What Do You Understand By Aims Of Education?

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What Do You Understand By Aims Of Education
Different aims of Education – Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex life simple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, or objective life becomes incomplete and haphazard. Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs.

Every individual wants to achieve certain goals in life. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy. Educational aims are varied. They have their different role in different fields. Some specific aims are listed below: (i) Knowledge Aim The aim of Education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

It helps to adjust properly in one’s own environment. Knowledge helps the man to overcome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher and taught with social situation. It helps with certain skills to live in a society as human being and civilized one.

  • Philosophers and Educationists of the world believe in knowledge.
  • It is the valuable asset of life, which helps the individual to overcome misery and problems of life.
  • Ii) Vocational Aim Knowledge aim of Education is narrow by nature.
  • The theoretical knowledge will never meet our basic needs of life.
  • We need bread and butter to fill up our belly.

We can get it if education is vocationalised. Gandhiji realized it in 1937 when he introduced Basic Education. Vocational aim develops the social efficiency of the individual. It reduces mental tension after completion of Education. Those who are lower, intelligence in vocational Education or training are a blessing for them.

  1. Realizing this aspect.
  2. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) introduces work-experience in the curriculum.
  3. Iii) Character Building Aim The Indian concept of Education believes in self-realization.
  4. Self-realization is possible through moral Education.
  5. So the individual should cultivate moral virtues or values which constitute character.

Swami Vivekananda said, “We want that Education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one’s own feet.” (iv) Complete-Living Aim The individual has various aspects to be developed.

Every aspect of the personality is reflected in various activities to be performed. Education should help the individual to fulfill the various needs and necessities of life like self-preservation, fulfilling necessities of life, rearing and bearing of children, performing civic responsibilities and utilizing his leisure time properly.

1- Meaning and importance of Aims of Education

Firstly, the individual must know the art of self-preservation. Secondly, Education should enable to him to earn his living. Thirdly, he should know how to take care of his own children. Lastly, he must have the idea how to utilize the leisure hours properly in a profiting manner.

(v) Harmonious Development of the personality aim- Gandhiji said, “By Education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.” The meaning itself indicates to develop all-round aspects of individual-physical, intellectual, social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed.

True Education is development of 3H’s instead of 3R’s. The development of Head, Heart and hand of an individual makes him happy. (vi) Democratic Aim of Education One of the important aims and objective of Education suggested by Secondary Education Commission (1952-54) is to develop the democratic citizenship.

  • India is a democratic country.
  • Even citizen must have to realize the duties and responsibilities carefully.
  • So the aim of Education is to train carefully the future citizens.
  • Training should be provided to develop the following qualities of the individual.
  • I) Capacity for clear thinking.
  • Ii) Receptivity of new idea.

(iii) Clarity in speech and writing. (iv) True patriotism. Further the democratic aim of Education develops vocational efficiency, personality and leadership quality. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) suggests the following as the aims of Education in a democratic set-up.
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What do you mean by AIMS Education?

MEANING, NATURE AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means.

  • Waking up to life and its mysteries, its solvable problems and the ways to solve the problems, and celebrate the mysteries of life.
  • Waking up to the interdependencies of all things, to the threat to the global village, to the power within the human race to create alternatives, to the obstacles entrenched in economic, social and political structures that prevent the waking up.
  • Education in the broadest sense of the term is meant to aid the human being in his/her pursuit of wholeness. Wholeness implies the harmonious development of all the potentialities God has given to a human person.
  • True education is the harmonious development of the physical, mental, moral (spiritual), and social faculties, the four dimensions of life, for a life of dedicated service.

Etymological Meaning of Education Etymologically, the word ‘education’ has been derived from different Latin words:

  1. ‘Educare’, which means ‘to bring out’ or ‘to nourish’.
  2. ‘Educere’, which means ‘to lead out’ or ‘to draw out’.
  3. ‘Educatum’, which means ‘act of teaching’ or ‘training’.
  4. ‘Educatus’, which means ‘to bring up, rear, educate’.
  5. ‘Educatio’, which means ‘a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.’

The Greek word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes used for education. The most common Indian word ‘shiksha’ is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root ‘shas,’ which means ‘to discipline’, ‘to control’, ‘to instruct’ and ‘to teach’. Similarly the word ‘vidya’ is derived from Sanskrit verbal root ‘vid’, which means ‘to know’.

Vidya is thus the subject matter of knowledge. This shows that disciplining the mind and imparting knowledge where the foremost considerations in India. Back in the 1,500s, the word education meant ‘the raising of children’, but it also meant ‘the training of animals.’ While there are probably a few teachers who feel similar to animal trainers, education these days has come to mean either ‘teaching’ or ‘the process of acquiring knowledge.’ DEFINITIONS Since time immemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity.

Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western side have explained the term 4 ‘education’ according to the need of the hour. Various educationists have given their views on education. Some important definitions are:

  1. ‘By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in man—body, mind and spirit.’ — Mahatma Gandhi
  2. ‘Education enables the mind to find out the ultimate truth, which gives us the wealth of inner light and love. and gives significance to life.’ — Rabindranath Tagore
  3. ‘Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.’ — Dr. Zakir Hussain
  4. ‘Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.’ — Swami Vivekananda
  5. ‘Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body.’ — Aristotle
  6. ‘Education is the child’s development from within.’ — Rousseau
  7. ‘Education is complete living.’ — Herbert Spencer
  8. ‘Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment.’ — Plato
  9. ‘Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.’ — Aristotle
  10. ‘Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers.’ — Pestalozzi
  11. ‘Education is enfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ.’ — Froebel
  12. ‘Education is the complete development of the individuality of the child.’ — TP Nunn
  13. ‘Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences.’ — John Dewey
  14. ‘Education is a liberating force and in our age it is also a democratizing force, cutting across the barriers of caste and class, smoothing out inequalities imposed by birth and other circumstances.’ — Indira Gandhi
  15. John Locke said, ‘Plants are developed by cultivation and men by education’. This world would have been enveloped in intellectual darkness if it had not been illuminated by the light of education. It is right to say that the story of civilization is the story of education. Thus, education is an integral part of human life. It is the basic condition for a development of a whole man and vital instrument for accelerating the well-being and prosperity by the light of education.

NATURE OF EDUCATION As is the meaning of education, so is its nature. It is very complex.

