What Are Proteins Class 12 Physical Education?

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What Are Proteins Class 12 Physical Education
Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition is part of, Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition.1 Mark Questions Question 1.

What is balanced diet? (Delhi 2014 7) OR What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer: A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

Question 2. What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer: Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food. Question 3. What are carbohydrates? Answer: Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system. Question 4. Why does the weightlifters’ diet includes lots of protein? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015) Answer: The diet includes a lot of protein because proteins contain amino acids.

This is used in building muscles and increase strength which are necessary for weightlifting. Question 5. What are fats? (CBSE 2013) Answer: Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later.

Question 6. What are micronutrients? (All India; Delhi 2016) Answer: Micro nutrients are little Wonders of Nature that control growth and development, cell formation, disease resistance and repair processes of our body. Question 7. What are vitamins? (All India 2014) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon vvhich are essential for the normal growth and working of the body.

They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and 6-complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12). Question 8. Enlist two sources of calcium and iron separately. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Calcium—milk, cheese Iron—meat; eggs. Question 9.

  1. What do you mean by components of diet? Answer: Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet.
  2. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and microelements like calcium; iron, zinc etc.
  3. Question 10.

Enlist two non-nutritive components of diet. (All India 2015) Answer: Non-nutritive components of diet are

  • Colour compounds
  • Flavour compounds

Question 11. Define food supplements. Answer: Food supplements which are also known as a dietary supplement, are providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial, substances in the form of capsules,- soft gels, cops and tablets.

Question 12. What is the disadvantage of food supplements? Answer: Food supplements can interact with medications which can cause unwanted side effects and decrease the efficacy of the medicine. Question 13. Critically explain the use of dietary supplements in heavy dose for longer duration. Justify your answer with two suitable examples.

All indin 2015 Answer: Dietary supplements if taken in heavy doses can be toxic and cause serious side effects. For example

  1. Heavy dose of vitamin A can cause liver damage, blurred vision, headache, bone pain and nausea.
  2. Heavy dose of iron can cause digestive problems.

Question 14. Explain the importance of fluid intake during competition. Answer: Fluid intake is very essential during competition as it helps to keep the body hydrated. The fluid intake requirement depends upon the duration of the events, as explained below

  • or events lasting for less than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 180-240 ml of water every 10-15 minutes to prevent dehydration.
  • For events lasting for more than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 150-300 ml of carbohydrate/electrolyte beverage every 15-20 minutes during exercise.

3 Marks Questions Question 15. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. CBSE 2012 Answer: Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food.

Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Importance

  • Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:
  • Fats also help in production of hormones.
  • Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
  • Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
  • Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question 16. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer: Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats

  • They provide heat and energy to the body.
  • They also help in regulation of body temperature.
  • They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
  • Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:

Sources of Fats

  • Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
  • Vegetable Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut, soybean, foodgrains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question 17. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. OR Vitamins are very essential for working of the body and are divided into two groups. Explain about them. (All India 2015) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body.

  • Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, proper functioning of nervous system and digestive system.
  • Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
  • Vitamin E increases fertility and ensures proper functioning of the glands.
  • Vitamin K helps in clotting of blood.

Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B complex and C which are given below

  • Vitamin B complex consists of various groups of vitamins namely B, B2, B3, B6, and B12.
  • They are necessary for proper growth and functioning.of various organs of the body.
  • Vitamin C is essential for maintenance of ligaments, tissues, tendons and strong blood vessels.

Question 18. Briefly explain the functions and resources of fat soluble vitamins. (Delhi 2015) Answer: The vitamins that are soluble in fats are called fat soluble vitamins. They are vitamin A, D, E and K Functions

  1. Vitamin A This is essential for normal growth of the bpdy. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness and also affects the kidneys, nervous system and digestive system. Sources are milk, curd, ghee, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya,’ green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot and pumpkin.
  2. Vitamin D This is essential for the formation of healthy teeth and bones. The presence of this vitamin in the body enables it to absorb calcium and phosphorus. Its deficiency causes rickets, softness of bones, teeth diseases. Sources are egg yolk, fish, sunlight, vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream, butter.
  3. Vitamin E This is. essential.in increasing the fertility among men and women as well as proper functioning of adrenal and sex glands. Its deficiency causes weakness in muscles and heart. Sources are green vegetables, sprouts, coconut oil, dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter, maize.
  4. Vitamin K This is helpful in the clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes anaemia and blood do not clot easily. Sources are cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomato, potato, wheat, egg and meat.

