What Is Axiology In Philosophy Of Education?


What Is Axiology In Philosophy Of Education
The branch of Philosophy concerned with the general problemof values that is,the nature,origin, and permanence of values -is called Axiology. Axiology focuses on questions about what ‘ought to be’. It deals with the nature of values and relates to the teaching of moral values and character development.
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What does axiology mean in philosophy?

Axiology Access to the full content is only available to members of institutions that have purchased access. If you belong to such an institution, please or find out more about, DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-L120-1 Version: v1, Published online: 1998 Retrieved December 13, 2022, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/axiology/v-1 Axiology is the branch of practical philosophy which studies the nature of value.

Axiologists study value in general rather than moral values in particular and frequently emphasize the plurality and heterogeneity of values while at the same time adopting different forms of realism about values. Historically, three groups of philosophers can be described as axiologists: the original Austrian and German schools of value phenomenologists; American theorists of value who offered an account of value which reduces it to human interests; and an English school, influenced by Austro-German phenomenology, which included such diverse figures as G.E.

, Hastings and W.D. Recent philosophy has seen a resurgence of interest in value realism in the broadly axiological tradition. Citing this article: Smith, Barry and Alan Thomas. Axiology, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L120-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/axiology/v-1.
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What is axiology with example?

Answer and Explanation: An example of axiology is deciding what attributes make the best type of scientific researcher. Is it someone who is impartial or curious or diligent? Or is it a mixture of multiple attributes?
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Why is axiology important in education?

The importance of Axiology in Education – Axiology is important in many fields of life. Speaking of education, axiology can enhance the information quality put forward to students and also help them with the power of learning and understanding. The basic fundamental of axiology aims at discovering detailed information.
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What is meant by axiology and how is it related to education?

Axiological approach involves the transfer of young people value standards in the educational process. It leads to the accumulation and growth of axiological potential of a young person and it can take place only on the basis of cultural values.
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What is axiology and its types?

Is the branch of philosophy that considers the study of principles and values. These values are divided into two main kinds: ethics and aesthetics. Ethics is the questioning of morals and personal values. Aesthetics is the examination of what is beautiful, enjoyable, or tasteful. In axiology, education is more than just about knowledge but also the quality of life.
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Who is the father of axiology?

Monism and pluralism – Substantive theories of value try to determine which entities have intrinsic value, A traditional dispute in this field is between monist and pluralist theories. According to Chris Heathwood, monism and pluralism can be distinguished according to an evaluation of what is good in people and the concept of “value simpliciter” in terms of intrinsic value.

  • Monist theories hold that there is only one type of intrinsic value.
  • The paradigm example of monist theories is hedonism, the thesis that only pleasure has intrinsic value.
  • Pluralist theories, on the other hand, contend that there are various different types of intrinsic value.
  • They maintain that these types of intrinsic values cannot be reduced to a single feature of an act or entity.W.D.

Ross, for example, holds that pleasure is only one type of intrinsic value besides other types, like knowledge. It is important to keep in mind that this disagreement only concerns intrinsic value, not value at large, So hedonists may be happy to concede that knowledge is valuable, but only extrinsically so, given that knowledge can be helpful in causing pleasure and avoiding pain.

  1. Various arguments have been suggested in the monism-pluralism-dispute.
  2. Common-sense seems to favor value pluralism: values are ascribed to a wide range of different things like happiness, liberty, friendship, etc.
  3. Without any obvious common feature underlying these values.
  4. One way to defend value monism is to cast doubt on the reliability of common-sense for technical matters like the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic value.

This strategy is pursued by J.J.C. Smart, who holds that there is a psychological bias to mistake stable extrinsic values for intrinsic values. Value pluralists have often attempted to provide exhaustive lists of all value types, but different theorists have suggested very different lists.

  1. These lists seem to constitute arbitrary selections unless a clear criterion could be provided why all and only these items are included.
  2. But if a criterion was to be found then such a theory would no longer be pluralistic.
  3. This dilemma suggests that pluralism is inadequate as an explanation.
  4. One issue closely related to the monism-pluralism-debate is the problem of incommensurability : the question of whether there are incommensurable values.

Two values are incommensurable if there is no fact as to whether one is better than or as good as the other: there is no common value scale according to which they could be compared. According to Joseph Raz, career choices between very different paths, for example, whether to become a lawyer or a clarinetist, are cases where incommensurable values are involved.