  1. Education is a life-long process: Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything, which influences human personality.
  2. Education is a systematic process: It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation.
  3. Education is development of individual and the society: It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society.
  4. Education is modification of behavior: Human behavior is modified and improved through educational process.
  5. Education is purposive: Every individual has some goal in his/her life. Education contributes in attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined all educational activities.5
  6. Education is a training: Human senses, mind, behavior, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.
  7. Education is instruction and direction: It directs and instructs an individual to fulfill his/her desires and needs for exaltation of his/her whole personality.
  8. Education is life: Life without education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.
  9. Education is continuous reconstruction of the experiences: As per the definition of John Dewey education reconstructs and remodels the experiences towards socially desirable way.
  10. Education helps in individual adjustment: A man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality cannot remain balanced. Through the medium of education he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbors, teachers, etc.
  11. Education is balanced development: Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. it performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person.
  12. Education is a dynamic process: Education is not a static, but a dynamic process, which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society.
  13. Education is a bipolar process: According to Adams, education is a bipolar process in which one personality acts on another to modify the development of other person. The process is not only conscious but deliberate.
  14. Education is a three dimensional process: John Dewey has rightly remarked, ‘All educations proceeds by participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race.’ Thus it is the society, which will determine the aims, contents and methods of teachings. In this way the process of education consists of three poles—the teacher, the child and the society.
  15. Education as growth: The end of growth is more growth and the end of education is more education. According to John Dewey, ‘an individual is a changing and growing personality.’ The purpose of education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth. Therefore, the role of education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.

CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION

  1. Education is a bipolar as well as tripolar process.
  2. Education is a child-centred process.
  3. Education is a deliberate as well as internal process.
  4. Education is a psychological process.
  5. Education is not literacy.
  6. Education is a sociological process.
  7. Education is a lifelong process.
  8. Education is more than instruction and teaching.
  9. Education is more than giving information.
  10. Education is developing knowledge, skills and attitudes.6

AIMS OF EDUCATION Need of Aims of Education Education is a purposeful activity. By education we intend to bring certain desirable changes in the students. Education is a conscious effort and, as such, it has definite aims and objectives. In the light of these aims the curriculum is determined and the academic achievements of the student are measured.

Education without aim is like a boat without its rudder. Aims give direction to activity. Absence of an aim in education makes it a blind alley. Every stage of human development had some aim of life. The aims of life determine aims of education. The aims of education have changed from age to age and thus it is dynamic because the aims of life are dynamic.

Aims give direction to activities. Aims of education are formulated keeping in view the needs of situation. Human nature is multisided with multiple needs, which are related to life. Educational aims are correlated to ideals of life. The goal of education should be the full flowering of the human on this earth.

According to a UNESCO study, “the physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man/woman is the fundamental aim of education.” The goal of education is also to form children into human persons committed to work for the creation of human communities of love, fellowship, freedom, justice and harmony.

Students are to be moulded only by making them experience the significance of these values in the school itself. Teachers could achieve this only by the lived example of their lives manifested in hundreds of small and big transactions with students in word and deed.

Individual and Social Aims Individual aims and social aims are the most important aims of education. They are opposed to each other individual aims gives importance for the development of the individuality. Social aim gives importance to the development of society through individual not fulfilling his desire.

But it will be seen that development of individuality assumes meaning only in a social environment. Education is essential for every society and individual. It is life itself, but not a preparation for life. Man has various qualities. These qualities of the individual should be developed for the improvement of the country.

  1. Development of inborn potentialities: Education helps the child to develop the inborn potentialities of child providing scope to develop.
  2. Modifying behavior: Education helps to modify the past behavior through learning and through different agencies of education.
  3. All-round development: Education aims at the all round development of child—physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual.
  4. Preparing for the future: After completion of education the child can earn its livelihood getting proper education, which has productivity. The education should be imparted according to the own interest of the child.7
  5. Developing personality: The whole personality of the child is developed physically, intellectually, morally, socially, aesthetically and spiritually. He/She is recognized in the society.
  6. Helping for adjustability: Man differs from beast. Man has reasoning and thinking power. Man tries his best to adjust with his own environment through education.

Individual Aims Sir Percy Nunn observes, ‘Nothing goods enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women and that educational practice must be shaped the individual. Education should give scope to develop the inborn potentialities through maximum freedom.’ Because:

  1. Biologists believe that every individual is different from others. Every child is a new and unique product and a new experiment with life. Thompson says, ‘Education is for the individual’. Individual should be the center of all educational efforts and activities.
  2. Naturalists believe that central aim of education is the autonomous development of the individual. Rousseau said, ‘Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Author of Nature, but everything degenerates in the hands of man.’ God makes all things good, man meddles with them and they become evil. God creates everything good man makes it evil. So individual should be given maximum freedom for its own development.
  3. Psychologists believe that education is an individual process because of individual differences. No two individuals are alike. So education should be according to the interest of the individual.

Functions of Education Towards Society Social change and control The society is never station. It is progressive and dynamic. The child lives in society. It is the social environment where the personality of the child can be developed. The old traditions, customs are preserved and transmitted with the situations, which are ever changing.

We should not think or believe in the blind beliefs, which are hindrances towards the development. Education helps to walk with the development of science and technology. Reconstruction of experiences Education is lifelong process. Life is education and education is life. Life is full of experiences. One cannot live with his/her past experiences, which are unable to adjust in the society.

So education helps the individual to reconstruct the experience and adjust with the environment. Development of social and moral value Society is always in tension with narrowism. There is no social or moral value. Now the man is behaving similar to an animal.

Animality can be changed with moral education. Education teaches the moral value and social value such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, fellow feelings, love affection, respect towards elder, helping the poor and needy persons. Providing opportunity or equality Indian Constitution has introduced the term ‘equality’ because we are not getting equal opportunities in all aspects.

Education teaches us to give equal opportunities in all aspects irrespective of caste, creed, color, sex and religion.8 Social aim The supporters believe that society or state is supreme or real. The individual is only a means. The progress of the society is the aim of education.

  • Education is for the society and of the society.
  • The function of education is for the welfare of the state.
  • The state will make the individual as it desires.
  • It prepares the individual to play different roles in society.
  • Individuality has no value and personality is meaningless apart from society.
  • If society will develop individual will develop automatically.
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Here society plays an important role. Synthesis between Individual and Social Aims of Education Individual aim and social aim of education go independently. Both are opposing to each other. It is not in reality. Neither the individual nor the society, can exist.

  1. Inculcation of civic and social responsibility: Education helps to make rising generation to understand its rights and duties as citizens of a democratic country.
  2. Training for leadership: The leadership quality of the individual is developed when he/she participates in all spheres of social, political, religious and educational activities.
  3. National integration: We are living in one country having diversities in respect of color, caste, language, diet, dress, habits and physical environment. Educational integration leads to emotional integration. Education trains people for unity, not for locality, for democracy and not for dictatorship. Education serves the most important end of educating the man.
  4. Total national development: Education helps for bringing about total national development by developing its all aspects, i.e. social, economic, cultural, spiritual, moral, educational, etc.

