## What Are Carbohydrates Class 12 Physical Education?

Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition – Balanced Diet and Nutrition A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient. A balanced diet consists of all essential food constituents i.e. protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals in correct proportion.

Nutrition is the science that deals with food and its uses by the body. Food supplies the energy for every action our body undertakes, from eating bananas to running a race. Food also provides material that our body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate the functions of its organs and systems.

The chemicals in food which our body needs and are essential for the growth and replacement of tissues are called nutrients. Macro and Micro Nutrients Macro Nutrients The macro nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in all activities that we do.

The elements of carbohydrates are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are organic compounds which are important for our digestive process. They require less water in diet. There primary function is to provide energy to the body, especially to the brain and nervous system. There are two main types of carbohydrates i.e.

simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Proteins Proteins are the basic constituents of our cells. They are large molecules, so they cannot get directly into our blood. So, they turned into amino acid by our digestive system. There are 23 amino acid and only 9 are available in diet.

1. Proteins form tissues, repair the broken tissues, regulate balance of water and oxygen etc.
2. They are body building foods.
3. Foods rich in proteins are eggs, meat, fish and dairy products as well as pulses, nuts and cereals Fats Fats contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen.
4. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food.

Fats have a very high energy content. Foods rich in fats are butter, oil, sausage, cheese, fish, chocolate, olives and nuts. If we permanently take too little exercise, we become overweight or even ill. Many fats are unhealthy such as trans-fats in deep fried foods.

Micro Nutrients Micro nutrients are vitamins, minerals and secondary plant compounds. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body. They are required in very small quantities. Many of them can be stored in the body for months or even years but others need to be freshly absorbed every day.

There are two groups of vitamins i.e. fat soluble and water soluble Fat Soluble Vitamins The vitamins that are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and are soluble in fats such as vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. The fat soluble vitamins are explained below

• Vitamin A This is essential for normal growth of the body. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness and also affects the kidneys, nervous system and digestive system. Sources are milk, curd, ghee, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya, green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot and pumpkin.
• Vitamin D This is essential for the formation of healthy teeth and bones. The presence of this vitamin in the body enables it to absorb calcium and phosphorus. Its deficiency causes rickets, softness of bones and teeth diseases. Sources are egg yolk, fish, sunlight, vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream and butter.
• Vitamin E This is essential in increasing the fertility among men and women as well as proper functioning of adrenal and sex glands. Its deficiency causes weakness in muscles and heart. Sources are green vegetables, sprouts, coconut oil, dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter and maize.
• Vitamin K This is helpful in the clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes anaemia and blood does not clot easily. Sources are cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomato, potato, wheat, egg and meat.

Water Soluble Vitamins The vitamins that are composed of nitrogen, sulphur and are soluble in water such as vitamin B complex, vitamin C.

Vitamin B Complex There are 12 vitamins in this group, some of them are Bj, B2, B3, B6 and B12. They are necessary for growth, proper functioning of heart, liver, kidney and maintains smooth skin. Its deficiency causes Beri-Beri disease. Pellagra and also decreases immunity.

Sources are wheat, milk, nuts, peas, egg yolk and sprouts.

• Vitamin B, (Thiamin) Vitamin Bt or Thiamin, helps to release energy from foods, promotes normal appetite, and is important in maintaining proper nervous system function.
• Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Riboflavin or Vitamin B2, helps to release energy from foods, promotes good vision, and healthy skin. It also helps to convert the amino acid tryptophan (which makes up protein) into niacin.
• Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Vitamin B3 or niacin works with other B-complex vitamins to metabolise food and provides energy for the body. Vitamin B3 is involved in energy production, normal enzyme function, digestion, promoting normal appetite, healthy skin and nerves.
• Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin B6 is a key factor in protein and glucose metabolism as well as in the formation of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a component of red blood cells-it carries oxygen. Vitamin B is also involved in keeping the lymph nodes and thymus gland healthy.
• Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 is also known as Cobalamin, aids in the building of genetic material, production of normal red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system.
• Vitamin C Vitamin C is also called Ascorbic acid, which is a water-soluble vitamin and cannot be stored in the body. Most plants and animals can produce their own vitamin C but humans cannot. Vitamin C is needed for proper growth, development, and to heal wounds. It is used to make the collagen tissue for healthy teeth, gums, blood vessels and bones. Deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy.