Value pluralists often assert that values belonging to different types are incommensurable with each other. Value monists, by contrast, usually deny that there are incommensurable values. This question is particularly relevant for ethics. If different options available to the agent embody incommensurable values then there seems to be no rational way to determine what ought to be done since there is no matter of fact as to which option is better.

Widespread incommensurability would threaten to undermine the practical relevance of ethics and rational choice.
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What are the main branches of axiology?

The two major subdivisions of axiology are aesthetics and ethics. Aesthetics is concerned with the nature of beauty and taste.
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What is another word for axiology?

What is another word for axiological?

fundamental basic
original vital
indispensable initial
intrinsic organic
primitive primordial

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What are the characteristics of axiology?

Axiology and aesthetics Aesthetics is a study that associated with the nature, art, beauty and good taste. But what will we discover if we compare axiology and aesthetics? Another name of aesthetics is “the philosophy of art”. This means the process of explaining the meaning of works of art, art movements and different art theories.

The center of axiology possesses the study of value. It is a practical format for assessing the degree of progress and the variations of one’s perceptual biases in the thinking. Axiology inspects two types of values: ethics and aesthetics. The last – aesthetics, examines an idea of fascination and harmony.

Axiology presents the value theory; also it studies questions, which are connected with nature values. The central paragraph of axiology’s philosophy is the questions about value and benefit, value and grade. Axiology practices the study of value, which can be a motivator of human life.

  • Axiology studies characteristics, structure and hierarchy of values all over the world, methods of knowing, its ontological condition, and also the nature and value’s specificity of judgments.
  • The fundamental contradiction of axiology is the recognition of the values of universalism.
  • Axiology is an offshoot of philosophy that examines the theory of values and problems that are connected to the nature of values.

Questions about values always excited mankind. The ancient Greek philosopher Socrates raised this issue for the first time. He formed the question “What is good?” and put it at the center of his entire philosophy. According to his teachings, good – it is realized value – utility.

As a conclusion it can be claimed that the value and benefits – two sides of the same coin. In principle, the emergence of axiology as a separate and independent science, took place during the separation of the notion of being an element of value and an element of actuality. In this occasion, the objective of axiology is to demonstrate the possibilities of practical reason in the conventional structure of essence.

The term “axiology” appeared in 1902. Looking back at the history, the three main periods can be distinguished: pre-classical, classical and post-classical. Pre-classical period contained the cult of the senses. Otherwise, this represents that the subject of the unconscious values do not exist.

Such a conclusion is made, because the value can not belong to things by itself. Nevertheless this does not imply that the value is only subjective. Classical period considered axiology as a science that studies the very general laws that underlie the value relations. Also, as a science, which examines the structure and hierarchy of cash values.

Post-classical period is characterized by individual lines of the classic models of the fundamental axiology. Nowadays it is more and more difficult to allocate the spheres of knowledge, which would not actively use the axiological installation or terms.

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Notwithstanding, in contemporary culture and social sciences the popularity of “applied” aspects is increasing. This is balanced by the reduction of its status among the fundamental philosophical disciplines. Aesthetics is the knowledge about creative man’s relation to reality, the perceptual knowledge, which grasps and creates the beautiful and is conveyed in the images of art.

Long before people have been attracted to the art and beauty, so they were subjected to detailed examination and analysis. As a science aesthetics has evolved by drawing the sources of inspiration within the philosophy, theology, art practice and art criticism.

  1. The subject of aesthetics was complicated and enriched during the process of its progress.
  2. If we look back at the history, we can find out that in the period of antiquity aesthetics affected the general philosophical problems of the nature of beauty and art.
  3. A significant contribution into the medieval aesthetics was made by medieval theology.

Later, during the Renaissance, it achieved a significant evolution in the field of art and artistic practice, close relationship between creativity and nature appeared. During the Renaissance period aesthetics was enormously influenced by political field of study.

Attention was drawn to the moral and cognitive significance of art. Further, the subject of aesthetics was noticeably narrowing. Aesthetics got a new definition, which sounded like “knowledge of nature and the laws of aesthetic of assimilation the reality and artistic culture of the society”. It was concluded that aesthetics studies not only beautiful, but also does not disregard the disagreeable, tragic and so on.

So aesthetics is the science of expression in general. From the foresaid it can be concluded that the subject of aesthetics is extremely mobile and changeable. Summing up we can say that axiology is the science that studies the human values and their relationships that motivate human behavior and convey meaning to human life.
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What are the two branches of axiology?

