What Is Blood Doping Class 11 Physical Education?

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What Is Blood Doping Class 11 Physical Education
Types of Doping (Classification) – (i) Performance enhancing substance:

Stimulants Anabolic Steroids Peptide hormones Beta-2 Agonist Narcotics Diuretics Cannabinoids.

(ii) Physical methods.

Blood doping and Gene doping comes under physical method.

Blood doping: It is the process of increasing the Red blood cells by blood transfusion. Blood doping increases hemoglobin allows higher amount of to fuel an athlete’s muscles. This can improve stamina and performance, particularly in long distance events. Gene doping: It is the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance.
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What do you mean by term doping Class 11 physical education?

What is it? “Doping” refers to the use of banned substances in competitive sports. Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) is another term used to for drugs used by athletes to improve their athletic performance. Why is doping such a big deal? Safety first! The most important reason doping is a big deal is the fact that many of these substances can have harmful and long-lasting side effects which may include the following: Cardiovascular: irregular heart rhythm, elevated blood pressure, heart attack, sudden death Central Nervous System: insomnia, anxiousness, depression, aggressive behavior, suicide, headache, addiction with withdrawal, psychosis, tremor, dizziness, stroke Respiratory: nose bleeds, sinusitis Hormonal: infertility, gynecomastia (enlarged breasts), decreased testicular size, low sex drive, acromegaly (coarse bones in face, hands, and feet), cancer The second issue is more of a moral dilemma.

  1. These banned substances are used to gain an unfair advantage which significantly devalues the spirit of competition.
  2. As stated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the purpose of an anti-doping program is “to protect the athletes’ fundamental right to participate in doping-free sport and thus promote health, fairness and equality for athletes worldwide” What substances are banned from use? Some drugs are banned both in and out of competition due to their performance enhancing properties, while others are only banned during competition.

Another reason for banning a drug is due to their ability to mask the presence of a different banned drug during testing. Each organization has a different list of banned substances. More information can be found at their respective websites listed at the end of this article.

  1. In general, the following classes of drugs are banned: Street drugs, stimulants, anabolic steroids, peptide hormones (i.e.
  2. Human growth hormone ), alcohol and beta blockers (for archery and rifle shooting only), diuretics, beta-2 agonists, anti-estrogens, blood doping, and gene manipulation.
  3. For athletes who need a banned drug for legitimate medical reasons, the anti-doping programs offer a way to request a therapeutic use of exemption (TUE) so the athlete can use the drug.

The athlete must have a physician complete a TUE form that states the athlete needs the drug to treat their medical condition and that an alternative non-banned drug is not available or insufficiently treats their condition. The TUE is reviewed by a medical committee, which either allows the athlete to take the drug or denies the athlete’s request.

  • It is important to note that even some over-the-counter (OTC) medications and supplements are either banned or contain banned additives or contaminants.
  • For example, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) bans excessive caffeine use, defined as a urine caffeine level above 15μg/ mL.
  • WADA has banned pseudoephedrine (i.e.
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Sudafed) if the urine concentration is above 150 mcg/ml, although this drug is allowed by the NCAA. There are many other examples of commonly used drugs that may be permitted by one group and disallowed by another. In any case, the athlete should work closely with the supervising medical team to determine which drugs are safe and permitted for use.

Who determines whether a doping violation has occurred? As stated previously, the organizations that monitor for doping violations vary between sports. The largest anti-doping organization is WADA. WADA has developed a coordinated, worldwide anti-doping program that applies to sports that have signed a pledge to uphold the WADA Code.

The WADA Code outlines their “anti-doping policies, rules, and regulations with sport organizations and among public authorities around the world”. More than 660 sports organizations have signed the WADA Code including the International Olympic and Paralympic Committees, all Olympic Sport International Federations, and National Olympic and Paralympic Committees.

The practical application of the WADA regulations is performed by national anti-doping agencies such as the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA). Athletes who participate in sports that have signed the WADA code are subject to random in and out of competition testing. Testing may be performed on urine and/or blood samples depending on the substances being tested.

The frequency and type of testing varies between sport based upon a variety of factors including history of doping in the sport, type of sports (e.g., endurance, strength/power), substances being taken, and duration of the season. Penalties for a doping violation vary greatly between sports.

In sports that follow the WADA Code, a single violation can result in a ban from sports competition of up to 2 years while a second violation may result in a lifetime ban. The punishment for a first offense anti-doping violation in the NFL is a four-game suspension, in the NBA is a 5 game suspension, and in the NHL a 20 game suspension.

Below is a list of relevant anti-doping websites for additional information: World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA): https://wada-main-prod. s3.amazonaws.com/resources/files/wada-2016-prohibited-list-en.pdf United States Anti-Doping Agency: http://www.usada.org/ substances/?lang=en National Basketball Association:* http://www.nba.com/media/ CBA101_9.12.pdf Major League Baseball: http://mlb.mlb.com/pa/pdf/jda.pdf Fédération Internationale de Football Association: http://www.fifa.

  1. Com/mm/document/affederation/administration/02/49/28/61/ circularno.1458-fifaanti-dopingregulations_neutral.pdf National Collegiate Athletic Association: http://www.ncaa.org/2015-16- ncaa-banned-drugs AMSSM Member Authors McKennan J.
  2. Thurston, MD and Jonathan T.
  3. Finnoff DO References Hatton C, Green G, Ambrose P.

Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Understanding the Risks. Phys Med Rehabil clin N Am 2014;25(4):897913. Madden CC. Drugs and Doping in Athletes. In: Netters Sports Medicine.1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010.
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What is homologous blood doping Class 11?

