don’t see the point of or have any interest in. Autistic avoidance is a well recognised and understood phenomenon.

  • However, those with PDA avoid the everyday demands of life in order to maintain a sense of control, even activities they may enjoy are routinely scheduled or are in their best interests.
  • This can present as oppositionality or deliberate defiance, leading many to consider the behaviours a result of improperly applied behavioural techniques or inconsistent parenting.

Many of the management techniques parents find useful for PDA such as lowering of demands are easily misinterpreted as parents lacking boundaries around inappropriate ‘choices’. In addition to avoidance, common behaviours seen among children with PDA may be:- verbal and physical aggression when feeling loss of control – self-injurious behaviour- property destruction- school refusal- refusal to participate in self-care such a bathing or brushing teeth- inability to attend social events – inability to allow parents to have friends visit the home- controlling what noises are allowed in a home, such as no music, or only certain music- are often combative with siblings- food, what to eat, when to eat, who to eat with- conflict with siblingsIt is a complex and challenging presentation, often leaving families and professionals alike floundering to find answers.

Why is PDA not ODD? Many people with PDA are mistakenly diagnosed with Oppositional Defiance Disorder. This is not surprising as there are many similarities in the external presentations. Refusal to engage in demands/rules/requests by authority figures for example. However, the aetiology in each is quite distinct.

The ODD child is making a conscious decision to assert their will and challenge authority. These children have an innate understanding of hierarchy and expectations. Importantly, those with PDA, remembering it is an autism spectrum condition, do not understand inherent power dynamics.

  • The idea an adult has more authority or control than a child is not appreciated by those with PDA.
  • In combination with this, the overriding motivation for demand avoidance in PDA is anxiety-based need for autonomy from control of others rather than the defiance of expectations its own sake as in the case of ODD.
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Often the difference between the two presentations is won’t/can’t. ODD is a wilful choice to disobey, PDA is a crippling inability to comply. An important distinction is children with ODD do respond to consistent behavioural interventions and positive support plans.

PDA children do not. Why does PDA matter? Many professionals are likely to encounter PDA in child mental health and justice systems, or in family crisis services. Raising a child with PDA is incredibly challenging for the entire family unit. Child protection services may become involved either via external reports of concern from police or teachers, or families will themselves reach out for support, often at breaking point.

Unfortunately, due to lack of awareness and understanding, supports offered rarely meet the unique needs of these families. The most likely outcome for parents is to be offered parenting classes such as the Triple P Parenting program, and if lucky, some form of respite.

  1. Consider then the frustration of parents being asked to follow typical parenting strategies to no avail, and yet not being believed by the professionals they turn to for help, or worse still being blamed for their child’s behaviours.
  2. All research points to early identification and tailored support being the best predictor of positive long-term outcomes.

Recognising the PDA profile increases the potential to access support that will be most helpful for each individual and their family. However, at present, families can find professionals in the best-case scenario to be of no help, and in the worst case, a threat to the well-being of the family unit.

In the words of one parent I spoke with “getting social workers involved was the biggest mistake of my life”. The lack of current awareness of PDA and its manifestations means families struggle to advocate successfully for their child. Professionals in a variety of fields are well placed to be effective sources of assistance in terms of both supporting struggling families and to educate other colleagues and practitioners about the challenges PDA presents and the best ways the ameliorate them.This is crucial, as many suggested remedies offered to parents with PDA children are currently counterproductive.

Leaving households feeling increasingly isolated with nowhere to turn for help. School One of the most consistent difficulties families raising PDA children encounter is the intersection between their child’s needs and the expectations of the education system.

The social and academic demands are almost always overwhelming for children with PDA, often leading to one of two outcomes. Some PDAers are brilliant at masking their challenges at school and explode once they arrive home leaving families to manage the fallout, but the school seeing nothing of concern so not inclined to provide added supports.