Minerals Minerals contain elements needed by our body in small quantities. But these are essential for proper growth and functioning of the body. A shortage of minerals can have severe effects on health. For example, a long-term shortage of foods containing iodine in people leads to thyroid gland diseases. Some of the important minerals are mentioned below

1. Iron It is important for the formation of haemoglobin. Its deficiency leads to anaemia and sources are meat, eggs and dry fruits.
2. Calcium It is needed for the formation of strong bones, teeth and also for clotting of blood and muscle contraction. Its deficiency causes rickets, asthma and sources are milk, egg yolk, cheese and orange.
3. Phosphorus It is required for development of strong bones and teeth and also for making energy. Its sources are egg, fish, meat and unpolished rice.
4. Potassium It is important for growth and keeping cells and blood healthy. Its deficiency weakens the muscles of the body and sources are carrot, beet root, onion, tomato, orange and mango.
5. Sodium It is needed for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Its sources are milk and milk products, meat and eggs.
6. Iodine It is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
7. Fluorine It is important to make the enamel (polish) of the teeth hard and prevents dental caries.
8. Copper It is helpful in red blood cells,connective tissue and nerve fibre formation and functioning.
9. Zinc It is required for insulin production and also for functioning of male prostate, digestion and metabolism.

Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of Diet Food components whether they are nutritive (providing calories) or non-nutritive (not providing calories) are needed to a multitude of food and beverages. They not only provide a sweet flavour to foods, they are also used to preserve foods (in jams or jellies), provide body bulk and texture (in ice-cream and baked goods), enhance other flavours (like salty) and aid in fermentation (in’breads and pickles).

1. The nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.
2. Non-nutritive components do not contribute to the energy, calories or nutrition of the body.
3. Some non-nutritive components are essential for the body while others harm the body.
4. Colour compounds, flavour compounds, food addictives, plant compound, water, roughage or fibre are some non-nutritive components of diet.

Eating for Weight Control This means eating the right amount of food that contains all the essential nutrients required by the body in proper quantities. Eating too much can lead to obesity and too less can lead to underweight. Therefore eating the right amount will lead to healthy weight.

A Healthy Weight The most accurate assessment of your ideal weight takes into account the composition of your body, how much of your weight is lean body mass (muscles and bones) and how much is body fat. For optimum health, body fat should be no more than 20% of total weight for men and 30% for women.

A person is maintaining healthy weight or not, can be checked with the help of BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat calculated on the basis of height and weight. This method applies to both adult men and women. To calculate BMI, take the weight in kilograms and divide it by height taken in metres.

• Then divide the number once again by height.
• For example, BMI is to be calculated by using the body mass index formula, for Height = 1.70 m, weight = 70 kg BMI calculation = $$\frac$$ $$\frac } =\frac =24.22$$ Once the BMI number is determined, the following table is used for determining whether the person is of normal weight, overweight, underweight or obese.

BMI Weight status Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5-24.9 Normal 25.0-29.9 Overweight 30.0 and above Obese From the table, the score 24.22 shows normal weight status. The Pitfalls of Dieting People use various techniques of weight loss such as taking diet pills, fasting, reducing calories consumption, exercise etc.

1. Eating too Little In dieting people take just 1500-1800 calories per day. But this is not sufficient to meet the daily requirements. This may result in massive weight loss and other related health problems.
2. More Drinking than Eating In order to reduce calorie consumption, more drinks are taken like sweetened juices, sodas, tea and coffee with sugar. These increase the weight.
3. Skipping Meals Not taking breakfast, lunch, dinner or proper meals reduces the metabolic rate. Then the body starts conserving energy, the next time it gets food. This also results in more intake of calories in next meal.
4. Intake of Labelled Foods By taking foods that are labelled as Tow fat, Tow sugar, Tow calories’ may not produce proper results. For example, drinking more tea with sugarfree results in more intake of tea and hence greater calorie consumption.
5. Not Performing Exercises No exercises reduce the level of metabolism drastically and there is no burning of calories. In that case dieting will not be effective.

Food Intolerance Food intolerance is the intolerance of certain elements in some foods that cannot be properly processed by our digestive system. It is pretty common to have an adverse reaction to a certain food, but in most cases it is an intolerance rather than a true allergy.

• May only happen when you eat a lot of a particular food.
• May only happen if you eat the food often.

Myths about Foods Various food myths are prevailing in India as well as over the world. What, when and how often to eat are questions confusing many people. People believe in these myths because the myths seem credible. However, now that we have advanced scientific knowledge, we can dispel these myths. The most common food related myths which are still prevalent in contemporary society are

• Potatoes make us fat.
• Fat-free products help in reducing weight.
• Avoid eggs because they increase the cholesterol level.
• Drinking water while eating makes us fat.
• Don’t consume milk immediately after eating fish.
• Starve yourself if you want to lose weight.
• Exercising makes you eat more.

Sports Nutrition Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition, that deals with the nutrition requirement of sportspersons. Sports nutrition plays an important role to attain excellence in sports. The appropriate proportion of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fibres are essential for the proper nutrition of a sportsperson.

As a result of the higher amount of physical activities in sports, athletes require more nutrients to keep the energy level adequate. During a sports training session, an athlete tends to lose a lot of fluids and electrolytes. Fluid loss negatively affects the sports performance of an athlete if not replaced in time.

Thus, it is vital to drink enough water and electrolytes after a training session. Effects of Diet on Performance A proper diet is the intake of appropriate types and adequate amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for the maintenance of body cells, tissues and organs and to support normal growth and development.