Question 19. Mention the uses of any two minerals in our diet. Answer:

  1. Iodine Iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
  2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes rickets and asthma. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question 20. Write briefly about protein as an essential component of diet.flll India; (Delhi 2016) OR What are proteins? Discuss. Answer: Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins

  • Vegetable proteins
  • Animal proteins

Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sources are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc. Question 21. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer: Balanced Diet A balanced diet is that which ‘ contains the proper amounts of each nutrient.

  • Carbohydrates These are our main sources of energy.
  • Proteins These provide essential growth as ‘ well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
  • Fats These are the sources of energy.
  • Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
  • Minerals These are essential for proper – growth and functioning of our body.
  • Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.

Question 22. In sports such as boxing and wrestling, the players tend to loose weight sharply. Explain the pitfalls of dieting. Answer: Pitfalls of dieting are

  1. Eating too Little In dieting people take just 1500-1800 calories per day. But this is not sufficient to meet the daily requirements. This may result in massive weight loss and other related health problems.
  2. More Drinking than Eating In order to reduce calorie consumption, more drinks are taken like sweetened juices, sodas, tea and coffee with sugar. These increase the weight.
  3. Skipping Meals Not taking breakfast, lunch, dinner or proper meals reduces the metabolic rate. Then the body starts conserving energy, the next time it gets food. This also results in more intake of calories in next meal.
  4. Intake of Labelled Foods By taking foods that are labelled as ‘low fat’, Tow sugar’, Tow calories’ may not produce proper results. For example, drinking more tea with sugarfree results in more intake of tea and hence greater calorie consumption.
  5. Not Performing Exercises No exercises reduce the level of metabolism drastically and there is no burning of calories. In that case dieting will not be effective.

Question 23. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer: The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximise carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about 3-4 hours prior to the start of the competition.

If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea-the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach. An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.

Question 24. What are the Nutritive and Non-nutritive components of diet? Explain. (Delhi 2017) Answer: Food components whether they are nutritive (providing calories) or non-nutritive (not providing calories) are needed to a multiple of food and beverages.

  1. They not only provide a sweet flavour to foods, they are also used to preserve foods (in jams or jellies), provide body bulk and texture (in ice-cream and baked goods), enhance other flavours (like salty) and aid in fermentation (in breads and pickles).
  2. The nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Non-nutritive components do not contribute to the energy, calories or nutrition of the body. Some non-nutritive components are essential for the body while others harm the body. Colour compounds, flavour compounds, food additives, plant compound, water, roughage or fibre are some non-nutritive components of diet.5 Marks Questions Question 25.

  • Explain any five essential elements of diet.
  • Delhi 2014) Answer: There are many nutrients in the food.
  • These are known as elements.
  • Essential elements of our diet are 1.
  • Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.

Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans, animal products etc.

Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.3. Fats Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc.

Functions of Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B- complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, Bg and B12).

  1. Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, amla etc.
  2. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
  3. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin.
  4. They are helpful in RBC production.

carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body.

  1. Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones.
  2. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.6.
  3. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet.
  4. Source Nature.
  5. Functions Water helps in the digestive system.
  6. It regulates body temperature and carries nutrients to cells.
  7. Question 26.
  8. Vitamins are essential for our metabolic process.
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What happens if we devoid our diet of vitamins? (CBSE 2012) Answer: Vitamins are required by the body for proper growth and development. The following may happen if we will avoid vitamins in our diet

  • In the absence of vitamin A, there may be night-blindness.
  • Deficiency of vitamin B causes Beri-Beri disease.
  • Deficiency of vitamin C causes Scurvy.
  • Deficiency of vitamin E causes weakness in heart and muscles.
  • Deficiency of vitamin K causes anaemia.
  • In addition, deficiency of vitamins in the body affects the working of the organs, nervous system and digestive system adversely.
  • Their presence is necessary for maintaining healthy teeth and bones as well as overall health.

