What Are The Aims Of Education According To Jainism?
Free 100 Questions 200 Marks 60 Mins Jainism Philosophy of education: According to Jainism, knowledge is through senses and meditation, and teaching must develop these faculties. Assuming Jiva was essentially karmic, Jaina’s education was action-based and ideally oriented.
- The Jain Education holds that the truth is relativistic and pluralist, in a state of ‘maybe’; self-realization as the jiva is divine,
- Jain Education focused on his divinity and attempted to remove the material bond of soul,
- In addition, Jain education aimed at self-enlightenment and restoration of the full powers of the jiva.
Jain education also held that cessation of Karma would disassociate jiva from it and regain its power and glory. The ultimate goal of education in Jainism is ‘ liberation’ as their teachings laid primary emphasis on:
attainment of salvation or moksha from the chain of birth and death. teaching that salvation or moksha is attainable to anyone willing to learn it. different ways of achieving total liberation from rebirth and bodily existence. achieving an ideal state of freedom by the total renunciation of all bodily comforts. the gradual development of liberation into perfection to cut all the physical bondages.
Hence, it could be concluded that the ultimate goal of education in Jainism is ‘ liberation’. Key Points
A Tirthankar is referred to as ‘teaching god’ or ‘Ford Maker’ in Jainism. In Jainism, it is believed that each cosmic age produces 24 Tirthankaras. The Tirthankaras in the art are shown in the Kayotsarga pose (dismissing the body). The 24 Tirthankaras are distinguished from each other by the symbolic colours or emblems.
Rishabhanatha was the first Jain Tirthankara. Ajitnath was the second Jain Tirthankara. Sumatinath was the fifth Jain Tirthankara. Abhinandananatha was the fourth Jain Tirthankara. Parshwanath was the 23 rd Jain Tirthankara. Mahavira was the 24 th Jain Tirthankara.
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- 1 What are the aims of education in philosophy?
- 2 What are the three principles of Jainism?
- 3 What is Jainism short answer?
- 4 What are the 8 types of karma in Jainism?
- 5 Who is the real founder of Jainism?
- 6 What is the Golden Rule of Jainism?
- 7 Can Jains marry?
- 8 What are the 7 philosophy of education philosophy?
What are the aims of Jainism?
The aim of Jainism is to achieve liberation of the soul, which Jains believe can be achieved through a life devoted to non-violence and the rejection of possessions. Jains do not believe in any spiritual beings.
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What are the aims of education in philosophy?
The aims of education – The most basic problem of philosophy of education is that concerning aims: what are the proper aims and guiding ideals of education? What are the proper criteria for evaluating educational efforts, institutions, practices, and products? Many aims have been proposed by philosophers and other educational theorists; they include the cultivation of curiosity and the disposition to inquire; the fostering of creativity; the production of knowledge and of knowledgeable students; the enhancement of understanding; the promotion of moral thinking, feeling, and action; the enlargement of the imagination; the fostering of growth, development, and self-realization; the fulfillment of potential; the cultivation of “liberally educated” persons; the overcoming of provincialism and close-mindedness; the development of sound judgment; the cultivation of docility and obedience to authority; the fostering of autonomy; the maximization of freedom, happiness, or self-esteem; the development of care, concern, and related attitudes and dispositions; the fostering of feelings of community, social solidarity, citizenship, and civic-mindedness; the production of good citizens; the “civilizing” of students; the protection of students from the deleterious effects of civilization; the development of piety, religious faith, and spiritual fulfillment; the fostering of ideological purity; the cultivation of political awareness and action; the integration or balancing of the needs and interests of the individual student and the larger society; and the fostering of skills and dispositions constitutive of rationality or critical thinking,
- All such proposed aims require careful articulation and defense, and all have been subjected to sustained criticism,
- Both contemporary and historical philosophers of education have devoted themselves, at least in part, to defending a particular conception of the aims of education or to criticizing the conceptions of others.
The great range of aims that have been proposed makes vivid the philosopher of education’s need to appeal to other areas of philosophy, to other disciplines (e.g., psychology, anthropology, sociology, and the physical sciences), and to educational practice itself.
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What are the three principles of Jainism?
The three guiding principles of Jainism, the ‘three jewels’, are right belief, right knowledge and right conduct.
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What are the four teaching of Jainism?