Alternatively, the non masking children find the demands intolerable and consequently are unable to manage their distress leading to disruptive and often destructive behaviours. The school’s answer to this is almost always to request children are collected by parents, and subsequently suspended.

  • Neither of these approaches are sustainable in the long term, with many families turning to homeschooling/unschooling out of desperation.
  • The suggestions for managing PDA students such as reducing demands, not using an authoritative tone, allowing for breaks from class as requested, are perceived as counter intuitive and met with resistance and even derision in many schools with staff often believing firmer expectations, boundaries and consequences will rectify the situation only to have them exacerbate them.

Adults There’s a lack of current research about PDA generally and specifically regarding, No doubt there will be many people walking around undiagnosed. Anecdotally it would appear many parents of children with PDA are also. There are several adult PDAers who are active on social media raising awareness and offering insights.

Kirsty Forbes is a mother of children with PDA and is PDA herself, she lives in Australia and can be found on Facebook. Harry Thomson is another, he’s also written a book called The PDA Paradox, he’s based in the UK. Other supports can be found on Facebook @PDA Australia and Positively PDA. As time marches on the PDA profile is becoming increasingly accepted as a distinct subtype of autism, and very gradually the supports are finally following.

But there is a very long way to go for PDA people and the people who love them.

  1. Written by Sharon Morris, autism advocate and parent.
  2. Instagram

: A Brief History of Pathological Demand Avoidance
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What are the 4 types of disability?

Home About us About disability

There are many different types of disabilities such as intellectual, physical, sensory, and mental illness. While we wanted to share some information about different disabilities with you, remember, disability is not black and white. Two people with the same type of disability may not have the same experiences.
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What is disability give example?

Disability is the experience of any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or have equitable access within a given society. Disabilities may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or a combination of multiple factors.
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Who defines disability?

What is disability? – A disability is any condition of the body or mind (impairment) that makes it more difficult for the person with the condition to do certain activities (activity limitation) and interact with the world around them (participation restrictions). There are many types of disabilities, such as those that affect a person’s:

  • Vision
  • Movement
  • Thinking
  • Remembering
  • Learning
  • Communicating
  • Hearing
  • Mental health
  • Social relationships

Although “people with disabilities” sometimes refers to a single population, this is actually a diverse group of people with a wide range of needs. Two people with the same type of disability can be affected in very different ways. Some disabilities may be hidden or not easy to see. According to the World Health Organization, disability has three dimensions: 1

  1. Impairment in a person’s body structure or function, or mental functioning; examples of impairments include loss of a limb, loss of vision or memory loss.
  2. Activity limitation, such as difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, or problem solving.
  3. Participation restrictions in normal daily activities, such as working, engaging in social and recreational activities, and obtaining health care and preventive services.

Disability can be:

  • Related to conditions that are present at birth and may affect functions later in life, including cognition (memory, learning, and understanding), mobility (moving around in the environment), vision, hearing, behavior, and other areas. These conditions may be
    • Disorders in single genes (for example, Duchenne muscular dystrophy );
    • Disorders of chromosomes (for example, Down syndrome ); and
    • The result of the mother’s exposure during pregnancy to infections (for example, rubella) or substances, such as alcohol or cigarettes.
  • Associated with developmental conditions that become apparent during childhood (for example, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD)
  • Related to an injury (for example, traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury external icon ).
  • Associated with a longstanding condition (for example, diabetes ), which can cause a disability such as vision loss, nerve damage, or limb loss.
  • Progressive (for example, muscular dystrophy ), static (for example, limb loss), or intermittent (for example, some forms of multiple sclerosis external icon ).

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What is intellectual disability class 11 physical education?

In intellectual disability, an individual is not able to perform the normal human life mental activities and adaptive behaviour skills due to any mental disadvantage.
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What are the 4 intellectual disabilities?

Experts divide the types of cognitive impairment into four categories: mild intellectual disability, moderate intellectual disability, severe intellectual disability, and profound intellectual disability. The degree of impairment from an intellectual disability varies widely.