Therefore, really education is an essential ingredient for all ages and stages of the life of an individual, society as well as the nation. Education can be a real panacea for all social evils. Vocational Aim The vocational aim is also known as ‘the utilitarian aim or the bread and butter aim.’ The above stated ideals of education are useless unless these aims enable us to procure the primary needs of our life food, shelter and clothing.

  1. Education must help the child to earn his/her livelihood.
  2. Education, therefore, must prepare the child for some future profession or vacation or trade.
  3. The vocational aim is a narrow aim of education.
  4. Therefore, the vocational aim is not a complete aim by itself.
  5. Nowledge or Information Aim Educationists who hold the knowledge or information aim of education justify their stand with powerful arguments.

They argue that knowledge is indispensable for all right action and it is the source of all power. ‘It is knowledge, which makes a realist a visionary successful in any profession’. Culture Aim The cultural aim of education has been suggested to supplement the narrow view of knowledge aim.

The cultural aim of education is no doubt a nice aim as it produces men of culture. But it is ambiguous and has too many meanings. It cannot serve as the major aim of education.9 Character Formation Aim or the Moral Aim Character is the cream of life and, as such, it should be the aim of education. Vivekananda and Gandhi both emphasized character building in education.

Character formation or moral education is concerned with the whole conduct of man. The Secondary Education Commission (1951–52) has rightly remarked: ‘character education has to be visualized not in a social vacuum, but with reference to contemporary socioeconomic and political situation.’ Therefore, we can conclude that only character building cannot be the aim of education.

  • Spiritual Aim The idealist thinkers have opined that the spiritual development of an individual should be the supreme aim of education.
  • Mahatma Gandhi has attached great importance to spiritual values in education.
  • Adjustment Aim Adjustment is the primary rule of human life.
  • Without adjustment to environment none can survive.

Life is a struggle for adjustment. In the words of Horney ‘education should be man’s adjustment to his nature, to his fellows and to the ultimate nature of the cosmos. Leisure Aim ‘Free and unoccupied time’ of an individual is generally known as leisure.

  • It is a time when we can use it in a creative way.
  • During leisure we can pursue an activity for own sake and not for earning a living, which is dull and monotonous.
  • During leisure we can also regain the lost energy and enthusiasm.
  • Leisure can make the life dynamic and charming.
  • Citizenship Training Aim A citizen has to perform multifarious civic duties and responsibilities.

Children should be so trained by education that they can successfully discharge their various civic duties and responsibilities. The Secondary Education Commission in India (1951–1952) has greatly emphasized citizenship training in schools. Such training includes the development of certain qualities to character such as clear thinking, clearness in speech and writing, art of community living, cooperation, toleration, sense of patriotism and sense of world citizenship.

  • Complete Living Aim Some educationists have insisted upon the need of an all—comprehensive aim of education.
  • This viewpoint has led to the development of two aims ‘the complete living aim’ and the ‘harmonious development aim.’ According to Horney ‘there is no one final aim, subordinating all lesser aims to itself.

There is something in all these aims, but not everything in any one of them.’ Harmonious Development Aim Educationists are of the opinion that all the powers and capacities inherited by a child should be developed harmoniously and simultaneously. Gandhiji is a strong advocate of the harmonious development.

Social Aim From the above discussion it is clearly evident that no individual can live and grow without social context. Individual life became unbearable to man and that is why he formed society.10 Individual security and welfare depend on the society. Individual improvement is conditioned by social progress.

Education should make each individual socially efficient. A socially efficient individual is able to earn his/her livelihood. The Functions of Education

  1. Ability to convert the young blood of the society into the productive and responsible citizens for the country.
  2. Creating awareness among the individuals regarding their own self and their surroundings so that they can be aware of their problems and can formulate ways to improve the standards of living.
  3. Create job opportunities and employment, which improves the gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita income of a country.
  4. Gives strength and self-confidence in the nation by means of using education as an important weapon for achieving competence.
  5. To contribute the development of society by providing skillful individuals to the business and government organizations.

NURSING EDUCATION Nursing education is a professional education, which is consciously and systematically planned and implemented, through instruction, and discipline and aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, aesthetic powers or abilities of the student in order to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a veracity of settings, in the best or highest possible manner.

  1. To prepare nurses who will give expert bedside nursing care in the hospital and home.
  2. To provide opportunities through curricular and extracurricular activities for the full development of the personality of each individual student.
  3. To provide integration of health and social expects.
  4. To basic purpose of nursing education is to prepare the nurse and able to plan for and give comprehensive nursing care.
  5. Nurse must have the necessary knowledge, principles, skills and attitudes which are essential to professional nursing practices.
  6. The nurse educators should guide the learning activities of students by acting as facilitators.
  7. Nursing students must develop competent health team members with sound judgment, intellectual and moral enlighten, professional competence and expertise.
  8. Nurse should be competent in teaching, oriented to community health and research–minded.
  9. Well qualified, competent nurses are needed to meet the needs of people in the society. Nursing care is an important and integral aspects of health care.
  10. Nursing education should impart scientific and up-to- date knowledge in the areas of medical, social, behavioral and biological sciences.
  11. Nursing education should have sufficient theory content and practical experiences.
  12. Nursing education should prepare nurses as good leaders to provide qualitative care.
  13. The nurse leader are responsible for effective nursing education, nursing education should aim to identify potential nursing leaders and facilitating for the development.11
  14. To improve the professional development of each nurse and their profession.
  15. For all round personality development of individual with nursing education nurse will develop and grow as a person of self-awareness, self-direction and self-motivation.

Aims of Nursing Education

  1. Harmonious development: Nursing education aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual and esthetic powers or abilities of the student. Harmonious development is essential for achieving the qualities required for leading a successful profession and personal life. In short, nursing education aims to prepare students as good human beings with qualities of a professional nurse.
  2. Including the right attitude: Right attitude towards nursing form the basic of nursing career. Right attitude helps to adjust with the student life and motivate to achieve excellence in the upcoming professional life. Nursing education offers a variety of learning experience with an attitude among students.
  3. Knowledge and skill aim: Nursing education provides the much needed knowledge and skill required to practice the profession in a successful manner. Technological advancement in the field of education helps nurse educator to fulfill this aim in a meticulous way.
  4. Emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach: High-tech-high-touch approaches in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of the technical advancements in the field of patient care. Nurse educators have to motivate the students of maintain the human elements of nursing, while rendering care with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
  5. Prepare students to take up a role in learning: The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupil has practically disappeared. To a certain extent this is applicable to nursing education also. Nurse educator of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students to adopt a proactive role in learning so that they will actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
  6. Professional development: Nursing education prepares the students to render professional nursing care in the best or highest possible manner. Nurse educators can fulfill the professional aspirations of the students by way of providing guidance, arranging adequate learning experience and serving as role models. The need of professional development in this era of competition and knowledge explosion should be explained properly to the students.
  7. Assist to build a promising career: Nursing profession offers a veriety of career opportunities. Helping students to realize their potential and interests will enable them to build a promising career. Helping to relive their potential and interests will enable them to build a promising career.
  8. Citizenship: Nursing education should motivate the student to perform his/her duties as a citizen for the welfare of the fellow human being.
  9. Social aim: Nursing education prepares the student to become a useful member in the society. This will in turn help them to interact effectively with the people and render dedicated care without any discrimination.
  10. To prepare global nurse: Globalization and liberalization has created world wide opportunities for professional nurses ever than before. Today a competent nurse with good knowledge in English can easily build a career in other nations. Considering the high demand 12 of Indian nurses in the international context, we can add nurses one more aim, namely preparation of global nurse.
  11. Leadership aim: Since nursing profession is experiencing a shortage of eminent leaders. Leadership aim is very important. Nursing education has to nurture leadership abilities among students.