Answer and Explanation: The four main teachings of Jainism are non-attachment, non-violence, self-discipline and accepting that the truth has many aspects and sides.
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What is Jainism short answer?
Read a brief summary of this topic – Jainism, Indian religion teaching a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through disciplined nonviolence ( ahimsa, literally “non-injury”) to all living creatures.
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What are the 8 types of karma in Jainism?
Jainism Simplified Chapter 8 – Theory of Karma THEORY OF KARMA Why do some students do well in school while others struggle? Why do some earn money easily while others are poor? Why do some suffer while others enjoy their lives? Why do some live longer while others die at a young age? The answers to all of these questions is the effects of our karmas.
- The theory of karma explains how, why, and what happens to us.
- It also explains the role that karmas play in our lives, how we accumulate karmas, and how we get rid of them.
- Armas are the derivatives of karman particles.
- Arman particles are non-living matter scattered all around us and all over the universe.
They are very fine particles that cannot be seen even with a microscope. A cluster of innumerable karman particles is called Karman Vargana. When you act with passions like attachment, anger, greed, ego, or deceitfulness, Karman Varganas are attracted towards your soul.
- Arman Varganas that are attached to your soul are called karmas.
- THE PROCESS OF BONDAGE The following paragraph has been revised from the original.* Whenever we think, speak, or act, Karman Varganas around us are attracted to our souls.
- This process is called Asrava in Sanskrit.) The Varganas become bonded to our soul depending on our passions: anger, ego, greed, and deceit.
Once they are bonded, they are called Karma. (The bondage is called Bandh in Sanskrit.) The Karma can be furthur divided into two concepts, Bhav Karma and Dravya Karma. Bhav Karma is the non-physical thinking or activity that attracts the Karman Varganas.
- Dravya Karma is the physical Karman Varganas themselves that have attached to the soul.
- There cannot be Dravya Karma without the Bhav Karma and both of these concepts occur at the same time.
- In a simplified sense, one can think of the Bhav Karma as ‘thoughts’ because mental activity is at the base of all activity of the soul.
However, the true understanding is that the Bhav Karma is the non-physical part of the Karma. There are three ways to perform activities; mentally, verbally, and physically. We can take each of these a step further in three more ways. We can perform the activities ourselves, ask someone else to perform the activities for us, or encourage someone else to perform the activities.
- Thus, there are nine ways to perform any activity.
- Out of all of these activities, mental activities have the farthest reaching effects on our souls.
- At the time of bondage of karmas to the soul, four characteristics of karmas are decided.
- They are: 1) Prakriti (nature).2) Pradesh (quantity).3) Sthiti (duration).4) Anubhag (intensity).
The nature and quantity of karmas depend on the vigor of the activities, while the duration and intensity of karmas depend upon the intensity of the desires behind the activities.I. PRAKRITI (NATURE OF BONDAGE) There are eight types of karmas. Depending upon your activities, you can accumulate one or more of these eight karmas: 1) Jnanavarniya – Knowledge-Obscuring Karma 2) Darshanavarniya – Perception-Obscuring Karma 3) Antarya – Obstructive Karma 4) Mohniya – Deluding Karma 5) Nam – Body-determining Karma 6) Gotra – Status-determining Karma 7) Vedniya – Feeling-Producing Karma 8) Ayushya – Age-Determining Karma These karmas are grouped into two categories Ghati Karmas (destructive) and Aghati Karmas (non-destructive).
Ghati Karmas destroy the true nature of the soul. Aghati Karmas do not destroy the nature of the soul, but affect the body in which the soul resides. The first four types of karmas are Ghati karmas, and last four are aghati karmas. II. PRADESH (QUANTITY OF BONDAGE) If the physical vigor of our activities is slight, then we accumulate fewer karman particles, but if the physical vigor is strong, then we accumulate larger numbers of karman particles on our soul.
III. STHITI (DURATION OF BONDAGE) The duration of the karmic particles to be bonded with the soul is decided by the intensity of our desires at the time of the activity. The milder the intensity, the shorter is the duration of the bondage of the karmas.
The stronger the intensity, the longer is the duration of bondage. The time karmas stay bonded to the soul range from a fraction of a second to an innumerable numbers of years. IV. ANUBHAG (INTENSITY OF RESULTS) The intensity of karmas depends upon how intense our passions are at the time of our activities.