DSM-V places less emphasis on the degree of impairment (i.e. IQ scores) and more on the amount and type of intervention needed. While IQ scores are still relevant and important in assessing the level of intellectual disability, the new DSM-V adds another layer of diagnostic criteria ( Intellectual Disability: Causes and Characteristics ).

Mental health professionals must consider the person’s ability or impairment across three skill areas: conceptual, social, and practical life skill. The category details are as follows:
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What are the different levels of intellectual disability class 12 psychology?

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED – 1. How do psychologists characterize and define intelligence? Ans. Psychological motion of intelligence is quite different from the common sensed motion of intelligence. Generally people saw intelligence as mental alertness, ready art, quickness in learning and ability to understand relationships.

  1. Oxford dictionary explained intelligence as the power of perceiving, learning understanding and knowing.
  2. Accordingly Alfred Binet also used these attributes and defined intelligence as ability to judge well, understand well and reason well.Later Wechsler gave a comprehensive definition in terms of its functionality, i.e., its value for adaptation to environment.

He defined intelligence as “the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with his/her environment.” Present day psychologists such as Gardner and Sternberg emphasized that “Intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but actively modifies or shapes it.” Sternberg views intelligence as ” the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.” 2.What extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.

CBSE 2014) Ans. (i) Whether intelligence is evolved or it is developed due to the environment, is a question of debate. (ii)Lot of studies have been done to determine the role of nature and nurture. (iii)Here we will discuss the controversy with the help of various twin studies, adoption studies and environmental studies.

On the basis of twin studies co-relation results are as follows: (i)Identical twins reared together correlate 0.90 (ii)Identical twins reported early in childhood and reared in different environments correlate 0.72 (iii)Fraternal twins reared together correlate 0.60 (iv)Siblings reared together correlate 0.50 (v) Siblings reared apart correlate 0.25 •Adoption Studies before the Age of 6-7 Years These studies of adopted children show that children’s intelligence is more similar to their biological parents.

These studies provide evidence that intelligence is determined because of nature. •Adoption Studies after the Age of 6-7 Years According to these studies as children grew older tends to more closer to that of their adoptive parents. Environmental Studies Evidence for the influence of environment (Nurture) on the basis of Twin studies.

(i) The intelligence score of twins reared apart as they grew older, tends to more closer to that of their adoptive parents. (ii)On the basis of differences in environment, children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families with higher, socio-economic status exhibit an increase in their intelligence scores.

  1. Iii)Environmental deprivation lowers intelligence.
  2. Factors such as nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increase growth rate of intelligence.
  3. Iv)There is general consensus among psychologists that intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (Nature) and environment (Nurture).

(v)Heredity provides the potentials and sets a range of growth whereas environment facilitates the development of intelligence.3. Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner. (CBSE 2008) Ans. Gardner’s theory based on information processing approaches functions on three basic principles: (i)Intelligence is not a single entity, there exist multiple intelligences.

(ii)The intelligences are independent from each other. (iii)Different types of intelligences work together to provide a solution of problem. Gardner has so far proposed eight intelligences, however all individuals do not possess them in equal proportion. The particular situation or the context decides the prominence of one type of intelligence over the others.

Following are the eight types of intelligence: 1.Linguistic: This is related to reading, writing, listening, talking, understanding etc. Poets exhibit this ability better than others.2.Logical-Mathematical: This type of intelligence deals with abstract reasoning and manipulation of symbols involved in numerical problems.

It is exhibited in scientific work.3.Spatial: This type of intelligence is involved in perceiving third dimension formation of images. It is used while navigating in space, forming, transforming and using mental images. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, pilots, care drivers, sculptors and painters have highly developed spatial intelligence.4.Musical: Persons with musical intelligence show sensitivity to pitch and tone required for singing, playing and instrument, composing and appreciating music etc.5.Bodily Kinesthetic: It requires the skills and dexterity for fine coordinated motor movements, such as those required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft making etc.6.Inter-personal: It requires understanding of motives, feelings and behaviours of other people.sales people, politicians, teachers, clinicians and religious readers have high degree of inter-personal intelligence.7.