Factors Influencing Nursing Education

  • Health needs of the people in the society
  • Needs of the student and time
  • Philosophy of nursing
  • Current trends in general and professional education
  • Advances in sciences and technology.

NURSING PROGRAMS Diversity is the major characteristic of nursing education today. Influenced by a variety of factors such as social change, efforts to achieve full professional status, woman issues, historical factors, public expectations, expectations of nurses themselves, legislation, national studies and constant changes in the healthcare systems many different types of nursing education programs exist.

Meaning and Definition Nursing educational programs may be defined as in large part that influencing of one group of human beings, the pupils to grow towards defined objectives; utilizing a second group of human beings, the teacher as agents and operating in a setting of third group of human being, the public variously concerned both with objectives and with means used to achieve them.

Nursing Educational Programs At present the various nursing educational programs are there ( Table 1.1 ). We can classify these programs into following courses. Table 1.1 Various Nursing Educational Programs

Classifications Nursing programs
Certificate courses ANM ‡ course/ HW § (F) course/ HA ↓ (F) course/ LHV *
Diploma GNM ¶ course
Degree (UG) +
  • ** BSc Nursing (basic)
  • BSc Nursing (post certificate)
  • PB BSc Nursing
Post basic diploma courses
Masters education post graduation (PG)
  • Master of Nursing (MN)
  • MSc ++, nursing
  • Mphil in nursing
Doctoral Programs PhD ‡‡ in nursing.
* LHV, lady health visitor; + UG undergraduates; ‡ ANM, auxiliary nurse midwifery; § HW, health worker; ↓ HA, health assistant; ¶ GNM, general nursing and midwifery; ** BSc, Bacherlor of science; ++ MSc, Master of science; ‡‡ PhD, Doctor of philosophy.

13 Certificate Courses Multipurpose Health Worker Training The training grew out of the earlier auxiliary nursing and midwifery (ANM) course. The ANM training was for 2 years and mainly covered a maternal and child care, and family welfare. In keeping with the policies of the government of India to have multipurpose health workers, the Indian Nursing Council revised the ANM’s syllabus in 1977 and reduced the duration to 18 months.

  1. The focus of training is on community health nursing.
  2. At the end of the course the candidates are eligible to work in health subcenters.
  3. There are about 500 schools in India offering this course in India at present.
  4. The multipurpose health assistant (male) training course is also conducted in some states of India with an 18 months duration.

Female Health Supervisor Training This course was initially meant as a health visitor training course. It went through several modifications in course of time and finally metamorphosed into the present 6 months promotional training. The female health supervisor or MPHA (F) course is currently conducted in 21 centers in India.

  1. Besides this basic course, several states have their own promotional courses as requirement for ANMs to be qualified for promotion to supervisors.
  2. General Nursing and Midwifery The general nursing and midwifery course is conducted in more than 1,000 centers in the country.
  3. The syllabus has undergone many revisions according to the changes in health plans and policies of the government and changing trends, and advancements in education, nursing, health sciences and medical technology.

The latest revision of the general nursing syllabus by the Indian Nursing Council (INC) in 1988 had reduced the duration of the course from 3.6 years to 3 years. The basic entrance qualification has become intermediate or class XII instead of the earlier 10th class.

  • Both science and arts students are eligible.
  • The focus of general nursing education is care of the sick in the hospital.
  • On passing the candidates are registered as nurses (RN) and as midwives (RM) by the respective state nursing councils.
  • Degree (Undergraduate) There are two types of graduate nursing education in India—one is of 4 year basic course for fresh entrance and the second is condensed postbasic course for those who have undergone the GNM course.4 Year Bachelor of Science in Nursing Graduate nursing education started in India in the year of 1946 in Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore and in the Rajkumari Amrit Kaur (RAK) College of Nursing at Delhi University.

At present several universities in India offer the course. The entry qualification is intermediate with biological sciences, physics and chemistry. The course focuses on preparation of professional nurses for working at the bedside and for taking up leadership roles in public health nursing.

The course also includes managerial and teaching subjects to prepare graduates to take up first level teaching and administrative jobs in the hospital. Overall, the graduate nursing course in the country offers a broad base in both arts and sciences, and lays the foundation for a holistic perspective to health and caring.

Post Basic BSc (N) A 2 year degree course in nursing is offered in several universities in India. This course was specially designed to provide higher educational opportunities for practicing nurses. The entry 14 requirement is that they should have completed the general nursing course and XII (usually with science).

  • Most places also ask for 1 year after completing the diploma (GNM) course.
  • Two exams are conducted by the universities one at the end of the 1st year and the other at the end of the 2nd year.
  • BSc Nursing (IGNOU) Distance education in postbasic nursing has also been started by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1994.

This has provided an opening for diploma nurses all over the country to undertake higher education. The IGNOU offers courses through its study centers throughout the country. Post Basic Diploma Courses These courses are designed for higher studies in chosen specialties.

  • Normally, the duration is 1 year.
  • Candidates who had successfully completed there GNM/BSc Nursing programs can apply.
  • In some institutes its mandatory to complete 2 years of work experience to attain eligibility for the course.
  • The clinical setting offers plenty of opportunities for the successful candidates.
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Nurses who successfully complete these programs are given due consideration for promotion.m The following are the post basic diploma courses, which are taught in various institutes in India:

  1. Diploma in Neuro Nursing.
  2. Diploma in Cardiac Nursing.
  3. Diploma in Psychiatric Nursing.
  4. Diploma in Critical Care Nursing.
  5. Diploma in Neonatal Nursing.
  6. Diploma in Operation Theater Technique.
  7. Diploma in Nursing Education and Administration.

Candidates who had successfully completed Diploma in Nursing Education and Administration are eligible to be appointed as tutors in School of Nursing. Postgraduate Nursing Education Master of Science in Nursing MSc (N) course is presently being offered in several universities in the country.