What You Need to Know as an Educator: Understanding the 4 Main Branches of Philosophy Some may argue that philosophy is the essence of education and without knowing your philosophy how can you learn, how can you teach, how can you live? In this article the four main branches of philosophy will be discussed as an overview to aid in understanding the importance of philosophy as a teacher, educator, parent, or student.

  1. The word philosophy is derived from two Greek words.
  2. The first word, philo, means “love.” The second, sophy, means “wisdom.” Literally, then, philosophy means “love of wisdom”.
  3. Each individual has an attitude toward life, children, politics, learning, and previous personal experiences that informs and shapes their set of beliefs.

Although you may not be conscious of it, this set of beliefs, or personal philosophy, informs how you live, work, and interact with others. What you believe is directly reflected in both your teaching and learning processes. This chapter explores the various philosophical views that influence the teaching profession.

  1. Although the role of Eastern philosophy in the history of the world and in education has been significant, this chapter focuses on the role of Western philosophy in shaping the educational philosophies prevalent in the United States.
  2. It is important to understand how philosophy and education are interrelated.

To become the most effective teacher you can be, you must understand your own beliefs, while at the same time empathizing with others. Developing your own educational philosophy is a key part of your journey to becoming a teacher. To understand the foundations of educational philosophies, it’s necessary to first examine philosophy’s four main branches.

  1. Understanding educational philosophy will contribute to the understanding of how these foundations have given rise to what is commonly practiced and believed in the classroom today.
  2. The four main branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic.
  3. Metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that considers the physical universe and the nature of ultimate reality.

It asks questions like, What is real? What is the origin of the world? What is beyond the stars? Your consideration of reality as an external creation or an internal construct can influence your metaphysical beliefs and perspectives and your teaching.

  1. Regardless of your definition of reality, the exploration and categorization of the physical universe form the foundation of several school subjects.
  2. Epistemology Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that considers how people come to learn what they know.
  3. Derived from the Greek word episteme, meaning knowledge or understanding, epistemology refers to the nature and origin of knowledge and truth.

Epistemology proposes that there are four main bases of knowledge: divine revelation, experience, logic and reason, and intuition. These influence how teaching, learning, and understanding come about in the classroom. Axiology Axiology is the branch of philosophy that considers the study of principles and values.

These values are divided into two main kinds: ethics and aesthetics. Ethics is the questioning of morals and personal values. Aesthetics is the examination of what is beautiful, enjoyable, or tasteful. In axiology education is more than just about knowledge but also quality of life. Logic Logic is the branch of philosophy that seeks to organize reasoning.

Students of logic learn how to think in a structurally sound manner. Logic has two types: deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning involves examining a general case, deducing a general set of rules or principles, and then applying these rules to specific cases.
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How does axiology relate to knowledge?

Axiology is a branch of philosophy that studies judgements about the value, The term axiology is derived from the Greek and means ‘value’ or ‘worth’. Axiology is engaged with assessment of the role of researcher’s own value on all stages of the research process,

It is a relatively recent addition to the area of research philosophy. Axiology primarily refers to the ‘aims’ of the research. This branch of the research philosophy attempts to clarify if you are trying to explain or predict the world, or are you only seeking to understand it. In simple terms, axiology focuses on what do you value in your research.

This is important because your values affect how you conduct your research and what do you value in your research findings. The table below illustraties the axiology of major research philosopies and highlights relevant methods of data collection.

Axiology Popular data collection techniques
Positivism Research is undertaken in a value-free way, the researcher is independent from the data and maintains an objective stance Highly structured, large samples, measurement, quantitative can also use qualitative
Realism Research is value laden; the researcher is biased by world views, cultural experiences and upbringings. These effect research findings Methods chosen must fit the subject matter, quantitative or qualitative
Interpretivism Research is value bound, the researcher is part of what is being researched, cannot be separated and so will be subjective Small samples, in-depth investigations, qualitative
Pragmatism Values play a large role in interpreting results, the researcher adopting both objective and subjective points of view Mixed or multiple method designs, quantitative and qualitative

Axiology of research philosophies and relevant data collection techniques In your dissertation, you can add a paragraph or two discussing the relevance of axiology in your research. For example, you have chosen positivism research positivism research philosophy, you can state that axiology of your study is value-free and the research is independent from the data.