• Age, Sex and Body Surface Area Diet differs from age to age. Youngsters need different types of food both in quality as well as quantity as compared to older people who need diet in less quantity and with lesser fats.
• Types and Duration of Activity Diet also depends on types of activities that we do and their duration.
• Eating Habits and Social Customs Eating habits and social customs also affect the diet of an individual.
• Climate Factors Food varies in different climates, like the diet is different in summers as compared to winters
• Health Status and Growth If you are in a good state of health then you will have good diet, whereas an unhealthy individual cannot have a similar diet,,

Pre, During and Post-Competition Fluid and Meal Intake Nowadays sportsmen and women follow a controlled diet, particularly on the day of competition. Although diet doesn’t turn poor, athletes into great ones, a proper diet makes the difference between performing poorly and tapping your full potential.

• sustaining energy
• boosting
• performance
• hydrating the body
• preserving muscle mass and
• speeding recovery after competition.

Nutrition Requirement during Competition What you eat or drink during competition, or a training session is important under specific circumstances. Light meals are recommended and carbohydrates should be consumed in gel form. Sports drinks may be useful since they have electrolytes that help speed hydration and recovery.

Many endurance athletes prefer to drink water and eat fruit and other foods to supply their energy even on really long runs. If you are exercising intensely for longer than two hours, especially in the heat, do not rely on water alone. This will decrease your performance and your recovery. Use commercial carbohydrate drinks 15-20 minutes before the start of the competition.

• recover
• re-hydrate
• refuel
• build muscle and
• improve future performance.

Ideally, a large, high-carbohydrate meal should be eaten within two hours of the finish of competition. Bananas and dried fruits are good immediately following a match, as are sandwiches and high-carbohydrate drinks. A main meal severed hours later might consist of bread, pasta, potatoes and rice as well as other simple sugars like cakes, sweets and proteins.

Consume carbohydrates within 15 minutes after the competition is over. Then within 1-2 hours consume 100-200 gm carbohydrates and 20 gm proteins. Food Supplements for Children Food supplements, also known as dietary supplements, are nutrients that are added to your diet. They provide vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial substances.

Taking a balanced diet regularly will not require the need of taking food supplements. Food supplements are taken by children when they feel that their diet is not proper. Advantages of various food supplements are

• Supplements can contribute to improve muscular strength, endurance and overall physical performance.
• Food supplements can also prevent a variety of diseases and health conditions.
• Protein supplements available as powders, shakes or bars, provide high quality protein to your diet and boost your protein intake.

Disadvantages of various food supplements are

• Vitamin A toxicity, for example, can cause liver damage, blurred vision, headaches, bone pain and swelling, drowsiness and nausea.
• Supplements can also interact with medications which can cause unwanted side effects and decrease the efficacy of the medicine.
• Fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in your fat tissue if you regularly take in more than you need.

Precautions which can be taken for food supplements are

• For optimal benefit, consult your doctor about the right dietary supplements for you. Find out more about the supplement ingredients before you purchase the product.
• Avoid dietary supplements with megadoses of any ingredient, particularly vitamin A, vitamin D and iron. A megadose is one that exceeds the recommended dietary intake. Although megadoses can be beneficial for the treatment of certain health conditions, they can also cause toxicity symptoms.
• Finally, stop taking any supplement if you experience an unpleasant side effect and never combine supplements with medication or other supplements without your doctor’s recommendations.

We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. : Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition

## What are carbohydrates in physical education?

Carbohydrate is an essential fuel for prolonged, strenuous exercise, although the carbohydrate stores of the body are limited. Research studies have provided evidence that carbohydrate depletion is associated with fatigue, decrease in exercise intensity, and even exercise cessation.

## What are carbohydrates What are its types and what are its sources Class 12 physical education?

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition is part of, Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition.1 Mark Questions Question 1.

1. What is balanced diet? (Delhi 2014 7) OR What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer: A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet.
2. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

Question 2. What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer: Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food. Question 3. What are carbohydrates? Answer: Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system. Question 4. Why does the weightlifters’ diet includes lots of protein? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015) Answer: The diet includes a lot of protein because proteins contain amino acids.

This is used in building muscles and increase strength which are necessary for weightlifting. Question 5. What are fats? (CBSE 2013) Answer: Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later.

Question 6. What are micronutrients? (All India; Delhi 2016) Answer: Micro nutrients are little Wonders of Nature that control growth and development, cell formation, disease resistance and repair processes of our body. Question 7. What are vitamins? (All India 2014) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon vvhich are essential for the normal growth and working of the body.

They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and 6-complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12). Question 8. Enlist two sources of calcium and iron separately. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Calcium—milk, cheese Iron—meat; eggs. Question 9.

What do you mean by components of diet? Answer: Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and microelements like calcium; iron, zinc etc. Question 10.