The lesser the intensity of our passions, the less severe is the result of the bondage; the greater the intensity, the more severe the result of the bondage. When karmas attach to the soul, there are four levels of bondage: 1. Sprusta or Sithil (Loose): Karmas can be easily shed by regret.2.
Baddha or Gadha (Tight): Karmas can be shed by offering an apology.3. Nidhatta (Tighter): Karmas can shed by very strong efforts, like austerity.4. Nikachit (Tightest): Karmas can only be shed by bearing the results. It should be realized that it is not always true that we have to wait in order to bear the results of our karmas; we can change the course of our karmas before they mature.
It can be changed in duration and intensity as well as in nature too. This is very important point because it means, that not only we do have control over our karmas, but that we can change our fate. For explanatory purpose let us understand some terms.1) Abadhakal – the duration of bondage of karmas to the soul, which starts from the time of the karmas bondage until its maturity.2) Bandh – bondage of karmas to the soul.3) Uday – refers to the results of karmas being manifested in normal during their normal maturation time.4) Udirana – refers to the results of karmas being manifested prematurely.5) Satta – refers to those karmas which are dormant on the soul.6) Sankramana – Depending of our activities, bonded karmas can transform within some of their sub-types.
Example: Shata and Ashata Vedniya karmas are the two sub-types of Vedniya karmas. Shata Vedniya karma causes comfort while Ashata Vedniya karma causes discomfort. If our current activities causes comfort to someone then our Ashata Vedniya karma gets transformed to Shata Vedniya karma. And, so it works for opposite activities.7) Utkarshana – increase of duration and intensity of karmas which are already bonded to the soul.8) Apakramana – diminution of duration and intensity of karmas which are already bonded.9) Upashama – state in which karmas are suppressed and cannot produce results.10) Nidhatti bondage – type of bondage in which karmas are neither brought into operation prematurely nor transferred into that of another sub-class, but may increase or decrease in duration and intensity of results.11) Nikachit bondage – type of bondage in which karmas do not operate prematurely, nor transferred, nor increase or decrease in duration or intensity of results.12) Samuddhat – After achieving perfect knowledge, Kevali Bhagwan (Omniscient, Omnipotent) realized that the duration and quantity of Vedniya, Nam and Gotra Karmas were greater than that of Ayushya Karma.
Therefore, by expanding the size and shape of the soul (Atma Pradeshes), Kevali Bhagwan made the duration and quantity of Vedniya, Nam and Gotra Karmas equal to that of Ayushya Karma. This process is called Samuddhat.13) Shaileshikaran – Immediately before his final death (Nirvana), Kevali Bhagwan went into very pure meditation during which there was no activity and hence no inflow of karma at all.
This stage lasted very short period during which one can speak five short letters only. It is called Saileshikaran. During this time, Kevali Bhagwan discarded all remaining Vedniya, Nam, Gotra, and Ayushya Karmas for ever. Karmas obstruct these eight attributes of a pure soul: 1) Kevaljnana (Perfect Knowledge) – State in which the soul knows everything, past, present, and future that is happening in the world, all at the same time.
Jnanavarniya Karma obscures this attribute.2) Kevaldarshan (Perfect Perception) – State in which the soul can see, hear, and perceive everything from the past, present, and future all at the same time. Darshanavarniya Karma obscures this attribute.3) Anant Virya (Infinite Power) – State in which the soul has infinite power.
- Antarya Karma obstructs this attribute.4) Vitraga (Victory over Inner Enemies) – State in which the pure soul has no attachment or hatred for anyone.
- Mohniya Karma obscures this attribute.
- Aforementioned four attributes of the soul are experienced by Lord Arihants.
- The following four attributes are experienced only when the soul is liberated, when Lord Arihants become Lord Siddhas upon their death.5) Infinite Bliss (No Joy or Sorrow) – State in which there is no pain, suffering, or happiness; the soul has ultimate peace.
Vedniya Karma obscures this attribute.6) Ajaramar (End of the Cycle of Birth and Death) – Point at which the soul is never again born. Ayushya Karma obscures this attribute.7) Arupi (No form) – State in which the pure soul no longer occupies a body and is formless.
- Nam Karma obscures this attribute.8) Agurulaghu (End of Status) – fact that all liberated souls are equal; none is higher or lower in status than any other.
- Gotra Karma obscures this attribute.