Alternatively, if your research philosophy is realism, you will need to state that axiology of your study is value laden. In this case you will have to acknowledge that your worldview may have affected your research findings. The role of value is greatest in pragmatism research philosophy and you have to stress this fact in your paper if pragmatism is the philosophy you are following.

My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step assistance contains discussions of theory and application of research philosophy. The e-book also explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012) “Research Methods for Business Students” 6 th edition, Pearson Education Limited Li, Y. (2016) “Expatriate Manager’s Adaption and Knowledge Acquisition: Personal Development in Multi-National Companies in China” Springer Publications Lee, N.
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What are the components of axiology?


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since 01.01.06 Introduction to Philosophy Abstract: Philosophy, philosophical inquiry, and the main branches of philosophy are characterized.

  1. What is Philosophy?
    1. The derivation of the word “philosophy” from the Greek is suggested by the following words and word-fragments.
      • philo —love of, affinity for, liking of
      • philander —to engage in love affairs frivolously
      • philanthropy —love of mankind in general
      • philately— postage stamps hobby
      • phile —(as in “anglophile”) one having a love for
      • philology— having a liking for words
      • sophos —wisdom
      • sophist — lit. one who loves knowledge
      • sophomore —wise and moros —foolish; i.e. one who thinks he knows many things
      • sophisticated —one who is knowledgeable
    2. A suggested definition for our beginning study is as follows. Philosophy is the systematic inquiry into the principles and presuppositions of any field of study.
      1. From a psychological point of view, philosophy is an attitude, an approach, or a calling to answer or to ask, or even to comment upon certain peculiar problems ( i.e., specifically the kinds of problems usually relegated to the main branches discussed below in Section II).
      2. There is, perhaps, no one single sense of the word “philosophy.” Eventually many writers abandon the attempt to define philosophy and, instead, turn to the kinds of things philosophers do.
      3. What is involved in the study of philosophy is described by the London Times in an article dealing with the 20th World Congress of Philosophy: “The great virtue of philosophy is that it teaches not what to think, but how to think. It is the study of meaning, of the principles underlying conduct, thought and knowledge. The skills it hones are the ability to analyse, to question orthodoxies and to express things clearly. However arcane some philosophical texts may be the ability to formulate questions and follow arguments is the essence of education.”
  2. The Main Branches of Philosophy are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for one area overlaps into the others.
    1. Axiology : the study of value; the investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. More often than not, the term “value theory” is used instead of “axiology” in contemporary discussions even though the term “theory of value” is used with respect to the value or price of goods and services in economics.
      1. Some significant questions in axiology include the following:
        1. Nature of value : is value a fulfillment of desire, a pleasure, a preference, a behavioral disposition, or simply a human interest of some kind?
        2. Criteria of value : de gustibus non (est) disputandum ( i.e., (“there’s no accounting for tastes”) or do objective standards apply?
        3. Status of value : how are values related to (scientific) facts? What ultimate worth, if any, do human values have?
      2. Axiology is usually divided into two main parts.
        1. Ethics : the study of values in human behavior or the study of moral problems: e.g., (1) the rightness and wrongness of actions, (2) the kinds of things which are good or desirable, and (3) whether actions are blameworthy or praiseworthy.
          1. Consider this example analyzed by J.O. Urmson in his well-known essay, “Saints and Heroes”: “We may imagine a squad of soldiers to be practicing the throwing of live hand grenades; a grenade slips from the hand of one of them and rolls on the ground near the squad; one of them sacrifices his life by throwing himself on the grenade and protecting his comrades with his own body. It is quite unreasonable to suppose that such a man must be impelled by the sort of emotion that he might be impelled by if his best friend were in the squad.”
          2. Did the soldier who threw himself on the grenade do the right thing? If he did not cover the grenade, several soldiers might be injured or be killed. His action probably saved lives; certainly an action which saves lives is a morally correct action. One might even be inclined to conclude that saving lives is a duty. But if this were so, wouldn’t each of the soldiers have the moral obligation or duty to save his comrades? Would we thereby expect each of the soldiers to vie for the opportunity to cover the grenade?
        2. Æsthetics : the study of value in the arts or the inquiry into feelings, judgments, or standards of beauty and related concepts. Philosophy of art is concerned with judgments of sense, taste, and emotion.
          1. E.g., Is art an intellectual or representational activity? What would the realistic representations in pop art represent? Does art represent sensible objects or ideal objects?
          2. Is artistic value objective? Is it merely coincidental that many forms in architecture and painting seem to illustrate mathematical principles? Are there standards of taste?
          3. Is there a clear distinction between art and reality?
    2. Epistemology : the study of knowledge. In particular, epistemology is the study of the nature, scope, and limits of human knowledge.
      1. Epistemology investigates the origin, structure, methods, and integrity of knowledge.
      2. Consider the degree of truth of the statement, “The earth is round.” Does its truth depend upon the context in which the statement is uttered? For example, this statement can be successively more accurately translated as
        • “The earth is spherical”
        • “The earth is an oblate spheroid” ( i.e., flattened at the poles).
        • But what about the Himalayas and the Marianas Trench? Even if we surveyed exactly the shape of the earth, our process of surveying would alter the surface by the footprints left and the impressions of the survey stakes and instruments. Hence, the exact shape of the earth cannot be known. Every rain shower changes the shape.
        • (Note here as well the implications for skepticism and relativism: simply because we cannot exactly describe the exact shape of the earth, the conclusion does not logically follow that the earth does not have a shape.)
      3. Furthermore, consider two well-known problems in epistemology:
        1. Russell’s Five-Minute-World Hypothesis : Suppose the earth were created five minutes ago, complete with memory images, history books, records, etc., how could we ever know of it? As Russell wrote in The Analysis of Mind, “There is no logical impossibility in the hypothesis that the world sprang into being five minutes ago, exactly as it then was, with a population that “remembered” a wholly unreal past. There is no logically necessary connection between events at different times; therefore nothing that is happening now or will happen in the future can disprove the hypothesis that the world began five minutes ago.” For example, an omnipotent God could create the world with all the memories, historical records, and so forth five minutes ago. Any evidence to the contrary would be evidence created by God five minutes ago. ( Q.v., the Omphalos hypothesis,)
        2. Suppose everything in the universe (including all spatial relations) were to expand uniformly a thousand times larger. How could we ever know it? A moment’s thought reveals that the mass of objects increases by the cube whereas the distance among them increases linearly. Hence, if such an expansion were possible, changes in the measurement of gravity and the speed of light would be evident, if, indeed, life would be possible.
        3. Russell’s Five-Minute-World Hypothesis is a philosophical problem; the impossibility of the objects in the universe expanding is a scientific problem since the latter problem can, in fact, be answered by principles of elementary physics.
    3. Ontology or Metaphysics : the study of what is really real. Metaphysics deals with the so-called first principles of the natural order and “the ultimate generalizations available to the human intellect.” Specifically, ontology seeks to indentify and establish the relationships between the categories, if any, of the types of existent things.
      1. What kinds of things exist? Do only particular things exist or do general things also exist? How is existence possible? Questions as to identity and change of objects—are you the same person you were as a baby? as of yesterday? as of a moment ago?
      2. How do ideas exist if they have no size, shape, or color? (My idea of the Empire State Building is quite as “small” or as “large” as my idea of a book.I.e., an idea is not extended in space.) What is space? What is time?
      3. E.g., Consider the truths of mathematics: in what manner do geometric figures exist? Are points, lines, or planes real or not? Of what are they made?
      4. What is spirit? or soul? or matter? space? Are they made up of the same sort of “stuff”?
      5. When, if ever, are events necessary? Under what conditions are they possible?
  3. Further characteristics of philosophy and examples of philosophical problems are discussed in the next tutorial.
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Further Reading:

  • Edward Craig on What is Philosophy? This interview on Philosophy Bites with David Craig, editor of The Routledge Encyclopedia, by David Edmonds and Nigel Warburton explains the nature of philosophy. Craig believes the definition of philosophy has been too narrow in the past; he thinks it’s better to think of philosophy in terms of the vast range of different kinds of problems which are not answered by specific disciplines. Good philosophy can be done by anyone and either involves reasoning or the explanations of reasoning. Good philosophy is not just a question of personal preference in everyday thinking since everyday thoughts do not have the level of self-awareness of reasoning processes.
  • The Nature of Philosophical Inquiry. A chapter from Reading for Philosophical Inquiry, an online e-text on this site, summarizing the main divisions of philosophy as well as illustrating some introductory philosophical problems.
  • Omphalos (theology). Wikipedia entry for several variations of the Omphalos hypothesis—the philosophical problem of accounting for present state of the universe by purported evidence drawn from the past.
  • Philosophy. Useful encyclopedia entry from the authoritative 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica outlining the branches of philosophy.
  • Philosophy—General Introduction. Ralph Barton Perry’s accessible introduction to philosophy and a discussion of philosophy’s relation to art, science, ethics, and religion are discussed in a lecture on the Harvard Classics.
  • What is Philosophy Anyway? Summary article from M. Russo and G. Fair’s Molloy College site discussing the definition and main branches of philosophy.