  1. The 2 year course is designed to prepare clinical and community health nursing specialists.
  2. Besides clinical specialization the students are thought to conduct research in nursing.
  3. A thesis is submitted by each student in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree.
  4. Courses in education and administration are given to prepare the students to take up responsibility in education and administration in nursing and allied health areas.

The entrance requirement is BSc (N) and 1 year experience as a clinical nurse or instructor. Entrance test is mandatory in reputed institutes. University exams are conducted at the end of the academic year or semesters. MPhil and PhD programs Till a few years ago nurses had to travel abroad to study PhD course or seek admission in allied disciplines.

In the 80’s RAK College of Nursing started an MPhil program as a regular and part time course. Since then several universities started registering candidates for PhD in nursing. Prominent among these are MGR Medical University, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health 15 Sciences, SNDT University and Delhi University.

The Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) has started both MPhil and PhD program in nursing through support from the WHO. However, nurses keen to obtain doctorate degrees continue to seek admission into universities and departments with related disciplines such as community health, nutrition, social sciences.
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What is importance of aims of education?

What Do You Understand By Aims Of Education Education is a continuous lifelong process. The aim of education is to provide direction to the process of education. There are different aims of education like social aim, vocational aim, cultural aim, moral aim, spiritual aim, intellectual aim, etc. Medical -surgical Nursing Quiz Social Aim Human being is considered to be a social animal.

Education can make him to be a productive member of the society. Every individual is born with some potential. It is the education that helps the individual to meet his potential. Society is considered to be the result of interaction among the individuals either in small or large group. Education ensures peaceful existence of the society.

By education, students realize the importance of social values like justice, fair play, healthy competition and harmony, etc. Education makes the individual accountable to the community and the nation. With social aims, education gives direction to the society in its development.

Vocational Aim Process of education makes the individual to be capable of his livelihood, so that he can useful and lead a productive life in the society. The individual respects the dignity of labour. This aim makes him self-reliant and sufficient and fills the gap between education and vocation. Vocational aim has utilitarian dimension too.

Education provides knowledge and skills to an individual in a fruitful manner. Cultural Aim Education has a cultural aim also. By undergoing education, child becomes civilized and cultured. An educated person develops aesthetic sense and respects other’s culture.

Nowing the culture includes gaining or acquiring knowledge about existing beliefs of a society, art, morals, laws, etc. Moral Aim Education helps in building up of character of an individual. Most values like honesty, truthfulness, justice, goodness, purity, courage, punctuality, and dutifulness are nurtured through education.

Old Question Paper Spiritual Aim Education is necessary to promote spirituality among the individuals. He raises himself above self-interest and works for the welfare of others, which is called to be the state of self-actualization. He not only preaches right or wrong, but also practices it in his life.
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What is the aim of education Wikipedia?

Left to right, from top: Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, in Prague, Czech Republic ; School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktia Province, Afghanistan; Student participants in the FIRST Robotics Competition, Washington, D.C.; Early childhood education through USAID in Ziway, Ethiopia Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits,

These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty, Various researchers emphasize the role of critical thinking in order to distinguish education from indoctrination, Some theorists require that education results in an improvement of the student while others prefer a value-neutral definition of the term.

In a slightly different sense, education may also refer, not to the process, but to the product of this process: the mental states and dispositions possessed by educated people. Education originated as the transmission of cultural heritage from one generation to the next.

  1. Today, educational goals increasingly encompass new ideas such as the liberation of learners, skills needed for modern society, empathy, and complex vocational skills,
  2. Types of education are commonly divided into formal, non-formal, and informal education,
  3. Formal education takes place in education and training institutions, is usually structured by curricular aims and objectives, and learning is typically guided by a teacher,

In most regions, formal education is compulsory up to a certain age and commonly divided into educational stages such as kindergarten, primary school and secondary school, Nonformal education occurs as addition or alternative to formal education. It may be structured according to educational arrangements, but in a more flexible manner, and usually takes place in community-based, workplace-based or civil society-based settings.

  • Lastly, informal education occurs in daily life, in the family, any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational, whether unintentional or intentional,
  • In practice there is a continuum from the highly formalized to the highly informalized, and informal learning can occur in all three settings.

For instance, homeschooling can be classified as nonformal or informal, depending upon the structure. Regardless of setting, educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and directed research, The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy,

Education is supported by a variety of different philosophies, theories and empirical research agendas, There are movements for education reforms, such as for improving quality and efficiency of education towards relevance in students’ lives and efficient problem solving in modern or future society at large, or for evidence-based education methodologies,

A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations, Global initiatives aim at achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 4, which promotes quality education for all.
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What are the aims of education in India?

What are the Aims and Objectives of Education? Education is a never-ending journey. Its primary goal is to promote a child’s holistic development. As the child grows, the results of education are visible in the form of a better and more prosperous life.

Education teaches us to distinguish between fair and evil, unethical and ethical.Education provides a person hope that they will be able to address the difficulties that humanity is currently facing.Education empowers you to challenge everything that appears to be incorrect.Education teaches you how to conduct yourself correctly and effectively.Education assists you in discovering the truth and challenges you to think in new ways.Illusions get dispelled by proper education.It increases your awareness and confidence.Education aims to develop children into good citizens. Responsible citizens apply their learning and gained skills to help themselves and others. They help to move the human race ahead in areas such as equality, justice, and harmony.

Aims of Education Vocational Aim: Education enables students to make a good living in the future. It makes them independent and successful not just culturally but also financially. Occupational competence should be a strong focus of education. Knowledge: Knowledge is as essential for intellectual development as nutrition is for body development.

It encourages lifestyle changes, self-realization, and societal progress. Thus, knowledge is as much a source of strength as comfort. It leads to effective interpersonal relationships and healthy life adaptations. Thus, knowledge acquisition should be a significant goal of education. Complete Living: Education must familiarise a child with the actions of healthy living.

These may include childbearing and childrearing, consciousness, activities connected to socioeconomic and cultural responsibilities, and aspects linked to the appropriate use of free time. Total Development: Education seeks to grow the overall personality of the learner.

These include physiological, intellectual, moral, social, and spiritual growth. Harmonious development: Harmonious development refers to the overall growth of humans. It includes physical, mental, artistic, and ethical aspects of growth. The goal of education is to develop a balanced personality. Education must nurture every child’s capabilities and qualities in a coordinated manner.

Moral Development: Herbert Spencer, an outstanding English educationist, placed a high value on this educational goal. He considered that education should help children develop moral ideals. Education must develop attributes like kindness, integrity, courage, respect, and honesty.

Character Development: According to some educational systems, this is the ultimate goal of education. It is believed that education comprises the nurturing of particular human ideals. Education helps the formation of mindsets and preferences that comprise a person’s personality. Some renowned personalities, such as Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda, and John Dewey, regarded character development as the fundamental goal of education.