- Thanks to Balu Patel for pointing out the incorrect definition of Bhav and Dhravya Karmas and to Ashok Choksi for further clarifying the correct definitions.
Updated Jan.13, 2001. Uncorrected original text : Jainism Simplified Chapter 8 – Theory of Karma
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Who is the real founder of Jainism?
Rishabhadeva is considered as the first real founder of Jainism. He is the first Tirthankara in Jainism and is also said to have live million years ago.
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What are educational aims give examples?
Examples include: ‘ students will learn to respect and get along with people of different cultures ‘; ‘students will develop a sense of civic responsibility’; ‘students will attain an appreciation for literature, art, music’.
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What is the Golden Rule of Jainism?
Jainism – The Golden Rule is paramount in the Jainist philosophy and can be seen in the doctrines of Ahimsa and Karma, As part of the prohibition of causing any living beings to suffer, Jainism forbids inflicting upon others what is harmful to oneself.
- The following lines from the Acaranga Sutra sums up the philosophy of Jainism: Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.
- In support of this Truth, I ask you a question – “Is sorrow or pain desirable to you ?” If you say “yes it is”, it would be a lie.
If you say, “No, It is not” you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant. A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated.
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What are the two rules of Jainism?
The five Anuvratas – The Anuvratas are known as the Lesser or Limited Vows:
Non-violence – Ahimsa :
Jains must do their best to avoid any intentional hurt to living things. In daily life harm can be minimized by filtering drinking water, not eating at night, and so on. Intentional hurt includes cases of avoidable negligence. Jains must be vegetarians, Jains may use violence in self-defence. If a Jain’s work unavoidably causes harm (e.g. farming) they should try to minimize the harm and maintain complete detachment.
Truthfulness – Satya :
Jains must always be truthful. Jains must always conduct business honestly. Dishonesty by not doing something is as bad as being actively dishonest.
Non-stealing – Achaurya or Asteya
Jains must not steal Jains must not cheat Jains must not avoid paying tax
Chastity – Bramacharya
Jains must have sex only with the person they are married to. Jains must avoid sexual indulgence even with that person. Jains must give up sex, if possible, after the marriage has yielded a son.
Non-possession – Aparigraha
Jains must only possess what they need. Jains must use surplus possessions to benefit others. Jains must live simply. Jains must not use too many resources.
What is the full form of Jain?
JAIN – Joint American Indian Network.
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Can Jains marry?
Jain Marriage Rituals/Procedures There exist books on “Jain Vivaha Vidhi”, and mentions on Jain practices on the subject. First, for a Jain Shravaka, there are two dharmas, general (samanya) dealing with affairs of the world and and specific (vishesh) that deals with affairs of the soul.
- Authors like Haribhadra, Somdeva and Ashadhara have written about them.
- The samanya dharma applies to Jains and non-Jains alike.
- For worldly affairs, Jainism does not automatically reject worldly practices.
- Somadeva Suri writes: sarva eva hi jainAnAm pramANam laukiko vidhih | yatra samyakatva-hAnirna yatra na vrata-dushaNam || The worldly practices are acceptable to the Jains, provided they do not cause loss to samyakatva or corruption of the vratas.
Marriage is largely a worldly event. It is recommeded to all Jain Shravakas (unless they have taken a vrata of Brahmacharrya) because the children born of marrriage will follow the dharma. The ritual of marrriage is largely governed by the traditional practices that may vary for different Jain communities.
Some of the rituals are common to all Jain (and Hindu) marriages. Marriage is a public declaration of a couple’s intent to be together for life, and is a declaration of the community’s support for the couple. Sangave’s book (Jaina community a social survey) gives two lists of 16 and 20 marriage rites.
Both of them include the use of fire. Here are some of them: vAgdAna: declaration by parents of intent to marry pradAna: ornaments gifted to future bride mandapa-vedi-pratishTha: making the mandap and the vedi toraNa-pratishTha: installing the ornament vara-ghoda: the groom rides the horse toraNa-vidhi: rites at the gate gotrocchAra: reciting the gotras/genealogies paraspara-mukha-avalokana: looking at each other’s face vara-mAla: garland vara-pratijnA: vows agni-pradakshiNA: around the fire kanya-dAna: fathers gives away the daughter deva-shAstra-guru-pUja: worship of Jina, Gurus and the Scriptures vasAskhepa: fragrant material in the fire granthi-bandhana: tying the knot pAni-grahaNa: the bridegroom holds bride’s hand sapta-padi: seven steps (often same as agni-pradakshiNA) AshirvAda: giving blessings sva-graha-Agamana: coming to bridegroom’s house/camp Jina-grahe-dhanArpaNa: donating to the temple/institutions Note that the order may vary somewhat.