Enlist two non-nutritive components of diet. (All India 2015) Answer: Non-nutritive components of diet are

• Colour compounds
• Flavour compounds

Question 11. Define food supplements. Answer: Food supplements which are also known as a dietary supplement, are providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial, substances in the form of capsules,- soft gels, cops and tablets.

1. Question 12.
2. What is the disadvantage of food supplements? Answer: Food supplements can interact with medications which can cause unwanted side effects and decrease the efficacy of the medicine.
3. Question 13.
4. Critically explain the use of dietary supplements in heavy dose for longer duration.
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All indin 2015 Answer: Dietary supplements if taken in heavy doses can be toxic and cause serious side effects. For example

1. Heavy dose of vitamin A can cause liver damage, blurred vision, headache, bone pain and nausea.
2. Heavy dose of iron can cause digestive problems.

Question 14. Explain the importance of fluid intake during competition. Answer: Fluid intake is very essential during competition as it helps to keep the body hydrated. The fluid intake requirement depends upon the duration of the events, as explained below

• or events lasting for less than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 180-240 ml of water every 10-15 minutes to prevent dehydration.
• For events lasting for more than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 150-300 ml of carbohydrate/electrolyte beverage every 15-20 minutes during exercise.

3 Marks Questions Question 15. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. CBSE 2012 Answer: Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food.

1. Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc.
2. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures.
3. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Importance

• Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:
• Fats also help in production of hormones.
• Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
• Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
• Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question 16. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer: Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats

• They provide heat and energy to the body.
• They also help in regulation of body temperature.
• They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
• Fats keep us warm and give protection to organiser:

Sources of Fats

• Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
• Vegetable Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut, soybean, foodgrains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question 17. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. OR Vitamins are very essential for working of the body and are divided into two groups. Explain about them. (All India 2015) Answer: Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body.

• Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, proper functioning of nervous system and digestive system.
• Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
• Vitamin E increases fertility and ensures proper functioning of the glands.
• Vitamin K helps in clotting of blood.

Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B complex and C which are given below

• Vitamin B complex consists of various groups of vitamins namely B, B2, B3, B6, and B12.
• They are necessary for proper growth and functioning.of various organs of the body.
• Vitamin C is essential for maintenance of ligaments, tissues, tendons and strong blood vessels.

Question 18. Briefly explain the functions and resources of fat soluble vitamins. (Delhi 2015) Answer: The vitamins that are soluble in fats are called fat soluble vitamins. They are vitamin A, D, E and K Functions

1. Vitamin A This is essential for normal growth of the bpdy. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness and also affects the kidneys, nervous system and digestive system. Sources are milk, curd, ghee, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya,’ green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot and pumpkin.
2. Vitamin D This is essential for the formation of healthy teeth and bones. The presence of this vitamin in the body enables it to absorb calcium and phosphorus. Its deficiency causes rickets, softness of bones, teeth diseases. Sources are egg yolk, fish, sunlight, vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream, butter.
3. Vitamin E This is. essential.in increasing the fertility among men and women as well as proper functioning of adrenal and sex glands. Its deficiency causes weakness in muscles and heart. Sources are green vegetables, sprouts, coconut oil, dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter, maize.
4. Vitamin K This is helpful in the clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes anaemia and blood do not clot easily. Sources are cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomato, potato, wheat, egg and meat.

Question 19. Mention the uses of any two minerals in our diet. Answer:

1. Iodine Iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes rickets and asthma. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question 20. Write briefly about protein as an essential component of diet.flll India; (Delhi 2016) OR What are proteins? Discuss. Answer: Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins

• Vegetable proteins
• Animal proteins

Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sources are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc. Question 21. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer: Balanced Diet A balanced diet is that which ‘ contains the proper amounts of each nutrient.

• Carbohydrates These are our main sources of energy.
• Proteins These provide essential growth as ‘ well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
• Fats These are the sources of energy.
• Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
• Minerals These are essential for proper – growth and functioning of our body.
• Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.

Question 22. In sports such as boxing and wrestling, the players tend to loose weight sharply. Explain the pitfalls of dieting. Answer: Pitfalls of dieting are

1. Eating too Little In dieting people take just 1500-1800 calories per day. But this is not sufficient to meet the daily requirements. This may result in massive weight loss and other related health problems.
2. More Drinking than Eating In order to reduce calorie consumption, more drinks are taken like sweetened juices, sodas, tea and coffee with sugar. These increase the weight.
3. Skipping Meals Not taking breakfast, lunch, dinner or proper meals reduces the metabolic rate. Then the body starts conserving energy, the next time it gets food. This also results in more intake of calories in next meal.
4. Intake of Labelled Foods By taking foods that are labelled as ‘low fat’, Tow sugar’, Tow calories’ may not produce proper results. For example, drinking more tea with sugarfree results in more intake of tea and hence greater calorie consumption.
5. Not Performing Exercises No exercises reduce the level of metabolism drastically and there is no burning of calories. In that case dieting will not be effective.