Intra-personal: It is related to understanding one’s self and developing a sense of identity, e.g., philosophers and spiritual leaders.8.Naturalistic: It is related to recognizing the flora and fauna, i.e., natural world and making a distinction in the natural world.

  • It is more possessed by hunters, farmers, tourists, students of biological sciences etc.4.
  • How does the Triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence? (CBSE 2012-13) Ans.1. Robert J.
  • Sternberg proposes a theory of intelligence based on information processing approach in 1985 known as the Triarchic theory of intelligence.2.

According to Sternberg, intelligence is an ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.3. This theory attempts to understand the cognitive processes involved in problem solving.4. According to him there are three types of intelligences: (i)Componential intelligence (Analytical): This dimension specifies the cognitive processes that underlie an intelligent behaviour.

  • This dimension serves three different functions: (a)Knowledge acquisition components: These are the processes used in learning, encoding, combining and comparing information.
  • B)Metacomponents: ‘Meta’ means higher.
  • These are executive processes.
  • They control monitor and evaluate cognitive processing.
  • C)Performance components: These components execute strategies prepared by metacomponents to perform a task.For example, While studying students plan the lesson chapterwise, they make schedules, categories the learning material and do integrate the information to comprehend well.

(ii)Experiential intelligence (Creative): This dimension specifies how experiences effect intelligence and how intelligence effects a person’s experiences. ()Experiential intelligence refers to an individual’s ability to make use of one’s past experiences to deal with novel situations creatively and effectively.

(b)This intelligence is mostly high among scientists and creative people. (c) For example if a person is trapped in a room, he finds out a way of coming out of the room using rope or ladder etc. in a creative way. He had some knowledge of getting out from this situation by watching out a movie few years back.

(iii)Contextual intelligence (Practical): This dimension specifies the ability to deal with environmental demands on daily basis. (a)It is individual’s ability to make use of his/her potential to deal with day-to-day life. (b)It may be called street smartness or ‘business sense’.

  • C)People high in this ability are successful in life.
  • It deals with the ways people handle effectively their environmental demands and adapt to different contexts with available resources.5.
  • Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three ‘neurological systems’.
  • Explain with reference to PASS model.
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Ans. According to PASS model, theory based on information processing approach, intellectual activity involves the interdependent functioning of the three neurological systems called the functional units of the brain. These units are responsible for: •the arousal and attention.

  • The simultaneous and successive processing.
  • The planning.
  • Arousal and Attention (i)State of arousal helps in attending to the stimuli.
  • Ii)Arousal and attention enable a person to process information.
  • Iii)Optimal level of arousal focuses our attention on relevant aspects of a problem.
  • Iv)Too much or too little arousal interferes with attention and performance.

Example: Arousal helps the individual to focus ones attention on reading, learning and revising the contents of the material to be learnt. Simultaneous and Successive Processing: Simultaneous Processing refers to perceiving relations amongst various concepts and integrate them into meaningful patterns for comprehension! For e.g., in Raven’s standard progressive matrices (RSPM Test) choosing appropriate pattern by comprehending relationship.

  • Successive Processing refers to recalling information serially so that one recall leads to another recall.
  • For example, learning of digits and letters and multiplication tables.
  • Planning: 1.After the information is attended to and processed, planning is activated.2.Planning involves reaching to the target and evaluating their effectiveness.

Planning allows us to think of possible courses of action and implementing them.3.If a plan does not work, it is modified to suit the requirements of the task or the situation.4.For example, to take a test scheduled by your teacher, you’d have to set goals, plan a time schedule of studies, get clarifications in case of problems or think of other ways to meet your goals.6.