Question 27. Diet for a sportsperson is important. What should be the aims of preparing diet for sportsperson? (Delhi 2015) Answer: For a sportsperson, taking proper diet is very essential. The aims of preparing diet for a sportsperson are as follows

  • For maintaining healthy body weight.
  • For providing energy needed to perform various activities of the body.
  • For the proper growth of the body.
  • For replacing worn out tissues.
  • For providing chemicals that help to control the body functions.
  • For protecting the body against diseases.
  • For providing the body with adequate energy required during practice sessions as well as during, competitions.
  • For providing easy recovery of cells and tissues after a competition is over.

Question 28. What is the role of various elements of diet on performance of ah athlete? (All India 2014) Answer: For a sportsperson athlete, it is essential to take a balanced diet as lot of physical activity and endurance is needed in sports. The quality of sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

  • Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
  • Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
  • A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
  • Diet prevents, various diseases, maintains healthy weight.
  • Vitamins are essential for good performance and overall development of the body.
  • Water is essential as it helps in releaving the body of waste materials and transportation of nutrients to cells.,

Value-Based Question Question 29. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer: Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

  1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bacterial infections.
  2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
  3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
  4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

1 Mark Questions Question.1. What are fats? Answer. Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later. Butter, ghee and nuts are rich sources of fats; too much of fats can lead to diseases like blood pressure, heart problems and obesity.

  1. Question.2.
  2. What do you mean by components of diet? Answer.
  3. Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet.
  4. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and micro elements like calcium, iron, zinc etc.

Question.3. What is balanced diet? Or What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer. A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

Question.4. What are vitamins? Answer. Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body. They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, Bs, B6, B7, B9 and B12). Vitamins are found in milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, oil, nuts, fish, amla etc.

Question.5. What are carbohydrates? Answer. Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.

Question.6. What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer. Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food. Question.7. What is Glycemic Index? Answer. Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale of how much a particular type of food raises blood sugar over a two-hour period compared to pure glucose.

Question.8. List the goals of nutrition during competition. Answer. The goals of nutrition during competition are to

  1. stay hydrated
  2. provide immediate fuel
  3. boost performance
  4. preserve muscle and
  5. improve recovery.

3 Marks Questions Question.9. Discuss the role of fats on the performance of sports persons. Answer. Fats are considered as a major source of fuel for light to moderate levels of activity. Various sports require different proportions of fat in the muscles for maximum performance.

  1. Particularly for long distance runners and swimmers, fat is very important, as lack of fat will reduce the available amount of calories required by the body for the exercise undertaken.
  2. Fat is important to meet the demands of energy.
  3. When the body has used up the calories from carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 40 minutes of exercises, it begins to depend on calories from fat.

Question.10. Explain about any two components of diet in brief. Answer. (i) Proteins Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. The basic structure of proteins is a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins: (a) Non-essential proteins (b) Essential proteins Functions: (a) Proteins are essential for growth and development of children.

(b) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with proteins. (ii) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in all activities. These provide energy to the body and are not stored in the body for a long time. Carbohydrates are of two types: (a) Simple carbohydrates (b) Complex carbohydrates Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.

Question.11. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. Answer. Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body. Types of Vitamins There are various vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (Bt, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12) There are two groups of vitamins

  1. Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are A, D, E and K.
  2. Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B and C.

12. What are the uses of any two minerals in our diet? Answer.

  1. Iodine For creativity as well as proper activity of the thyroid gland, iodine is essential. Its deficiency may stop the growth of hair. It is found in rich quantity in sea fish. Iodised salt is normally the main source of iodine in a normal diet.
  2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. It also maintains the balance between acids and bases in our bodies. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question.13. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer. Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

  1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bactarial infections.
  2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
  3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
  4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

Question.14. Discuss the functions and sources of proteins. Or What are proteins? Discuss. Answer. Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a ‘ chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen.

  1. These are two types of proteins (i) Non-essential proteins (ii) Essential proteins Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins.
  2. The best sorces are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc.
  3. Functions (a) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein.
  4. B) Proteins are needed for growth and development of children.

(c) Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. Question.15. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer. Balanced Diet A diet that contains the right amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet.

  1. Carbohydrates These are our main source of energy.
  2. Proteins These provide essential growth as well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
  3. Fats These are the source of energy.
  4. Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
  5. Minerals These are essential for proper growth and functioning of our body.
  6. Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.

Question.16. What are vitamins? Write the sources of vitamins A, D, E and K. Answer. Vitamins Vitamins are the compounds of carbon that are absolutely essential for the normal growth and working of the body. These are required in a very small quantities.