Question 23. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer: The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximise carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about 3-4 hours prior to the start of the competition.

• If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea-the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach.
• An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.

Question 24. What are the Nutritive and Non-nutritive components of diet? Explain. (Delhi 2017) Answer: Food components whether they are nutritive (providing calories) or non-nutritive (not providing calories) are needed to a multiple of food and beverages.

• They not only provide a sweet flavour to foods, they are also used to preserve foods (in jams or jellies), provide body bulk and texture (in ice-cream and baked goods), enhance other flavours (like salty) and aid in fermentation (in breads and pickles).
• The nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Non-nutritive components do not contribute to the energy, calories or nutrition of the body. Some non-nutritive components are essential for the body while others harm the body. Colour compounds, flavour compounds, food additives, plant compound, water, roughage or fibre are some non-nutritive components of diet.5 Marks Questions Question 25.

Explain any five essential elements of diet. (Delhi 2014) Answer: There are many nutrients in the food. These are known as elements. Essential elements of our diet are 1. Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.

Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans, animal products etc.

1. Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands.
2. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.3.
3. Fats Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
4. Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc.

Functions of Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B- complex (B, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, Bg and B12).

1. Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, amla etc.
2. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
3. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin.
4. They are helpful in RBC production.

carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body.

Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.6. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet. Source Nature. Functions Water helps in the digestive system. It regulates body temperature and carries nutrients to cells. Question 26. ‘Vitamins are essential for our metabolic process.

### CARBOHYDRATE || TYPES OF CARBS || FUNCTION OF CARBS || Physical Education || Class 12th || Unit 2nd

What happens if we devoid our diet of vitamins? (CBSE 2012) Answer: Vitamins are required by the body for proper growth and development. The following may happen if we will avoid vitamins in our diet

• In the absence of vitamin A, there may be night-blindness.
• Deficiency of vitamin B causes Beri-Beri disease.
• Deficiency of vitamin C causes Scurvy.
• Deficiency of vitamin E causes weakness in heart and muscles.
• Deficiency of vitamin K causes anaemia.
• In addition, deficiency of vitamins in the body affects the working of the organs, nervous system and digestive system adversely.
• Their presence is necessary for maintaining healthy teeth and bones as well as overall health.

Question 27. Diet for a sportsperson is important. What should be the aims of preparing diet for sportsperson? (Delhi 2015) Answer: For a sportsperson, taking proper diet is very essential. The aims of preparing diet for a sportsperson are as follows

• For maintaining healthy body weight.
• For providing energy needed to perform various activities of the body.
• For the proper growth of the body.
• For replacing worn out tissues.
• For providing chemicals that help to control the body functions.
• For protecting the body against diseases.
• For providing the body with adequate energy required during practice sessions as well as during, competitions.
• For providing easy recovery of cells and tissues after a competition is over.

Question 28. What is the role of various elements of diet on performance of ah athlete? (All India 2014) Answer: For a sportsperson athlete, it is essential to take a balanced diet as lot of physical activity and endurance is needed in sports. The quality of sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

• Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
• Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
• A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
• Diet prevents, various diseases, maintains healthy weight.
• Vitamins are essential for good performance and overall development of the body.
• Water is essential as it helps in releaving the body of waste materials and transportation of nutrients to cells.,

Value-Based Question Question 29. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer: Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bacterial infections.
2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

1 Mark Questions Question.1. What are fats? Answer. Fats are the energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later. Butter, ghee and nuts are rich sources of fats; too much of fats can lead to diseases like blood pressure, heart problems and obesity.

Question.2. What do you mean by components of diet? Answer. Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and micro elements like calcium, iron, zinc etc.

Question.3. What is balanced diet? Or What do you mean by balanced diet? Answer. A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.

• Question.4.
• Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body.
• They are required in very small quantities.
• The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, Bs, B6, B7, B9 and B12).
• Vitamins are found in milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, oil, nuts, fish, amla etc.

Question.5. What are carbohydrates? Answer. Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.

• Question.6.
• What do you mean by food and nutrition? Answer.
• Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food.
• Question.7.
• What is Glycemic Index? Answer.
• Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale of how much a particular type of food raises blood sugar over a two-hour period compared to pure glucose.

Question.8. List the goals of nutrition during competition. Answer. The goals of nutrition during competition are to

1. stay hydrated
2. provide immediate fuel
3. boost performance
4. preserve muscle and
5. improve recovery.

3 Marks Questions Question.9. Discuss the role of fats on the performance of sports persons. Answer. Fats are considered as a major source of fuel for light to moderate levels of activity. Various sports require different proportions of fat in the muscles for maximum performance.

• Particularly for long distance runners and swimmers, fat is very important, as lack of fat will reduce the available amount of calories required by the body for the exercise undertaken.
• Fat is important to meet the demands of energy.
• When the body has used up the calories from carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 40 minutes of exercises, it begins to depend on calories from fat.