  1. Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence? Ans.
  2. Yes, culture, which is a set of beliefs, customs, attitudes and achievements in art of literature, affects the process of intellectual development.
  3. According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of culture.
  4. Vyotsky believes that while elementary7 mental operations are common, higher mental activities like problem-solving and thinking are culturally produced.

•Technological Intelligence (i)Promotes an individualistic pattern of action. (ii)Individuals in technologically educated western societies possess this kind of intelligence. (iii)They are well versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, speed, moves abstraction, generalisation, creativity, Minimum moves etc.

  • Integral Intelligence (i)Intelligence in the Indian tradition is integral intelligence.
  • Ii)It views intelligence from a holistic perspective.
  • Iii)It gives equal attention to cognitive and non-cognitive processes, as well as their integration.
  • Iv)‘Buddhi’ is the knowledge of one’s own self based on conscience, will and desire.

(v)It has effective, motivational as well as cognitive components. It includes: (i)Cognitive competence (discrimination, problem-solving). (ii)Social competence (respect for elders, concern for others, respecting opinions of others). (iii)Emotional competence (self regulation, self monitoring). •IQ is relatively stable. •It is a good predictor of potential. •IQ scores are distributed in a population in such a way that most people tend to fall in the middle range of the distribution. •This can be shown in the form of following table. What Is Intellectual Disability Class 12 Physical Education 8.Discuss various types of intelligence tests. Or How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence? (CBSE 2008, 2014) Ans. Types of Intelligence Tests: Individual or group tests based on contact:, Individual Test: (i)Administered to one individual at a time.

Ii)Requires the administrator to establish a rapport with the subject and be sensitive to his/her feelings, mood and expressions during the testing sessions which provides understanding of other aspects of subjects personality. (iii)Allows people to answer orally or in written form or manipulate the objects as per the tester’s instructions.

• Example: Stanford Binet intelligence scale, WAIS, WISSC, Alexander Pass along test. Group Test: (i)Administered to several individuals at a time simultaneously. (ii)Do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with the subjects’ feelings. (iii)Seek answers in a Multiple-choice format.

(iv)It is relatively economical and less time consuming. (v)Example: Group Test of Intelligence by Prayag Mehta, Group Test on Intelligence by S. Jalota. Verbal, Non-verbal and Performance Tests based on Mode of Administration: Verbal Tests: (i)Requires subject to give verbal responses either orally or in written form.

(ii)Can be administered to literates only., (iii)Example: CIE, Verbal Group Test, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Non-verbal Test: • Has pictures or illustrations as test items. •Example: Ravens progressive matrices. In this test the subject examines an incomplete pattern and chooses a figure from the alternatives that will complete the pattern.

Reduces culture biases. •Example: SRPM, CIE Non-verbal group test of Intelligence. Performance Test: •Requires the subject to manipulate objects to perform the test. •Written language is not necessary for answering the items. •Example: Kohs’s Block designs test. Here the subject is asked to arrange the blocks in a specified period to produce a given design, Bhatia’s Battery performance test.

•Can be administered to persons from different cultures and reduce culture biases. •Example: Draw a Man Test by Pramila Pathak, Kohs Block designs test. Culture Biased or Culture Fair Tests based on Nature of Items used: •Psychological tests that show a bias toward the culture in which they are developed are Culture Biased Tests.

  • Tests developed-in-America and Europe represent an urban and middle class cultural ethos.
  • Middle class white subjects perform well on these tests).
  • The items do not consider favourably to Asians and Africans.
  • Culture Fair Tests: One does not discriminate against as individuals belong to different cultures.

•Non-verbal and Performance Tests reduce cultural influences. To overcome the limitation of Culture biased tests, Culture fair tests were developed, e.g. non-verbal and performance tests are called so because people of any culture could take them. For e.g.

Standard progressive Matrices and Bhatia’s Battery Performance Test.9. Discuss how interplay of Nature and Nurture influences intelligence. Or All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual ability? Explain. (CBSE 2014) Ans. All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity.