“Philosophy has no other subject matter than the nature of the real world, as that world lies around us in everyday life, and lies open to observers on every side. But if this is so, it may be asked what function can remain for philosophy when every portion of the field is already lotted out and enclosed by specialists? Philosophy claims to be the science of the whole; but, if we get the knowledge of the parts from the different sciences, what is there left for philosophy to tell us? To this it is sufficient to answer generally that the synthesis of the parts is something more than that detailed knowledge of the parts in separation which is gained by the man of science.

  1. It is with the ultimate synthesis that philosophy concerns itself; it has to show that the subject-matter which we are all dealing with in detail really is a whole, consisting of articulated members.” “Philosophy,” Encyclopedia Britannica (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911) Vol.21.
  2. Relay corrections, suggestions or questions to larchie at lander.edu Please see the disclaimer concerning this page.
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What is axiology according to Aristotle?

What are the 7 Branches of Philosophy? – What Is Axiology In Philosophy Of Education To unburden a student from the discouraging task of going through fat books and dense literature on every concept of Philosophy, experts in this field came up with the idea of creating various branches of Philosophy. In this blog, we have collated a list of major and much-discussed branches of Philosophy, which have triggered some famous debates in this field.

  1. Axiology : Study of the nature of value and valuation
  2. Metaphysics : Study of the fundamental nature of reality
  3. Epistemology : Study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge
  4. Ethics Philosophy : Study of what is right and wrong in human behaviour
  5. Aesthetics : Study of beauty and taste
  6. Logic Philosophy : Study of the nature and types of logic
  7. Political Philosophy : Study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions

Let’s now explore some of these branches of Philosophy in detail,
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What is axiology and logic in philosophy?

Axiology and Logic Lesson Overview We have said earlier that philosophy deals with the most basic issues faced by human beings. Axiology is the philosophical study of value, which originally meant the worth of something. It includes the studies of moral values, aesthetic values, as well as political and social values.

Logic, on the other hand, is a philosophical study of arguments and the methods and principles of right reasoning. In this lesson, we will discuss Axiology and Logic as the other two major fields of philosophy.4.1 Axiology Activity # 1: – Dear learners, what do you think is Axiology? List any question that you might think is an axiological question.

Show your question to student(s) beside you, and discuss about your questions together. Axiology is the study or theory of value. The term Axiology stems from two Greek words – “Axios”, meaning “value, worth”, and “logos”, meaning “reason/ theory/ symbol / science/study of”.

What is a value?Where do values come from?How do we justify our values?How do we know what is valuable?What is the relationship between values and knowledge?What kinds of values exist?Can it be demonstrated that one value is better than another?Who benefits from values?Etc.

Axiology deals with the above and related issues of value in three areas, namely Ethics, Aesthetics, and Social/Political Philosophy.I. Ethics Activity # 2: – Dear learners, how do you define ethics? What ethical rules, principles, and standards do you know and follow, and why? Discuss about it with the student(s) beside you.

Ethics, which is also known as Moral Philosophy, is a science that deals with the philosophical study of moral principles, values, codes, and rules, which may be used as standards for determining what kind of human conduct/action is said to be good or bad, right or wrong. Ethics has three main branches: meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics.

Ethics raises various questions including:

What is good/bad?What is right/wrong?Is it the Right Principle or the Good End that makes human action/conduct moral?Is an action right because of its good end, or it is good because of its right principle?Are moral principles universal, objective, and unconditional, or relative, subjective and conditional?What is the ultimate foundation of moral principles? The supernatural God? Human reason? Mutual social contract? Social custom?Does God exist? If so, is He Benevolent and Omnipotent?If God is Benevolent, why He creates evil things? If God does not create evil things, then, there must be another creator who is responsible to creation of the evil things? But, if it is so, how can God be an Omnipotent creator?Why we honor and obey moral rules? For the sake of our own individual benefits?, or for the sake of others?, or just for the sake of fulfilling our infallible duty?