Question.10. Explain about any two components of diet in brief. Answer. (i) Proteins Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. The basic structure of proteins is a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins: (a) Non-essential proteins (b) Essential proteins Functions: (a) Proteins are essential for growth and development of children.

1. B) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with proteins.
2. Ii) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in all activities.
3. These provide energy to the body and are not stored in the body for a long time.
4. Carbohydrates are of two types: (a) Simple carbohydrates (b) Complex carbohydrates Function The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.

Question.11. What are vitamins? Name the types of vitamins. Answer. Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body. Types of Vitamins There are various vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (Bt, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12) There are two groups of vitamins

1. Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are A, D, E and K.
2. Water Soluble Vitamins These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B and C.

12. What are the uses of any two minerals in our diet? Answer.

1. Iodine For creativity as well as proper activity of the thyroid gland, iodine is essential. Its deficiency may stop the growth of hair. It is found in rich quantity in sea fish. Iodised salt is normally the main source of iodine in a normal diet.
2. Calcium Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. It also maintains the balance between acids and bases in our bodies. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.

Question.13. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual? Answer. Effects of good nutrition on an individual are

1. Prevent Disease It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bactarial infections.
2. Maintain Healthy Weight It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
3. Provide Stress Relief It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
4. Good Start to Future Generations It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.

Question.14. Discuss the functions and sources of proteins. Or What are proteins? Discuss. Answer. Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a ‘ chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen.

These are two types of proteins (i) Non-essential proteins (ii) Essential proteins Sources All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sorces are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc. Functions (a) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein. (b) Proteins are needed for growth and development of children.

(c) Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. Question.15. What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet. Answer. Balanced Diet A diet that contains the right amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet.

1. Carbohydrates These are our main source of energy.
2. Proteins These provide essential growth as well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
3. Fats These are the source of energy.
4. Vitamins These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
5. Minerals These are essential for proper growth and functioning of our body.
6. Water It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.
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Question.16. What are vitamins? Write the sources of vitamins A, D, E and K. Answer. Vitamins Vitamins are the compounds of carbon that are absolutely essential for the normal growth and working of the body. These are required in a very small quantities.

Sources Vitamin-A Milk, butter, eggs, carrots, pumpkin and green vegetables. Vitamin-D Cheese, butter, milk, green vegetables and exposure to sunlight. Vitamin-E Vegetable oil, butter, milk, whole grains, com, nuts, seeds and spinach. Vitamin-K Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other vegetables. Bacteria in the intestines normally also produce vitamin-K.

Question.17. Discuss the functions and sources of fats. Answer. Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Functions of Fats:

1. They provide heat and energy to the body.
2. They also help in regulation of body temperature.
3. They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
4. They are helpful in making the body soft and oily and protect it from external effects of hot and cold climates.

Sources of Fats:

1. Animal Sources We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
2. Vegetables Sources We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut,, soyabean, food grains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.

Question.18. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body. Answer. Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food. One gram of fat provides double the energy provided by one gram of carbohydrates.

Sources of Fats Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc. Types Fats can be classified according to their structures. Different types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body.

There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood. Poly-unsaturated fats and mono-unsaturated fats help in lowering the blood cholesterol.

1. Fats are necessary for many body functions.
2. Fats keep up warm and give protection to organs.
3. Fats also help in production of hormones.
4. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
5. Fats are also important energy sources.
6. Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
7. Fats maintain skin and hair.

Question.19. What is the major goal of a pre-competition meal? When should it be taken and why? Answer. The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximize carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should preferably be taken about three hours prior to the start of the competition.

If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea – the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach. An exception is of consuming carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.5 Marks Questions Question.20.

What is a balanced diet? Explain its elements. Or Explain in detail the different elements of diet. Answer. Balanced diet is the intake of appropriate types and right / sufficient amount of food and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintenance of body cells, tissues and organs and to support normal growth and development.

1. Carbohydrates These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. Functions The main function of carbohydrate is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.
2. Proteins Proteins are a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, beans and animal products etc. Functions Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.
3. Fats Fats cantain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil etc. Functions Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.
4. Vitamins Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D E, K and B- complex (B1B2 B3 B5 B6, B7 B9 and B12). Sources Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, am/a etc. Functions Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin. They are helpful in RBC production.
5. Minerals Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride etc. Sources Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc. Functions Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body. Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.
6. Water Water is an important element of balanced diet. Source Natural. Functions Water helps in the digestive system. It breaks down complex food molecules. It also regulates the body temperature and is essential for various chemical reactions.

Question.21. Discuss the role of diet on the performance of a sportsperson. Answer. The energy requirement of an athlete depends on:

1. Quality Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fluids.
2. Quantity Calories according to the sport.
3. Variety Different types of food.
4. Portability Proper cooking.
5. Acceptability of Nutrients To suit different customs, habits and tastes. The quality of a sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts etc, which constitute the main nutrients of diet.