- Preferrably Jain marriage should be conducted by a Jain Pandit.
- In some places there are Brahmins atttached to the Jain community who conduct marriages.
- In any case, it should be conducted by a respected person familiar with the rites and protocols.
- Haribhadra Suri has some recommendations about selecting the proper match in his Dharma-Bindu.
The Jain community assemblies on various occasions have condemned the practice of negotiating a dowry before marriage. About the length and cost of marriages. There should be no waste of money or time. However a marriage is something of far more significance than a family vacation or a birthday or a graduation. : Jain Marriage Rituals/Procedures
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What are the aims of philosophy?
Why Study Philosophy? Philosophy makes a central contribution to the educational enterprise through its demands upon intellectual activity. Education in philosophy involves becoming aware of major figures and developments in the history of philosophy, learning up-to-date techniques and accepted answers to philosophical questions, and learning critical, interpretive, and evaluative skills that, in the overall scheme of things, may be considered to be of greatest value.
- Graduates of the philosophy program at James Madison University are expected to have come to terms with difficult texts dealing with advanced philosophical arguments.
- These readings are often quite diverse in method and content.
- Further, a variety of written work is part of the philosophy student’s assignments, and it is expected that these assignments be carefully composed and thoughtfully addressed.
Finally, informed discussion is essential to philosophy and philosophical education. This verbal interaction is expected to occur as a routine part of course offerings. Much of what is learned in philosophy can be applied in virtually any endeavor. This is both because philosophy touches so many subjects and, especially, because many of its methods can be used in any field.
- The study of philosophy helps us to enhance our ability to solve problems, our communication skills, our persuasive powers, and our writing skills.
- Below is a description of how philosophy helps us develop these various important skills.
- General Problem Solving Skills: The study of philosophy enhances a person’s problem-solving capacities.
It helps us to analyze concepts, definitions, arguments, and problems. It contributes to our capacity to organize ideas and issues, to deal with questions of value, and to extract what is essential from large quantities of information. It helps us, on the one hand, to distinguish fine and subtle differences between views and, on the other hand, to discover common ground between opposing positions.
It also helps us to synthesize a variety of views or perspectives into one unified whole. Communication Skills: Philosophy contributes uniquely to the development of expressive and communicative powers. It provides some of the basic tools of self-expression – for instance, skills in presenting ideas through well-constructed, systematic arguments – that other fields either do not use or use less extensively.
Philosophy helps us express what is distinctive in our views, it enhances our ability to explain difficult material, and it helps us to eliminate ambiguities and vagueness from our writing and speech. Persuasive Powers: Philosophy provides training in the construction of clear formulations, good arguments, and appropriate examples.
It, thereby, helps us to develop our ability to be convincing. We learn to build and defend our own views, to appreciate competing positions, and to indicate forcefully why we consider our own views preferable to alternatives. These capacities can be developed not only through reading and writing in philosophy, but also through the philosophical dialogue, both within and outside the classroom, that is so much a part of a thorough philosophical education.
Writing Skills: Writing is taught intensively in many philosophy courses, and many regularly assigned philosophical texts are also excellent as literary essays. Philosophy teaches interpretive writing through its examination of challenging texts, comparative writing through emphasis on fairness to alternative positions, argumentative writing through developing students’ ability to establish their own views, and descriptive writing through detailed portrayal of concrete examples.
Concrete examples serve as the anchors to which generalizations must be tied. Structure and technique, then, are emphasized in philosophical writing. Originality is also encouraged, and students are generally urged to use their imagination to develop their own ideas. The general uses of philosophy just described are obviously of great academic value.
It should be clear that the study of philosophy has intrinsic rewards as an unlimited quest for understanding of important, challenging problems. But philosophy has further uses in deepening an education, both in college and in the many activities, professional and personal, that follow graduation.
Two of these further uses are described below. Understanding Other Disciplines: Philosophy is indispensable for our ability to understand other disciplines. Many important questions about a discipline, such as the nature of its concepts and its relation to other disciplines, are philosophical in nature.