Sources Vitamin-A Milk, butter, eggs, carrots, pumpkin and green vegetables. Vitamin-D Cheese, butter, milk, green vegetables and exposure to sunlight. Vitamin-E Vegetable oil, butter, milk, whole grains, com, nuts, seeds and spinach. Vitamin-K Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other vegetables. Bacteria in the intestines normally also produce vitamin-K.

Question.17. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer. Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats:

  1. They provide heat and energy to the body.
  2. They also help in regulation of body temperature.
  3. They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
  4. They are helpful in making the body soft and oily and protect it from external effects of hot and cold climates.

Sources of Fats:

  1. Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
  2. Vegetables Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut,, soyabean, food grains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question.18. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. Answer. Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food. One gram of fat provides double the energy provided by one gram of carbohydrates.

Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Poly-unsaturated fats and mono-unsaturated fats help in lowering the blood cholesterol.

  1. Fats are necessary for many body functions.
  2. Fats keep up warm and give protection to organs.
  3. Fats also help in production of hormones.
  4. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
  5. Fats are also important energy sources.
  6. Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
  7. Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question.19. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer. The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximize carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about three hours prior to the start of the competition.

If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea – the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach. An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.5 Marks Questions Question.20.

What is a balanced diet? Explain its elements. Or Explain in detail the different elements of diet. Answer. Balanced diet is the intake of appropriate types and right / sufficient amount of food and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintenance of body cells, tissues and organs and to support normal growth and development.

  1. Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrate is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.
  2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans and animal products etc. Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.
  3. Fats Fats cantain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc. Functions Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.
  4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D E, K and B- complex (B1B2 B3 B5 B6, B7 B9 and B12). Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, am/a etc. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin. They are helpful in RBC production.
  5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body. Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.
  6. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet. Source Natural. Functions Water helps in the digestive system. It breaks down complex food molecules. It also regulates the body temperature and is essential for various chemical reactions.
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Question.21. Discuss the role of diet on the performance of a sportsperson. Answer. The energy requirement of an athlete depends on:

  1. Quality Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fluids.
  2. Quantity Calories according to the sport.
  3. Variety Different types of food.
  4. Portability Proper cooking.
  5. Acceptability of Nutrients To suit different customs, habits and tastes. The quality of a sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

Functions of different elements of diet are:

  1. Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
  2. Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the bdy.
  3. A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
  4. Diet prevents various diseases.
  5. Vitamins are essential for good performance.
  6. Vitamin-B complex helps in increasing the internal strength of our systems.
  7. Vitamin-E is beneficial in the treatment of heart diseases.
  8. Diet maintains healthy weight.
  9. Diet provides stress relief.
  10. Diet maintains normal body functions and proper blood sugar levels.
  11. Diet gives positive psychological feeling.
  12. Diet provides enough glycogen storage.
  13. Proteins are necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
  14. Minerals deficiency can decrease performance, especially during exercises in hot climate.

A normal person needs around 2100 – 2800 calories per day. An athlete may need up to 5000 to 7000 calories per day. At training or competition time, the best food is to take in a small amount of non-carbonated fruits, juices or non-carbonated soft drinks.

Eating Diet Before Performance We should eat suitable foods in the breakfast like cereals, porridge, bread or toast, fruit juice, boiled rice, potatoes, biscuits etc. Question.22. What are the goals of eating during competition? Explain the two different categories of such nutrition, indicating the different requirements.

Answer. The goals of eating during competition are to :

  1. stay hydrated
  2. provide immediate fuel
  3. boost performance
  4. preserve muscle and
  5. improve recovery.

The two different categories of this nutrition are :

  1. competitions less than two hours long, and
  2. competitions more than two hours long.

For the first category, the main focus should be on hydration. This is especially true if you’re using good pre-and post-training nutrition. So make sure you consume plenty of water. However, if you’re exercising in the heat and sweating a lot, sports drinks maybe useful since they have electrolytes that help speed hydration and recovery.

  1. For the second category, sports drinks are helpful.
  2. Every hour you will need 15 grams of proteins and 30 to 45 grams of carbohydrates, which can be taken in the form of liquids, gels or solid food.
  3. However, ensure that you get enough electrolytes, especially sodium.
  4. This can be in the form of table salt added to any drink.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.
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What is the function of protein in physical education class 12?