Self-realization: According to some professional educators, this is one of the most important aims of education. Education should assist a person in becoming what they need to become, depending on their specific potentials. Cultural Development: Through education, every individual must become sophisticated and civilized.

  1. Artistic growth is also a crucial component of education and results in the improvement of artistic sense and compassion.
  2. Further, it increases an individual’s regard for others and their cultures.
  3. Citizenship: We educate students to become excellent citizens of their country.
  4. Education helps them acquire traits that will benefit society.

It makes them aware of their commitments, obligations, and responsibilities to society. This goal is critical in a democratic setting. As a democratic citizen, the child should be taught to respect diverse ideas. He should be able to balance rational thinking, openness to new perspectives, and nationalism.

  • Personal and Community Goals: A few educationists believe that the most crucial goal of education is the complete growth and evolution of the student.
  • In contrast, others believe that the fundamental goal of education is societal growth.
  • Humans are social beings who require a community to survive.
  • A person owes everything to society that they must repay.

One must work for the betterment of society. Individuals need communities, and communities require individuals. Individual growth requires social connections and bonds. Education should aid in developing and maintaining a sense of commitment and devotion to society and its interests.

  • Education should create a synergy between personal and social goals.
  • They must be mutually beneficial.
  • There is no necessity for any dispute between the two.
  • The ultimate goal of education is a child’s progression as a community member.
  • Personal ambition and social provision should complement each other.

Individual and societal development should take place at the same time. Education for Leisure: Leisure is defined as time spent for recreation purposes. Leisure is an essential aspect of human life. It is required to maintain rest and replenish energy. One should spend leisure time on tasks that benefit both the individual and the community.

Leisure, when used appropriately, creates cognitive and emotional equilibrium. Practical leisure time usage can stimulate creative, ethical, and aesthetic advancements. Children should be taught how to spend their free time productively and imaginatively. Elevating all aspects of personal and societal growth is the foundation of education.

The aims of education reflect the need and perspectives of education. These aims simply indicate the effect education must have on the learner. The aims are not definite or everlasting. With time, we can update and modify the aims of education as per the current requirements.
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Why are aims important?

Why do businesses set objectives? – Businesses set aims and objectives to help with decision making. This allows businesses to decide what their main focus should be. Aims and objectives also show key stakeholders, such as investors and employees, the direction the business is planning to take.

  1. This could make them more likely to support new projects.
  2. Employees may also be motivated by these goals, encouraging them to work harder to achieve them.
  3. Aims and objectives also allow the business to set targets which can then be used to measure progress.
  4. Objectives are set to help a business to achieve its aims.

Objectives are often set using the SMART rule.

  • S – Specific
  • M – Measurable
  • A – Agreed
  • R – Realistic
  • T – Time-bound

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What are the aims of education class 11?

Concept and Aims of Education –

  • Chapter: 1
  • EDUCATION
  • TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER

1. What is education? Explain its meaning by giving suitable definitions. Ans: Education is one of the most powerful agencies in moulding the character and personality of the individual and determining the future of individuals and nations. According to Plato and Aristotle education as a process of collection of information and knowledge which helps intellectual growth and development.

Rousseau regarded education as “plants are developed by cultivation and men by education “. Rabindranath regards education as “that process which makes one ‘s life in harmony with all existence and thus enables the mind to find the ultimate truth which gives as wealth of inner light and “. According to swami Vivekananda “Education is the manifestation of Divine perfection already existing in man.2.

From which word, the word ‘Education ‘ has originated? Ans: The word ‘education’ has a Latin derivation. In Latin the word “Educare” means “to draw out”, “to bring up “, “to foster”.3. Explain the scope of Education. Ans: The literal meaning of scope is “range”.

  1. Scope means area or subject matter of study with views, outlook, planning, effectiveness, operation and application on the concerned person is a comprehensive way.
  2. Education is a comprehensive concept which includes the knowledge obtained through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and other means in addition to the formal education provided in the schools and colleges.

It enables the child to earn his livelihood and to behave properly, in accordance with his age. Education attempts to develop the personality of the child and prepare him for membership of the society. Personality comprises the physical, social, mental, emotional and spiritual characteristics of the person.

Education thus becomes a process leading to the enlightenment of mankind and it is the most formidable tool for survival. It means intellectual growth alone is not the creation for education, but also emotional maturity and ethical awareness is also essential. Education is incomplete without the formation of good habits.

The purposes of education in this respect is not merely to contribute to the continuity of culture but also to change peacefully and rationally the material foundation of civilization. Thus in real understanding education is life which includes manners, values morals, taste, skills attitudes personality and belief etc.

On the other hand the modern approach of education is child centred education. A modern educator who swears by modern techniques of teaching must understand the child where he plays the most significant role. The role of the teacher is also indispensable as his responsibility has also really increased.

Today besides transmitting knowledge, a teacher’s function is to develop himself as a facility to the child. Therefore, from the purview of education scope of education is concerned with the “whole man the entire life of an individual. It’s scope is very wide.

It is as wide as the whole world and long as the history of mankind.4. Write briefly about the narrow and wider meaning of education. Ans: The Narrow Meaning of Education : The most general and common meaning of education is schooling. In common parlance, people regard this concept of education to be synonyms with intellectual knowledge or formal instructions.

From the narrow stand point education means more literacy, the knowledge of 3R’s (reading, writing and arithmetic). In this narrow sense a man is said to be educated if he has a vast storehouse of information or has passed some examinations from educational institutions.

From this standpoint therefore, the importance of the knowledge of 3R’s is the only function which education has to discharge. But this is a very narrow meaning of this concept because education includes not only the special influence of formal educational institutions but also many other indirect influences of some other agencies lying outside the school like the library, the press, the cinema, the family etc.

The Wider meaning of education : in the wider and less definite sense educational implies the influence of the whole environment upon the individual. It is infact a process of development. In the words of Raymont- “Educational means that process of development in which consists of the passage of human beings from infancy to maturity the process whereby he gradually adopts himself in various ways to this physical, social and spiritual environment “.

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In this comprehensive sense education is a process of growth and all experience is education. It is a continuous process of modification. In the words John Dewey, the famous educationist of America, “Life itself is development and developing itself is life. Education is also a life-long process of development.

‘ In fact “whatever broadens our mental outlook, sharpens our insight, refines other reactions and stimulates our thought and feeling educates us”. Education in this sense does not cease with the cessation of school life. It has no end beyond more growth and changes.

  • In the words of Durville – “Education in its wide sense includes all influences which set upon the individual during the passage from the cradle to the grave”-Mahatma Gandhi also made a remark that education covers the entire field of life.
  • There is nothing in life however small which is not the concern of education.