Blood Doping: Blood doping is a method to increase the count of red blood cells, which is done by the use of wrong banned substances. There are two methods under this. Autologous blood doping: Two units of blood are taken some weeks prior to competition.

Then the blood is frozen until one or two days before the competition when it is injected into the athlete. This is called autologous blood doping. Homologous blood doping: The injection of fresh blood, taken from a second person, straight into the athlete is called homologous blood doping. This improves the oxygen-carrying capacity to the muscles by increasing the count of red blood cells (RBC) so the muscle endurance is increased which improves the aerobic capacity and sports performance.

Gene Doping: Gene doping is the manipulation of cells or genes to enhance the body’s sports performance. It can be used to improve the work function of normal healthy cells. Gene therapy plays an important role in the growth and development of muscles and bones.
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What is blood doping called?

Blood doping, also called induced erythrocythemia, use of substances or techniques that increase the number of circulating red blood cells (erythrocytes) or the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood to improve human performance.
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Why is it called blood doping?

Blood doping Boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream

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Substances and types

Terminology

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  • (,, )
  • Lance Armstrong
Doping-related lists

  • Doping cases in
Anti-doping bodies

Blood doping is a form of in which the number of in the bloodstream is boosted in order to enhance athletic performance. Because such blood cells carry from the to the, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an athlete’s (VO 2 max) and, Blood doping can be achieved by making the body produce more red blood cells itself using drugs, giving either from another person or back to the same individual, or by using blood substitutes.
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What is the best definition of doping?

Dop·​ing ˈdō-piŋ : the use of a substance (such as an anabolic steroid or erythropoietin) or technique (such as blood doping) to illegally improve athletic performance.
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What are the two types of doping?

Doping is the practice of introducing very small amounts of certain foreign atoms into the crystal lattice of a semiconductor to modify its electrical properties. These foreign atoms are referred to as dopants, Often they add charge carriers to the semiconductor by creating either an excess or a deficiency of electrons around the foreign atom.
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What is blood doping PDF?

Blood doping means the use of certain techniques and/or substances to increase red blood cell (RBC) mass, which allows the body to transport more O2 to muscles and therefore increase performance. Artificial O2 carriers do not appear relevant in sports.
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What is blood doping Brainly?

Answer:Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. Because such blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance.
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When did blood doping start?

HISTORY – The first alleged use of blood boosting in sport was in the 1960s, when a French four times winner of the Tour de France (1961–1964) was named as one of the first cyclists to use the technique. Widespread use among endurance athletes (especially running, cycling, and cross country skiing) started after the 1968 Olympic Games, in Mexico City which is situated at an altitude of 2300 m.1 Here the athletes from higher altitudes performed better in the endurance events because of various physiological acclimatisation adaptations, including increased red blood cell (RBC) mass.5 Blood boosting was the method adopted by many athletes after Mexico to increase their aerobic performance.6 It did not come to general public attention until the early 1970s when it was termed “blood doping” by the media.7, 8 This followed a Finnish steeplechaser using the technique before winning two gold medals in endurance runs at the 1972 Munich Olympics.1 The technique became more popular during the 1980s and was used by distance runners (5000 m, 10000 m, marathon runners), cyclists, and skiers.1, 9– 11 Specific accusations were made against the Russians, Italians, Finns, Americans, and East Germans, particularly during the 1980 and 1984 Olympics.1, 9, 10 Athletes who admitted using the technique included the Italian cyclist who beat the one hour world record in 1984 and a Russian distance runner who specifically admitted to autologous transfusion with two units by team doctors in 1980.1 The US Olympic cycling team also admitted to having received homologous transfusions from friends and family before achieving outstanding results in the 1984 Olympic games, winning a record nine medals despite not having performed well in past Games.

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The IOC forbade blood boosting after the 1984 Olympics, despite the fact that no methods had been devised for unequivocal detection.7 Blood boosting became less widespread after 1987 (despite admitted use by a US Nordic skier in that year) 9 with the invention of rHuEpo to stimulate erythropoiesis in patients with renal failure.

rHuEpo was soon adopted as the standard drug by which athletes could illegally boost their RBC mass, and the need for blood boosting diminished.
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Who is famous for blood doping?

Armstrong admitted in an interview with Oprah Winfrey on January 17, 2013 that he used performance-enhancing drugs while conquering a record seven Tour de France championships.
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How common is blood doping?

What are the new findings? • This study presents the first comparison of blood doping prevalence in elite track and field athletes based on biological measurements from major international events. • Our results from robust hematological parameters indicate an estimation of an overall blood doping prevalence of 15–18% in average in endurance athletes.

  1. The confidence intervals for blood doping prevalence range from 9 to 28% with wide discrepancies between certain countries.
  2. How might it impact on clinical practice in the near future • The further development of the Athlete Biological Passport with a careful monitoring of biological parameters still represents the most consistent approach to thwart athletes using undetectable prohibited substances or methods.

• This study describes a method to define blood doping prevalence with the analysis of robust hematological parameters. • Estimates of doping prevalence in subpopulations of athletes may represent a valuable tool for the antidoping authorities to perform a risk assessment in their sport.
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What are the two types of blood doping?

There are two forms of blood doping: autologous and homologous. Autologous blood doping is the transfusion of one’s own blood, which has been stored (refrigerated or frozen) until needed. Homologous blood doping is the transfusion of blood that has been taken from another person with the same blood type.
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What is blood doping Brainly?

Answer:Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. Because such blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance.
View complete answer

What are the two types of doping?

Doping is the practice of introducing very small amounts of certain foreign atoms into the crystal lattice of a semiconductor to modify its electrical properties. These foreign atoms are referred to as dopants, Often they add charge carriers to the semiconductor by creating either an excess or a deficiency of electrons around the foreign atom.
View complete answer