Protein – I have discussed the importance of protein and recommended intake for athletes and other recreationally active individuals in a previous article, It is likely you already know that protein rebuilds muscle but it has many other important functions.

Proteins are building blocks for other bodily tissues including bone, cartilage, skin, and blood. Additionally, proteins are needed for the production of different enzymes, vitamins, and hormones. Obviously, protein is very important. What types of protein-rich foods should we consume? The best sources of proteins include lean meats and poultry, eggs, seafood, beans and peas, and nuts and seeds.

It is important to consume protein from a variety of sources, as sources such as fish and seeds provide other l nutrients such as numerous vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. For further information refer to the International Society of Sports Nutrition stand on protein and exercise,
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What are the sources of protein class 12 physical education?

Proteins can be found in eggs, milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, poultry, soybeans, fish, paneer, beans, lentils, and meat.
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Why is protein important in food class 12?

Protein is the main structural component of cells and helps in building the body tissue. It breaks down into amino acids, which are building blocks of protein. Important dietary sources of protein are low-fat meat, beans, eggs and meat.
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What are proteins in PE?

Abstract – The PE family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes 98 proteins which share a highly homologous N-terminus sequence of about 110 amino acids (PE domain). Depending on the C-terminal domain, the PE family can be divided in three subfamilies, the largest of which is the PE_PGRS with 61 members.

  1. In this study, we determined the cellular localization of three PE proteins by cell fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy by expressing chimeric epitope-tagged recombinant proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis.
  2. We demonstrate that the PE domain of PE_PGRS33 and PE11 (a protein constituted by the only PE domain) contains the information necessary for cell wall localization, and that they can be used as N-terminal fusion partners to deliver a sufficiently long C-terminus-linked protein domain on the mycobacterial cell surface.

Indeed, we demonstrate that PE_PGRS33 and Rv3097c (a lipase belonging to the PE family) are surface exposed and localize in the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, we found that PE_PGRS33 is easily extractable by detergents suggesting its localization in the mycobacterial outer membrane.
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What is a simple definition of protein?

(PROH-teen) A molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly. They are the basis of body structures, such as skin and hair, and of other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.
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What are the types of protein class 12?

Four Types of Protein Structure – Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quaternary Structures.
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What is protein and its sources?

How Much Protein Do I Need? – The National Academy of Medicine recommends that adults get a minimum of 0.8 grams of protein for every kilogram of body weight per day, or just over 7 grams for every 20 pounds of body weight,

  • For a 140-pound person, that means about 50 grams of protein each day.
  • For a 200-pound person, that means about 70 grams of protein each day.

The National Academy of Medicine also sets a wide range for acceptable protein intake—anywhere from 10% to 35% of calories each day. Beyond that, there’s relatively little solid information on the ideal amount of protein in the diet or the healthiest target for calories contributed by protein.

  • In an analysis conducted at Harvard among more than 130,000 men and women who were followed for up to 32 years, the percentage of calories from total protein intake was not related to overall mortality or to specific causes of death.
  • However, the source of protein was important.
  • What are “complete” proteins, and how much do I need? “Pure” protein, whether derived from plant or animal foods, probably has similar effects on health, although the mix of amino acids can have health implications.

Some proteins found in food are “complete,” meaning they contain all twenty-plus types of amino acids needed to make new protein in the body. Others are incomplete, lacking one or more of the nine essential amino acids, which our bodies can’t make from scratch or from other amino acids.

Animal-based foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy foods) tend to be good sources of complete protein, while plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds) often lack one or more essential amino acid. Those who abstain from eating animal-based foods can eat a variety of protein-containing plant foods each day in order to get all the amino acids needed to make new protein, and also choose to incorporate complete plant proteins like quinoa and chia seeds,

PROTEINS || NUTRIENT COMPONENTS || Physical Education || Class 12th || Unit 2nd ||

It’s important to note that millions of people worldwide, especially young children, don’t get enough protein due to food insecurity. The effects of protein deficiency and malnutrition range in severity from growth failure and loss of muscle mass to decreased immunity, weakening of the heart and respiratory system, and death.
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What are proteins class 12 biology?