They vary in their intellectual ability. Some are exceptionally bright and some are below average. Some possess high IQ range while others have average or below average. All the scores gradually and symmetrically decline towards both the sides but never touch the X-axis.

  1. I) The frequency distribution for the IQ scores tends to approximate a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve,
  2. This type of distribution is symmetrical around the central value, called the mean.
  3. Ii) On the basis of IQ, people are classified in different groups.
  4. It is clear that only 2.2 percent people who possess above 130 IQ range are very intelligent or very superior, their IQ score is more than 130.

(iii) People falling between 90-109 IQ range are considered as average. The mean IQ score in a population is 100. People with IQ scores in the range of 90-110 have normal intelligence. (iv) Those with IQ below 70 are suspected to have ‘mental retardation’. What Is Intellectual Disability Class 12 Physical Education 10.Which of the two lQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and Why? Ans. (i) IQ is a good predictor of potential. (ii) EQ is a good predictor of success. -Researchers had proved that—EQ helps in dealing with students who are stressed and face challenges of the outside world.

  • It improves the academic performance.
  • It is very useful in preparing students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom.
  • They are less anti-social and more co-operative.11.
  • How is ‘Aptitude’ different from ‘interest1 and intelligence? Ans.
  • Aptitude: (i)Aptitude refers to combination of characteristics indicative of an individual’s potential to acquire some specific skills with training.

(ii)It is specific mental ability or teach ability of an individual to learn a particular skill. (iii)It is the potentiality to perform a particular activity. (iv)Aptitude is a determiner to learn a particular skill. Interest: (i)Interest refers to preference for a particular activity or what one enjoys doing.

  • Ii)Interest are acquired/learnt.
  • Iii)Interest is a facilitator.
  • An individual with high scientific aptitude having strong interest in mechanical activities is more likely to be successful mechanical engineer.
  • I) Intelligence is a global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with her/his environment.

(ii)Intelligence is a general mental ability. (iii)It is product of heredity and environment. (iv)It does not require training for the growth.12.How is creativity related to intelligence?(Delhi Board 2010) Or How creativity and creativity tests are related but different from each other? Ans.

Creativity and intelligence are positively correlated because high ability is component of creativity, A highly intelligent person may not be creative but all the creative persons are definitely high in intelligence. _ (i)Creativity is the ability to produce ideas, objects, or problem solutions that are novel, appropriate and useful.

(ii) Intelligence is subset of creativity. (iii) Terman found that persons with high IQ were not necessarily creative. The same time, creative ideas could come from persons who did not even one of those identified as gifted, followed up through out their adult life, had become well known for creativity in some field.

Iv)Researchers have found that both high and low level of creativity can be found in highly intelligent children and also children of average intelligence. The same person can be creative as well as intelligent but it is not necessary that intelligent once must be creative. Creative tests are different from intelligence tests: (i)Creative tests measure creative thinking ability whereas intelligence tests measure general mental ability.

(ii) Creative tests measure convergent and divergent thinking whereas intelligence test measure convergent thinking only. (iii)Creative tests measure imagination and spontaneous expression to produce new ideas, to see new relationship, to guess causes and consequences and ability to put things in a new context.
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What is the difference between cognitive and intellectual disability?

What’s the difference between cognitive and intellectual disabilities? – Although cognition and intelligence seem like synonyms, they are distinct. Cognition refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, whereas intelligence refers to one’s capacity to learn or understand concepts and information.

  1. Some cognitive disabilities may be classified under the umbrella term “intellectual disabilities”, but not all intellectual disabilities are considered to be cognitive disabilities.
  2. Cognitive disabilities can include learning disabilities, such as dyslexia and ADHD.
  3. These are not classified as intellectual disabilities like Down Syndrome and autism.

Individuals who have been diagnosed with learning disabilities have a greater capacity for independence and self-care than those with intellectual disabilities.
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What do you mean by intellectual disability class 11?