Philosophy of science, for example, is needed to supplement the understanding of the natural and social sciences that derives from scientific work itself. Philosophy of literature and philosophy of history are of similar value in understanding the humanities, and philosophy of art (aesthetics) is important in understanding both the visual and the performing arts.
- Philosophy is, moreover, essential in assessing the various standards of evidence used by other disciplines.
- Since all fields of knowledge employ reasoning and must set standards of evidence, logic and epistemology have a general bearing on all these fields.
- Development of Sound Methods of Research and Analysis: Still another value of philosophy in education is its contribution to our capacity to frame hypotheses, to do research, and to put problems in manageable form.
Philosophical thinking strongly emphasizes clear formulation of ideas and problems, selection of relevant data, and objective methods for assessing ideas and proposals. It also emphasizes development of a sense of the new directions suggested by new hypotheses and questions one encounters while doing research.
- Philosophers regularly build on both the successes and failures of their predecessors.
- A person with philosophical training can readily learn to do the same in any field.
- Among the things that people educated in philosophy can do are the following.
- They can do research on a variety of subjects.
- They can get information and organize it.
They can write clearly and effectively. They can communicate well, usually both orally and in writing. They can generate ideas on many different sorts of problems. They can formulate and solve problems. They can elicit hidden assumptions and articulate overlooked alternatives.
They can persuade people to take unfamiliar views or novel options seriously. They can summarize complicated materials without undue simplification. They can integrate diverse data and construct useful analogies. They can distinguish subtle differences without overlooking similarities. They can also adapt to change, a capacity of growing importance in the light of rapid advances in so many fields.
And well educated philosophers can usually teach what they know to others. This ability is especially valuable at a time when training and retraining are so often required by rapid technological changes. These abilities are quite general, but they bear directly on the range of careers for which philosophers are prepared.
|The Arts: Aesthetics Ethics History of Philosophy Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Religion||Business: Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Social and Political Philosophy Philosophy of Science||Computer Science: Logic Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Mind Philosophy of Science|
|Engineering: Ethics Epistemology Logic Philosophy of Science Social and Political Philosophy||Health Professions: Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Metaphysics Philosophy of Mind Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of Science||Law: Ethics Epistemology Logic Social and Political Philosophy Philosophy of Science|
|Journalism and Communications: Aesthetics Ethics Logic Social and Political Philosophy Philosophy of Science||Government Service: Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of Science Social and Political Philosophy||The Clergy: Aesthetics Epistemology Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Metaphysics Philosophy of Religion Social and Political Philosophy|
|Social Work: Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Philosophy of Mind Social and Political Philosophy||Teaching, Pre-College: Aesthetics Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Philosophy of Religion Social and Political Philosophy||Teaching, College: Aesthetics Epistemology Ethics History of Philosophy Logic Metaphysics Philosophy of Science Social and Political Philosophy|
|Technical Writing: Aesthetics Epistemology Logic Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Science|
Note : this text is adapted from three sources: (1) Philosophy: A Brief Guide for Undergraduates (a publication of the American Philosophical Association), (2) Careers for Philosophers (prepared by the American Philosophical Association Committee on Career Opportunities, and (3) The Philosophy Major (a statement prepared under the auspices of the Board of Officers of the American Philosophical Association).
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What are the aims of education according to John Dewey?
Aim of Education: According to Dewey the aim of education is the development of child’s powers and abilities. For this reason, education must aim at creating social efficiency and skill. Pragmatic education aims at instilling democratic values and ideals in the individual.
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What is the aim of education in Perennialism?
Perennialism values knowledge that transcends time. This is a subject-centered philosophy. The goal of a perennialist educator is to teach students to think rationally and develop minds that can think critically.
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What are the 7 philosophy of education philosophy?
5 Things That Educators Should Know About the Philosophy of Education The word philosophy is derived from two Greek words. The first word, philo, means “love.” The second, sophy, means “wisdom.” Literally, then, philosophy means “love of wisdom” (Power, 1982).
Each individual has an attitude toward life, children, politics, learning, and previous personal experiences that informs and shapes their set of beliefs. Although you may not be conscious of it, this set of beliefs, or personal philosophy, informs how you live, work, and interact with others. What you believe is directly reflected in both your teaching and learning processes.