What are Proteins? – Proteins are known as the building blocks of life because they are the most abundant molecules present in the body and form about 60% of the dry weight of cells. What Are Proteins Class 12 Physical Education They make up the majority of the cells in all living things. Aside from cells, proteins make up the majority of the body’s structural, regulatory, and enzyme components. They are therefore crucial for an individual’s, Food like eggs, pulses, milk and other milk products form the major high-protein foods for the body. Also read:,
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What are called fats?

Learn how to choose healthy cooking oils and more View Videos ​ ​​Fats are also called ‘fatty acids’ or ‘lipids.’ Fats in our body are made up of three molecules joined together. This three-molecule structure is called a “triglyceride”. Most of the fat we need is made by our bodies, but there are some fats our bodies cannot make.

  1. unsaturated fats from plant foods. Find out what foods have unsaturated fats »
  2. saturated fats from animal foods. Find out what foods have saturated fats and how you can eat less »
  3. Trans fats from commercially prepared, processed foods. Find out what Trans fats are and how you can avoid eating them »

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What are minerals in physical education?

Minerals – Minerals are those elements on the earth and in foods that our bodies need to develop and function normally. Those essential for health include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, copper, fluoride, molybdenum, manganese, and selenium. Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements
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Why is it called protein?

History and etymology – Proteins were recognized as a distinct class of biological molecules in the eighteenth century by Antoine Fourcroy and others, distinguished by the molecules’ ability to coagulate or flocculate under treatments with heat or acid.

  • Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten,
  • Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838.
  • Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1,

He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule. The term “protein” to describe these molecules was proposed by Mulder’s associate Berzelius; protein is derived from the Greek word πρώτειος ( proteios ), meaning “primary”, “in the lead”, or “standing in front”, + -in,

  • Mulder went on to identify the products of protein degradation such as the amino acid leucine for which he found a (nearly correct) molecular weight of 131 Da,
  • Prior to “protein”, other names were used, like “albumins” or “albuminous materials” ( Eiweisskörper, in German).
  • Early nutritional scientists such as the German Carl von Voit believed that protein was the most important nutrient for maintaining the structure of the body, because it was generally believed that “flesh makes flesh.” Karl Heinrich Ritthausen extended known protein forms with the identification of glutamic acid,
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At the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station a detailed review of the vegetable proteins was compiled by Thomas Burr Osborne, Working with Lafayette Mendel and applying Liebig’s law of the minimum in feeding laboratory rats, the nutritionally essential amino acids were established.

The work was continued and communicated by William Cumming Rose, The understanding of proteins as polypeptides came through the work of Franz Hofmeister and Hermann Emil Fischer in 1902. The central role of proteins as enzymes in living organisms was not fully appreciated until 1926, when James B. Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was in fact a protein.

The difficulty in purifying proteins in large quantities made them very difficult for early protein biochemists to study. Hence, early studies focused on proteins that could be purified in large quantities, e.g., those of blood, egg white, various toxins, and digestive/metabolic enzymes obtained from slaughterhouses.

  1. In the 1950s, the Armour Hot Dog Co.
  2. Purified 1 kg of pure bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and made it freely available to scientists; this gesture helped ribonuclease A become a major target for biochemical study for the following decades.
  3. Linus Pauling is credited with the successful prediction of regular protein secondary structures based on hydrogen bonding, an idea first put forth by William Astbury in 1933.

Later work by Walter Kauzmann on denaturation, based partly on previous studies by Kaj Linderstrøm-Lang, contributed an understanding of protein folding and structure mediated by hydrophobic interactions, The first protein to be sequenced was insulin, by Frederick Sanger, in 1949. With the development of X-ray crystallography, it became possible to sequence protein structures. The first protein structures to be solved were hemoglobin by Max Perutz and myoglobin by John Kendrew, in 1958. The use of computers and increasing computing power also supported the sequencing of complex proteins.

  • In 1999, Roger Kornberg succeeded in sequencing the highly complex structure of RNA polymerase using high intensity X-rays from synchrotrons,
  • Since then, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of large macromolecular assemblies has been developed.
  • Cryo-EM uses protein samples that are frozen rather than crystals, and beams of electrons rather than x-rays.

It causes less damage to the sample, allowing scientists to obtain more information and analyze larger structures. Computational protein structure prediction of small protein domains has also helped researchers to approach atomic-level resolution of protein structures.
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What are proteins and their importance?

Proteins are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women.
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Why protein means?