A test can be used to assess intellectual function. The major sign is a lack of ability to think and comprehend. Certain intellectual, social, and practical abilities are among the life skills that may be influenced.
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What are the 4 intellectual disabilities?

Experts divide the types of cognitive impairment into four categories: mild intellectual disability, moderate intellectual disability, severe intellectual disability, and profound intellectual disability. The degree of impairment from an intellectual disability varies widely.

DSM-V places less emphasis on the degree of impairment (i.e. IQ scores) and more on the amount and type of intervention needed. While IQ scores are still relevant and important in assessing the level of intellectual disability, the new DSM-V adds another layer of diagnostic criteria ( Intellectual Disability: Causes and Characteristics ).

Mental health professionals must consider the person’s ability or impairment across three skill areas: conceptual, social, and practical life skill. The category details are as follows:
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What are the 5 intellectual disabilities?

Intellectual disabilities can be due to health problems, genetic conditions, environmental factors, and problems during pregnancy and birth. The common types of intellectual disabilities include autism, Down syndrome, fragile x syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome.

  1. Intellectual disability is the impairment of cognitive functioning, characterized by having an IQ of less than 70, given the average IQ is 100.
  2. It is also characterized by impairment in adaptive functioning where individuals experience difficulties carrying out daily activities such as communication, socialization, and independent living.

Individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities tend to experience general learning challenges and may take a little longer to develop social and practical skills. Intellectual disabilities can be due to health problems, genetic conditions, environmental factors, and problems during pregnancy and birth.

  1. Down’s syndrome is an intellectual disability stemming from having a part of or an extra copy of chromosome 21 in the DNA. It is the most common chromosomal cause of mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in children. Down syndrome affects development in children with down syndrome reaching key developmental stages later than the rest of the same age children. Down syndrome’s common symptoms include slow learning, short attention span, impulsive behavior, poor judgment, and delayed language and speech development. Children with Down syndrome have poor muscle tone, making them take longer to learn how to make some movements such as turning over, walking, standing, and sitting. Some of the physical characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome include flattened facial profile and nose, upward slanting eyes, and small head, ears, and mouth.  Additionally, individuals with Down syndrome are prone to other health factors such as heart abnormalities, hearing loss, autism, vision problems, and respiratory conditions. Although children with down syndrome have a slower development rate, they will eventually meet all or any of the development milestones. Also, the lifespan of individuals with Down syndrome has increased due to increased research and technology in the area.
  2. Fragile X Syndrome is the most prevalent form of inherited developmental and intellectual disability. This genetic disorder results from a change or mutation in the X chromosome. The disability affects the development of a person, more so in the areas of learning and behavior. What’s more, it can affect physical appearance, communication skills, and sensitivity to the individual’s light and noise with intellectual disability.  It is worth noting that the fragile x syndrome disability is more prevalent in boys than girls.  Individuals with fragile x syndrome do not exhibit the same signs and symptoms. However, they have common signs, including:
    • Problems with speech and language 
    • Attention disorders Problems with hyperactivity 
    • Anxiety  Developmental delay 
    • Problems processing sensory information 
    • Aggressiveness (ADHD)
    • Trouble making eye contact 
  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome is an intellectual disability caused by exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy expose their children the risk of this disability. The severity of the disability depends on the child’s level of exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, where mothers who drink large quantities of alcohol during pregnancy increase the risk of severe symptoms in their children.  The common symptoms found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome include:
    • Facial, limb, and joint deformities
    • Poor memory and judgment
    • Learning disabilities
    • Poor social skills
    • Sensory difficulties, including hearing and vision
    • Heart problems and defects 
    • Behavioral problems
    • Slow physical growth 

    To avoid the possibility of having cases of fetal alcohol syndrome, pregnant women are advised to avoid alcohol at all costs. Also, in some countries such as the United States, mothers who give birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome are at risk of their children being taken away from them, as stated by the law. Most of the symptoms of the disability can be reversed if early intervention is considered, such as surgeries to correct heart and neurological problems. 

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