This article explores the various philosophical views influence the teaching profession. It is important to understand how philosophy and education are interrelated. In order to become the most effective teacher you can be, you must understand your own beliefs, while at the same time empathizing with others.
In this chapter we will examine the study of philosophy, the major branches of philosophy, and the major philosophical schools of thought in education. You will have a chance to examine how these schools of thought can help you define your personal educational philosophy. Developing your own educational philosophy is a key part of your journey to becoming a teacher.
In this article, we will discuss the 5 things that educators should know about the philosophy of education. What are the major branches of philosophy? The four main branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. Metaphysics considers questions about the physical universe and the nature of ultimate reality.
- Epistemology examines how people come to learn what they know.
- Axiology is the study of fundamental principles or values.
- Logic pursues the organization of the reasoning process.
- Logic can be divided into two main components: deductive reasoning, which takes general principles and relates them to a specific case; and inductive reasoning, which builds up an argument based on specific examples.
What are the major schools of thought in philosophy? Idealism can be divided into three categories: classical, religious, and modern. Classical idealism, the philosophy of the Greeks Socrates and Plato, searches for an absolute truth. Religious idealism tries to reconcile God and humanity.
Modern idealism, stemming from the ideas of Descartes, links perception and existence. Realism, the school of thought founded by Aristotle, believes that the world of matter is separate from human perceptions. Modern realist thought has led to the “blank slate” notion of human capabilities. Pragmatism believes that we should select the ideas, actions, and consequences with the most desirable outcome, as well as learning from previous experiences to achieve desirable consequences.
John Dewey’s Experimentalism brought the scientific method of inductive reasoning to the educational sphere. Postmodernism and existentialism focus on intricate readings of texts and social and political conventions, examining existing structures for flaws.
- Essentially, they focus heavily on the present, and on understanding life as we know it.
- Jacques Derrida’s deconstruction methods of reading texts suggests that universal rationality is not found in objective reality, but in the text.
- Michel Foucault, another postmodern philosopher, examined the relationship between truth and power.
What are the major philosophies of education? The major philosophies of education can be broken down into three main types: teacher-centered philosophies, student-centered philosophies, and society-centered philosophies. These include Essentialism, Perennialism, Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism, Existentialism, Behaviorism, Constructivism, Conservatism, and Humanism.
Essentialism and Perennialism are the two types of teacher-centered philosophies of education. Essentialism is currently the leading style of public education in the United States. It is the teaching of basic skills that have been proven over time to be needed in society. Perennialism focuses on the teaching of great works.
There are three types of student-centered philosophies of education. Progressivism focuses on developing the student’s moral compass. Humanism is about fostering each student to his or her fullest potential. Constructivism focuses on using education to shape a student’s world view.
- There are two types of socially-centered philosophies of education.
- Reconstructionism is the perspective that education is the means to solve social problems.
- Behaviorism focuses on cultivating behaviors that are beneficial to society.
- What additional ideologies of educational philosophy exist? Other notable ideologies of educational philosophy include Nationalism, American Exceptionalism, Ethno-nationalism, Liberalism, Conservatism, and Marxism.
Nationalism is a national spirit, or love of country, that ties the interests of a nation to the symbols that represent it. American Exceptionalism is a form of Nationalism that implies that the United States is a special country that is privileged to have a manifest destiny.
- Ethno-nationalism is similar to nationalism, but rather than the loyalty lying with one’s nation, it lies with one’s ethnic or racial group.
- Liberalism is the ideology that people should enjoy the greatest possible individual freedoms and that it should be guaranteed by due process of law.
- The opposite of liberalism is conservatism.
Conservatism is the belief that institutions should function according to their intended original purpose and any concepts that have not been maintained should be restored. Finally, Marxism is an ideological and political movement that focuses on the class system as a form of conflict within the social, political, and educational realms.
How is an educator’s educational philosophy determined? It is important to identify your own philosophy of education in order to understand your own system of values and beliefs so that you are easily able to describe your teaching style to potential employers. While writing your own personal philosophy of education statement, it is vital to address several key components: How do I think? What is the purpose of education? What is the role of the teacher? How should the teacher teach? What is the role of the student? What should be taught? Additionally, make sure that you be yourself and are clear and concise.
Do some research about the school you are applying for and address their missions and goals in your statement. Remember that education is about the students and also remember to focus on your discipline. Think of the great teachers you have had in your life.
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