What are proteins and what do they do? URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/protein/ Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein. The sequence of amino acids determines each protein’s unique 3-dimensional structure and its specific function.

Amino acids are coded by combinations of three DNA building blocks (nucleotides), determined by the sequence of genes. Proteins can be described according to their large range of functions in the body, listed in alphabetical order:

Examples of protein functions

Function Description Example
Antibody Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body.
Enzyme Enzymes carry out almost all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in cells. They also assist with the formation of new molecules by reading the genetic information stored in DNA.
Messenger Messenger proteins, such as some types of hormones, transmit signals to coordinate biological processes between different cells, tissues, and organs.
Structural component These proteins provide structure and support for cells. On a larger scale, they also allow the body to move.
Transport/storage These proteins bind and carry atoms and small molecules within cells and throughout the body.

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What are proteins and its types?

Illustration by Nusha Ashjaee. ThoughtCo. Proteins are biological polymers composed of amino acids, Amino acids, linked together by peptide bonds, form a polypeptide chain. One or more polypeptide chains twisted into a 3-D shape form a protein. Proteins have complex shapes that include various folds, loops, and curves.

  1. Folding in proteins happens spontaneously.
  2. Chemical bonding between portions of the polypeptide chain aid in holding the protein together and giving it its shape.
  3. There are two general classes of protein molecules: globular proteins and fibrous proteins.
  4. Globular proteins are generally compact, soluble, and spherical in shape.

Fibrous proteins are typically elongated and insoluble. Globular and fibrous proteins may exhibit one or more of four types of protein structure.
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What are protein examples biology?

Spider silk, hemoglobin, keratin in your nails and hair, actin and myosin in muscle fibers – all these are proteins, As a class of biological compounds, they are vital to essentially every biological process, because they can take so many different forms.

  • Proteins can be long fibers with the ability to slide as in muscles; they can be large and globular, like von Willebrand factor which helps in blood clotting; or they can be small like insulin, which is needed for sugar metabolism,
  • Insulin is one of the most well-known proteins because of its use to treat diabetes, but it is also familiar to biochemists because it was the first complete protein structure discovered.

In 1921, Frederick Banting and Charles Best extracted insulin from the pancreas of dogs and learned that it was a hormone affecting blood sugar levels. Within a year, it was used to save the life of a diabetic boy. This set off a wave of research that put insulin at center stage, peaking in the 1950s when British biochemist Frederick Sanger figured out the precise sequence by which the amino acid building blocks are put together to build insulin.
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What are the types of proteins?

Types of Proteins – There is a total of seven different protein types under which all proteins fall. These include antibodies, contractile proteins, enzymes, hormonal proteins, structural proteins, storage proteins, and transport proteins. Antibodies: Antibodies are specialized proteins that defend the body against antigens or foreign invaders.

  • The cytoplasm of cells is a colloidal network of contractile proteins. Actin filaments are the major components of this network, See Muscle Cells (Myocyte)
  • Eukaryotes tend to possess copious amounts of actin, which controls muscle contraction as well as cellular movement and division processes. Myosin powers the tasks carried out by actin by supplying it with energy.

Enzymes: All enzymes identified thus far are proteins.

  • Enzymes, which are the catalysts of all metabolic reactions, enable an organism to build up the chemical substances necessary for life—proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids —to convert them into other substances, and to degrade them.
  • Life without enzymes is not possible,

Hormonal Proteins: Hormonal proteins are messenger proteins that help coordinate certain bodily functions.eg:

  • Growth factors are highly specific proteins, a subdivision of cytokines, Growth factors stimulate the division and differentiation of a particular type of cell. In skeletal muscle hypertrophy, growth factors include insulin-like growth factor (IGF). IGF is secreted by skeletal muscle. It regulates insulin metabolism and stimulates protein synthesis.,
  • Testosterone is an androgen, or a male sex hormone. The primary physiological role of androgens are to promote the growth and development of male organs and characteristics. Testosterone affects the nervous system, skeletal muscle, bone marrow, skin, hair and the sex organs.
  • Cortisol is a steroid hormone (hormones which have a steroid nucleus that can pass through a cell membrane without a receptor) which is produced in the adrenal cortex of the kidney, It is a stress hormone.