Functions of different elements of diet are:

1. Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
2. Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the bdy.
3. A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
4. Diet prevents various diseases.
5. Vitamins are essential for good performance.
6. Vitamin-B complex helps in increasing the internal strength of our systems.
7. Vitamin-E is beneficial in the treatment of heart diseases.
8. Diet maintains healthy weight.
9. Diet provides stress relief.
10. Diet maintains normal body functions and proper blood sugar levels.
11. Diet gives positive psychological feeling.
12. Diet provides enough glycogen storage.
13. Proteins are necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
14. Minerals deficiency can decrease performance, especially during exercises in hot climate.

A normal person needs around 2100 – 2800 calories per day. An athlete may need up to 5000 to 7000 calories per day. At training or competition time, the best food is to take in a small amount of non-carbonated fruits, juices or non-carbonated soft drinks.

Eating Diet Before Performance We should eat suitable foods in the breakfast like cereals, porridge, bread or toast, fruit juice, boiled rice, potatoes, biscuits etc. Question.22. What are the goals of eating during competition? Explain the two different categories of such nutrition, indicating the different requirements.

Answer. The goals of eating during competition are to :

1. stay hydrated
2. provide immediate fuel
3. boost performance
4. preserve muscle and
5. improve recovery.

The two different categories of this nutrition are :

1. competitions less than two hours long, and
2. competitions more than two hours long.

For the first category, the main focus should be on hydration. This is especially true if you’re using good pre-and post-training nutrition. So make sure you consume plenty of water. However, if you’re exercising in the heat and sweating a lot, sports drinks maybe useful since they have electrolytes that help speed hydration and recovery.

For the second category, sports drinks are helpful. Every hour you will need 15 grams of proteins and 30 to 45 grams of carbohydrates, which can be taken in the form of liquids, gels or solid food. However, ensure that you get enough electrolytes, especially sodium. This can be in the form of table salt added to any drink.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

### What are proteins Class 12 physical education?

Protein Definition – Classifications & Functions with Examples and Videos Proteins are very large molecules composed of basic units called amino acids. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur. Protein molecules are large, complex molecules formed by one or more twisted and folded strands of,

#### What is the function of carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates The Role They Play and Why You Need Them – Sub Heading Understanding the role of carbs from energy to gut health Main Image Duration

Description Good nutrition helps nourish your body, and just like many things in life, it’s all about balance. Early on, we’re told to eat a wide variety of foods from all food groups – fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, and protein – and this advice comes with good reason.

1. To function and thrive, you need various foods to get all the essential nutrients the body needs, like carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
2. In recent decades—and with the rise of diets like ketogenic, paleo, and Atkins—there’s been growing confusion about one nutrient’s role and importance in particular: carbohydrates.

Yet, this macronutrient remains an important part of an overall balanced diet and is necessary for good health. Understanding the role of carbohydrates – and the foods they’re found in – can help you follow a nutritious, balanced diet. The Role of Carbohydrates: From Energy to Gut Health Carbohydrates, also known as carbs, are vital at every stage of life.

They’re the body’s primary source of energy and the brain’s preferred energy source. Carbs are broken down by the body into glucose – a type of sugar. Glucose is used as fuel by your body’s cells, tissues, and organs. When your body doesn’t get adequate carbohydrates, it looks for another energy source, breaking down the protein in your muscles and body fat to use as energy.

Glucose is significant for the brain, which can’t easily use other fuel sources like fat or protein for energy. While carbohydrates are most known for providing energy, some carbs can also help promote digestive health. The microbiome is an enormous collection of microbial organisms that live on and in your body, most of them within the gastrointestinal tract or the gut.

Many of the microbes within the gut are healthy bacteria that help support immune and digestive health. Certain carbohydrates – like fiber – act as food for the good bacteria in the gut and promote their growth. Eating foods high in fiber, like fruits, vegetables and whole grains, can also help with regular bowel movements, minimize constipation-related issues and may help lower cholesterol and blood sugar.

The Function of Carbohydrates in Prepared Foods While carbs occur naturally in many foods like pasta, fruit, vegetables, milk, and bread, they’re often added to prepared foods to balance the nutrients and improve taste and texture. And they play an essential role.

Take nutrition supplements, for example. Some nutrition supplements, like nutrition drinks, are nutrient-dense and designed to provide important macro-nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Carbs are one of the main energy sources and play an important role in the taste and consistency, too. Sugar can add thickness and also help prevent clumping of protein in powder mixes, which can impact texture and consistency.

Sugar also provides sweetness to nutrient-dense foods and helps enhance positive flavors or mask negative ones, so the products are easy to drink. “When we create nutrition products, specific ingredients are added to create balanced, nutrient-dense foods,” says Hakim Bouzamondo, MD, MSC, MBA, division vice president of Global Research and Development at Abbott.