Dewey also remarked “Education is all one with growing, it has no end beyond itself “.5. Education is a “Bi-polar” as well as “Tri-polar process “- Discuss. Ans: Education – A Bi-polar Process : Modern education regards education as a Bi-polar process.

  1. It involves the interplay of the educator and the educant.
  2. Bi-polar process means the personality of the educator which modifies the behavior of the child and on the other hand the personality of the child also acts on the personality of the educator.
  3. This process is not only conscious but also deliberate.

According to Dewey this process has psychological and sociological side. The psychology side is the basis of this process. It furnishes the materials and given the starting points for all education. In order to make education real and useful, the educator must know about the nature, interest and activities of the educant.

  • Education – A Tri-polar Process : Education is also regarded as a Tri-polar process involving the interaction of the personality of the educators on that of the educand in a social setting which affects the modification of the behaviour of the educand.
  • According to John Dewey on the other hand, the sociological side is more important to which he belongs.

Social conditions should be studied by the teacher and mould the child according to the social setting. Therefore, education is considered as a tripolar process where teacher, student and society community is interrelated.6. Explain the following concepts: (a) Education as a lifelong process.

Ans: Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effects of everything which influences human personality. (b) Educational as modification of human behaviour. Ans: Education is the modification of behaviour. It enlarges human experience and so it produces some change in one’s behaviour which involves thinking, feeling and action.

(c) Education as an instrument of social change. Ans: Society is changing frequently, education helps to bring the constant changes of society. Children of the society get the correct concept of right and wrong from the help of education. Through education old customs and other things can be modified and they can accept some new and progressive changes.

  1. 7. Write briefly on:
  2. (a) Formal education
  3. (b) Informal education
  4. (c) Non-Formal education

Ans: (a) Formal education: Formal education is important in a school, college or in any form of institution. It is planned with a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific period of time.

  • In the formal educational system there is a systematic well-defined curriculum in the formal system of education.
  • Formal system of education carries strict discipline, management and rules in the institution.
  • Formal education is concerned with the teachers, taught and the schools, colleges and other types of institutions.

In the formal type of institutions there is rigidity in attendance and programs in their own systems. Formal education is fully structured to teach something and around this lies everything else -namely the staff, equipment religions institutions etc.

Formal education is given by specially qualified teachers. They are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction. (b) Informal education : Informal education is not preplanned. It is by nature, wide and more comprehensive which comprises many and vivid experiences provided by the environment. In formal education it is quite incidental, situational and spontaneous leaving all the formalities.

Informal agencies of education are such as home, social and religious institutions, cinema, radio, television, press, libraries films and other such agencies. The influence of these agencies are very important and significant informal education is not given according to any fixed time-table or through formal means of education.

A number of experts define informal education as ‘The process by which a person imbibes attitudes, develops skills, cultivates values and acquires knowledge, without these bring any organization or system about it. This would include the deliberate attempts of parents and others in the family and community to help the young ones grow and adapt themselves to the environment.

Informal education also includes all incidental learning that takes place while at work or at play and during travels as well as spontaneous learning through films, radio and television. (c) Non-Formal Education : Non-Formal Education is modern and recent in concept, scope and method.

  • It is life-long with learning integrated with life and work.
  • Non-formal education is consciously and deliberately organised and systematically implemented.
  • Non-formal education is by nature a continuous process.
  • The aim of this education is all round development of man.
  • It is a process of enabling the individual to understand his own needs, the environmental situation, the social goals and mutual relationship.

Non-formal education helps in sharing, exploring, analysing and judging together with maximum participation of the learners. Non-formal education is also pre-planned life formal education, The education under non-formal education is also given by experienced teachers but mostly through correspondence.

  • It is need based, flexible and dynamic.
  • The programmes of non-formal education are also organised round the temples, mosques and churches, some secular institutions also conduct programmes like dance, music, folk drama, etc.
  • Presently the non-formal education is modified with the form of liberal and vocational education.

In non-formal education, education certificate degrees are awarded on the basis of evaluation. Non-formal education encourages healthy points of departure towards progress. It anticipates and prepares for change for the future. Non-formal education is based on the principle of maximisation on human potentialities.

  • 8. Distinguish between :
  • (a) Formal and informal education.
  • Ans: Difference between formal and informal education :
  • Formal education
  • (1) Formal education has formal means and purpose.
  • (2) Schools are the formal agencies of education.
  • (3) In formal education there is a formal course of study.
  • (4) In formal education there is beginning and end.
  • (5) Only qualified teachers impart formal education.
  • (6) Formal education is dominated by examination.
  • (7) Formal education came into existence after informal education.
  • (8) Rules regulations and discipline are indispensable parts of formal Education.
  • (9) In formal education there is limited freedom for the individuals.
  • (10) Formal education is expensive.

(11) Formal education awards Degree, Diploma etc. to the individual.

  1. (12) Formal education is pre-planned and designed.
  2. (13) Formal education is time, space and age bound.
  3. Informal education
  4. (1) Informal education has no such means and purpose.
  5. (2) The various constituents of society are the agencies of informal education.
  6. (3) In informal education there is no syllabi or formal course.
  7. (4) Informal education is a life long process having no beginning and end.
  8. (5) Different individuals and agencies imparinterest education.
  9. (6) In informal speech there is no place for examination.
  10. (7) Informal education proceeds formal education.
  11. (8) Informal education is regulated by rules regulations and discipline.
  12. (9) There is ample freedom for the individual in informal education.
  13. (10) Informal education is not expensive.
  14. (11) In informal education there is no provision for awarding Degrees, Diploma etc.
  15. (12) Informal education is not planned and designed.
  16. (13) Informal education is not bound by time, space and age.
  17. (b) Formal and Non-formal education.
  18. Ans: Formal Education:
  19. (1) Formal education is organised for teaching.
  20. (2) Formal schools are full time institution.
  21. (3) The role of the teacher is more dominating.
  22. (4) Formal education is run by professional teachers in full and Non-professional person.
  23. (5) Formal education is organised through schools and colleges.
  24. (6) In formal education there is uniformity and rigidity.
  25. (7) In formal education attendance is compulsory.
  26. (8) Formal education includes non-workers.
  27. (9) Formal education is centralized.
  28. (10) Formal education is more expensive.
  29. (11) Formal education is space bound and time bound.
  30. (12) Formal education is employment oriented.
  31. Non-formal education
  32. (1) Non-formal education is organized for learning either by one self or by a group.
  33. (2) Non-formal education is part-time.

(3) The role of the teacher is less dominating. Teacher – pupil relationship is more intimate.

  • (4) Non-formal programmes are run by professional and non professional persons.
  • (5) Non-formal education may be organised by social, political, cultural organizations.
  • (6) Non-formal education is characterized by flexibility and diversity.
  • (7) In non-formal education attendance is voluntary.
  • (8) Non-formal education programmes are organized for workers.
  • (9) Non-formal education is decentralized.
  • (10) Non formal education is less expensive.
  • (11) Non-formal education is not space-bound and time bound.
  • (12) Non-formed education is guided by individuals development and motivated by self renewal.