Structural Proteins: A large group of structural proteins maintains and protects the structure of the animal body,

  • The most common example of a structural protein is collagen which is found in the bones, cells and skin.
  • Structural proteins are also found in cells. They are used to provide an internal structure to the cell (the cytoskeleton ) and are sometimes involved in cell movement. Structural proteins are especially important in larger cells.

Storage Proteins: Storage proteins reserve amino acids for the body until ready for use. Examples of storage proteins include

Ferritin a storage protein that stores iron,

Transport Proteins: Transport proteins are carrier proteins that move molecules from one place to another in the body.

  • The respiratory protein hemoglobin acts as oxygen carrier in the blood, transporting oxygen from the lung to body organs and tissues,
  • Cytochromes, another type of transport protein, operate in the electron transport chain as electron carrier proteins. See Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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What are in proteins?

Proteins are made of amino acids – Proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids. There are about 20 different amino acids that link together in different combinations. Your body uses them to make new proteins, such as, and other compounds such as enzymes and hormones.
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Who defined protein?

Protein | Definition, Structure, & Classification A protein is a naturally occurring, extremely complex substance that consists of residues joined by, Proteins are present in all living organisms and include many essential biological compounds such as enzymes,, and,

Proteins are not stored for later use in animals. When an animal consumes excess proteins, they are converted into (glucose or triglycerides) and used to supply energy or build energy reserves. If an animal is not consuming sufficient protein, the body begins to break down protein-rich tissues, such as, leading to muscle wasting and eventually death if the deficiency is severe.

Proteins are essential for life and are essential for a wide range of cellular activities. Protein catalyze the vast majority of chemical reactions that occur in the, Proteins provide many of the structural elements of a cell, and they help to bind cells together into,

  1. Proteins, in the form of, protect animals from disease, and many are proteins.
  2. Proteins control the activity of and regulate gene expression.
  3. Protein, highly complex substance that is present in all living organisms.
  4. Proteins are of great nutritional and are directly involved in the chemical processes essential for,

The importance of proteins was recognized by chemists in the early 19th century, including Swedish chemist, who in 1838 coined the term protein, a word derived from the Greek prōteios, meaning “holding first place.” Proteins are -specific; that is, the proteins of one species differ from those of another species.

  1. They are also -specific; for instance, within a single organism, proteins differ from those of the and,
  2. A protein is very large compared with molecules of sugar or salt and consists of many joined together to form long chains, much as beads are arranged on a string.
  3. There are about 20 different amino acids that occur naturally in proteins.

Proteins of similar function have similar and sequence. Although it is not yet possible to explain all of the functions of a protein from its amino acid sequence, established correlations between structure and function can be attributed to the properties of the amino acids that compose proteins.

  1. Can synthesize all of the amino acids; cannot, even though all of them are essential for life.
  2. Plants can grow in a medium containing inorganic nutrients that provide,, and other substances essential for growth.
  3. They utilize the in the air during the process of to form organic such as,
  4. Animals, however, must obtain organic nutrients from outside sources.

Because the protein content of most plants is low, very large amounts of plant material are required by animals, such as (e.g., cows), that eat only plant material to meet their amino acid requirements. Nonruminant animals, including humans, obtain proteins principally from animals and their products—e.g., meat, milk, and eggs.

The seeds of legumes are increasingly being used to prepare inexpensive protein-rich ( see ). The protein content of animal organs is usually much higher than that of the blood, Muscles, for example, contain about 30 percent protein, the liver 20 to 30 percent, and 30 percent. Higher percentages of protein are found in hair, bones, and other organs and tissues with a low content.

The quantity of free amino acids and in animals is much smaller than the amount of protein; protein molecules are produced in by the stepwise alignment of amino acids and are released into the body fluids only after is complete. The high protein content of some organs does not mean that the importance of proteins is related to their amount in an organism or ; on the contrary, some of the most important proteins, such as and, occur in extremely small amounts.

The importance of proteins is related principally to their function. All enzymes identified thus far are proteins. Enzymes, which are the of all metabolic reactions, enable an organism to build up the chemical substances necessary for life—proteins,, carbohydrates, and —to convert them into other substances, and to degrade them.

Life without enzymes is not possible. There are several protein hormones with important regulatory functions. In all vertebrates, the respiratory protein acts as carrier in the, transporting oxygen from the to body organs and tissues. A large group of structural proteins maintains and protects the structure of the animal body.
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