Ethics, or ethical studies, can be grouped into three broad categories: Normative ethics, Meta-ethics, and Applied Ethics. Normative Ethics refers to the ethical studies that attempt to study and determine precisely the moral rules, principles, standards and goals by which human beings might evaluate and judge the moral values of their conducts, actions and decisions.

It is the reasoned search for principles of human conduct, including a critical study of the major theories about which things are good, which acts are right, and which acts are blameworthy. Consequentialism or Teleological Ethics, Deontological Ethics, and Virtue Ethics are the major examples of normative ethical studies.

Meta-ethics is the highly technical philosophical discipline that deals with investigation of the meaning of ethical terms, including a critical study of how ethical statements can be verified. It is more concerned with the meanings of such ethical terms as good or bad and right or wrong than with what we think is good or bad and right or wrong.

Moral Intuitionism, Moral Emotivism, Moral Prescriptivism, Moral Nihilism, and Ethical Relativism are the main examples of meta-ethical studies. Applied Ethics is a normative ethics that attempts to explain, justify, apply moral rules, principles, standards, and positions to specific moral problems, such as capital punishment, euthanasia, abortion, adultery, animal right, and so on.

This area of normative ethics is termed applied because the ethicist applies or uses general ethical princes in an attempt to resolve specific moral problems. II. Aesthetics Activity # 3: – Dear learners, how do you define and understand aesthetics? What Discuss about it with the student(s) beside you,

What is art?What is beauty?What is the relation between art and beauty?What is the connection between art, beauty, and truth?Can there be any objective standard by which we may judge the beauty of artistic works, or beauty is subjective?What is artistic creativity and how does it differ from scientific creativity?Why works of art are valuable?Can artistic works communicate? If so, what do they communicate?Does art have any moral value, and obligations or constraints?Are there standards of quality in Art?

III. Social/Political Philosophy Activity # 4: – Dear learners, how do you define politics and society? What political and social rules, principles, and standards do you know and follow, and why? Discuss about it with the student(s) beside you. Social/Political Philosophy studies about of the value judgments operating in a civil society, be it social or political.

What form of government is best?What economic system is best?What is justice/injustice?What makes an action/judgment just/unjust?What is society?Does society exist? If it does, how does it come to existence?How are civil society and government come to exist?Are we obligated to obey all laws of the State?What is the purpose of government?

4.2 Logic Activity # 5: – Dear learners, how do you define and understand logic? Discuss about it with student(s) beside you. Logic is the study or theory of principles of right reasoning. It deals with formulating the right principles of reasoning; and developing scientific methods of evaluating the validity and soundness of arguments.

What is an argument; What does it mean to argue?What makes an argument valid or invalidWhat is a sound argument?What relation do premise and conclusion have in argument?How can we formulate and evaluate an argument?What is a fallacy?; What makes an argument fallacious?

: Axiology and Logic
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What is another word for axiology?

What is another word for axiological?

fundamental basic
original vital
indispensable initial
intrinsic organic
primitive primordial

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What is Aristotle’s axiology?

Abstract – This Paper attempts to Jude the axiology of Aristotle’s Philosophy based on Aristotelian Philosophy. For this Purpose, we will first Prove axiology as a kind of knowledge and then we will study the relation between axiology and two others knowledge domains, that is, ontology and epistemology.

We will demonstrate that values like goodness and beauty, are same final cause and formal cause for explanation of values of every thing. At least, in the nature, goodness and beauty are the idea of reality which is Present in every things. Although values Such as beauty and splendor, good and bad exist in relation with us.

Indeed, Such values don’t have objective being nor ideal existence. Form epistemology Point of view, the values are known with their formal Cause,that is, with their general form. In Aristotle’s axiology the concept of the end(Telos) is a fundamental concept which shows that the Aristotle’s Philosophy system is a coherent system.

Thus Aristotle maintains to ontological and epistemological aspects of the values. Also He has even considered hierarchy of value for creatures, knowledge and values itself. Thus, every thing lied in the hierarchy of valuation which has roots in the concept of the end. It also shows that Aristotle either in the position of philosopher or the position of valuation cannot be free from the valuation of ontology and epistemology.

Whit such approach, the second section of the paper attempts to show that the end in Aristotle’s Ethic is Idea of perfect that the human attempts to reach happiness in accordance whit the most complete and the most excellent of the virtue and every one should take care of domination of reason over human behavior and whit continuous practice and one can accomplish the virtues whit no extreme this way, all ethic virtues will be obtained by trusting to one’s capability.
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