9. Who was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education? Ans: Sir Percy Nunn was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education. See Next Page No Below Hi, I’m Dev Kirtonia, Part-Time Blogger, Web Designer & Digital Marketer. Founder of Dev Library.
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What is the aim of education class 12?

As per the passage, all around development is the true aim of education. Education should train not only the mind but also the hands and the heart.
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What are examples of aims?

Aims – Aims are general statements that provide direction and/or identify an intention to act. Aims identify targets but these are not directly measurable. For example, ‘Maria’s aim is to lose weight’. In education, aims state what a learner might learn or what the teacher might do.
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What meaning is AIM?

Aim verb (POINT) to point or direct a weapon or other object toward someone or something : I turned and saw a big man aiming a camera at me. To aim something is also to direct it toward someone whom you want to influence or toward achieving something: These ads are aimed at young people.
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What is the meaning by AIM?

To point or direct a weapon or other object toward someone or something : I turned and saw a big man aiming a camera at me. To aim something is also to direct it toward someone whom you want to influence or toward achieving something: These ads are aimed at young people.
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What is another meaning of aims?

How does the noun aim contrast with its synonyms? Some common synonyms of aim are design, end, goal, intention, intent, objective, object, and purpose, While all these words mean “what one intends to accomplish or attain,” aim adds to these implications of effort directed toward attaining or accomplishing.

her aim was to raise film to an art form When is design a more appropriate choice than aim ? Although the words design and aim have much in common, design implies a more carefully calculated plan. the order of events came by accident, not design Where would end be a reasonable alternative to aim ? While the synonyms end and aim are close in meaning, end stresses the intended effect of action often in distinction or contrast to the action or means as such.

willing to use any means to achieve his end When would goal be a good substitute for aim ? The words goal and aim can be used in similar contexts, but goal suggests something attained only by prolonged effort and hardship. worked years to reach her goals In what contexts can intent take the place of aim ? The words intent and aim are synonyms, but do differ in nuance.

  • Specifically, intent suggests clearer formulation or greater deliberateness.
  • The clear intent of the statute When might intention be a better fit than aim ? In some situations, the words intention and aim are roughly equivalent.
  • However, intention implies little more than what one has in mind to do or bring about.

announced his intention to marry How are the words object and end related as synonyms of aim ? Object may equal end but more often applies to a more individually determined wish or need. his constant object was the achievement of pleasure When can objective be used instead of aim ? The synonyms objective and aim are sometimes interchangeable, but objective implies something tangible and immediately attainable.
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What is the purpose of aims?

American Indian Movement (AIM) The American Indian Movement (AIM), founded by grassroots activists in Minneapolis in 1968, first sought to improve conditions for recently urbanized Native Americans. It grew into an international movement whose goals included the full restoration of tribal sovereignty and treaty rights.

Through a long campaign of “confrontation politics,” AIM is often credited with restoring hope to Native peoples. AIM’s rise occurred during a time of extreme hardship for Native Americans in the Twin Cities. A decade earlier, the federal government had passed the Indian Relocation Act, which promised good jobs and housing for Natives who moved from reservations into cities.

Many of the thousands who migrated, however, found only low-wage labor, substandard housing, discrimination, violence, and despair. Their spiritual ceremonies, outlawed since 1884, were still illegal. AIM’s initial actions were meant to bolster Minneapolis’s Native population.

To aid victims of police abuse, they formed the, AIM also helped establish the Legal Rights Center, which provided free representation to the poor, and the Indian Health Board, which provided Native-centric medical care. In 1972, AIM founded the, Later that year, AIM widened its focus to the national stage, joining the Trail of Broken Treaties.

The purpose of the walk—which began on the West Coast and ended in Washington, DC—was to demand that the government fulfill its treaty commitments. Upon arrival, AIM members occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs Building. After nearly a week, the Nixon administration agreed to consider their demands and pay for them to return home.

The action made AIM a target of COINTELPRO, the FBI’s covert operation meant to disrupt domestic political organizations. In 1973, AIM received a request from Gladys Bissonette of the Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization. The traditional Lakota people on the Pine Ridge Reservation were being terrorized by white vigilantes and supporters of tribal president Dick Wilson.

In response, AIM joined the traditional Lakotas in occupying the village of Wounded Knee. Surrounded by hundreds of federal agents with military weaponry, the Natives battled government forces for seventy-one days. They demanded hearings on their treaty and investigation of the BIA.

Two Native people, Buddy Lamont and Frank Clearwater, were killed. Major news organizations remained onsite throughout the conflict, reporting headlines across the world. While three men—Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, and Russell Means—are generally acknowledged as leaders of AIM, many Native women also made extraordinary, often anonymous, sacrifices for the movement.

Among these were, an original AIM member whose nearly fifty years of service to the movement earned her the nickname “Grandma AIM”; Sarah Bad Heart Bull, who was beaten and jailed in Custer, South Dakota, while protesting her son’s murder; and Anna Mae Aquash (Mi’kmaq First Nation), who took up arms and fought alongside the men at Wounded Knee.

History may view AIM as a militant group, but AIM saw itself as a spiritual movement. Before, during, and after Wounded Knee, AIM members participated in Sun Dances, sweat lodges, and other long-hidden ceremonies, helping to coax them from the shadows. In 1974, Banks and Means were tried for conspiracy and assault at the federal courthouse in St.

Paul. After a nine-month trial, AIM declared victory when Judge Fred J. Nichols, citing government misconduct, dismissed all charges. The movement, however, had begun to splinter. Infighting, jealousy, and the FBI’s efforts to divide them had sewn suspicion and paranoia.

The murder of Anna Mae Aquash, whose body was discovered on Pine Ridge on February 24, 1975, marked the beginning of the end of a united AIM. Members blamed the FBI and one another, destroying trust within the movement. AIM’s last major action took place in 1978. The Longest Walk was commenced to protest the imprisonment of AIM activist Leonard Peltier and eleven federal bills that threatened treaty rights.

Several hundred Natives marched from San Francisco to Washington, DC. The walk achieved much of its purpose: the anti-Native bills were defeated. But the greatest victory of the walk, and perhaps the movement, came on August 11, just days after protestors arrived: President Jimmy Carter signed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, lifting the ban on Native American spiritual practices.
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What is meant by aims and objectives?

Main Difference – Aim vs Objective – In a general context, the meanings of the two nouns aim and objective overlap to a certain extent. However, in academic context aim and objective has two specific meanings. Aim refers to an intention or a desired outcome; an objective is a more specific and concrete goal or step. What Do You Understand By Aims Of Education
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