” Every ingredient that goes into our products serves an important purpose. For some people our nutrition products provide their total nutrition, so the products must be balanced with important nutrients – including carbohydrates – so people can get the nutrition they need to grow, heal or thrive.” It’s important to ask your healthcare professional if you have questions about your diet.

And understanding the different kinds of carbohydrates, where to find them in foods and how to prioritize them in your diet, will help you enjoy a variety of foods while providing your body with essential nutrients.

## What are carbohydrates?

What are carbohydrates? – Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods—bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant forms are sugars, fibers, and starches.

The healthiest sources of carbohydrates—unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans—promote good health by delivering vitamins, minerals, fiber, and a host of important phytonutrients. Unhealthier sources of carbohydrates include white bread, pastries, sodas, and other highly processed or refined foods. These items contain easily digested carbohydrates that may contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.

The Healthy Eating Plate recommends filling most of your plate with healthy carbohydrates – with vegetables (except potatoes) and fruits taking up about half of your plate, and whole grains filling up about one fourth of your plate. Try these tips for adding healthy carbohydrates to your diet: 1.

Start the day with whole grains. Try a hot cereal, like steel cut or old fashioned oats (not instant oatmeal), or a cold cereal that lists a whole grain first on the ingredient list and is low in sugar. A good rule of thumb: Choose a cereal that has at least 4 grams of fiber and less than 8 grams of sugar per serving.2.

Use whole grain breads for lunch or snacks. Confused about how to find a whole-grain bread? Look for bread that lists as the first ingredient whole wheat, whole rye, or some other whole grain —and even better, one that is made with only whole grains, such as 100 percent whole wheat bread.3.

1. Also look beyond the bread aisle.
2. Whole wheat bread is often made with finely ground flour, and bread products are often high in sodium,
3. Instead of bread, try a whole grain in salad form such as brown rice or quinoa,4.
4. Choose whole fruit instead of juice.
5. An orange has two times as much fiber and half as much sugar as a 12-ounce glass of orange juice.5.

Pass on potatoes, and instead bring on the beans. Rather than fill up on potatoes – which have been found to promote weight gain – choose beans for an excellent source of slowly digested carbohydrates. Beans and other legumes such as chickpeas also provide a healthy dose of protein.

## What are carbohydrates short answer?

Carbohydrates: MedlinePlus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/carbohydrates.html Carbohydrates, or carbs, are sugar molecules. Along with and, carbohydrates are one of three main nutrients found in foods and drinks. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose.

#### What are the types of carbohydrates explain with examples?

Types of Carbohydrates – The saccharides or carbohydrates are simply defined as ketones or polyhydroxy aldehydes or the compounds that produce units of such type on hydrolysis. Few common types of carbohydrates are milk, bread, popcorn, potatoes, maze, etc.

#### What are carbohydrates What are its types?

On this page, we’ll get acquainted with the chemical structure of different types of carbohydrates and learn where we find them in foods. First, all carbohydrates are made up of the same chemical elements:

• carbon (that’s the “carbo-” part)
• hydrogen and oxygen, in about a two-to-one proportion, just like in H2O (that’s the “-hydrate” part)

For this reason, you may see carbohydrates abbreviated as “CHO” in our class. Carbohydrates can be divided into two main types: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are made up of just one or two sugar units, whereas complex carbohydrates are made up of many sugar units. We’ll look at each of these in turn. This figure gives you an overview of the types of carbohydrates that we’ll cover. Fig.2.1. Carbohydrates can be divided into two main types: simple (including monosaccharides and disaccharides) and complex.

## What are carbohydrates PDF?

Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy alcohol with potentially active carbonyl group which may be aldehyde or keto group. Carbohydrates can be classified on the basis of carbon atom present in the carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are classified into four types monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, poly- saccharides.

## What are fats in physical education?

Definition: Fats The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other substances the body needs. Most of the nutrients in food fall into three major groups: proteins,, and, The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of energy in the body.

Fat also has many other important functions in the body, and a moderate amount is needed in the diet for good health. Fats in food come in several forms, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Too much fat or too much of the wrong type of fat can be unhealthy. Some examples of foods that contain fats are butter, oil, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.

: Definition: Fats

### What are fats Class 12 physical education?

What are Fats? – According to nutrition facts, fats are an essential part of the diet and play an important role in maintaining a healthy life. Fats and cholesterol tend to be the most focused terms of the public and health enthusiasts. There is a valid reason behind this.

Fat happens to be the most concentrated source of energy in the diet that providing about 8 to 9 calories per gram, while on the other hand,\\ carbohydrates and proteins have only four calories per gram. Fat is known to have three elements which include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But, it has more carbon and hydrogen than oxygen, leading to nine calories per gram.

Fats are the source of energy in food, belong to a group of elements called lipids, and they are all combinations of saturated and unsaturated fats. The human body is well designed, which makes up two types of fats, essential for the proper functioning of the body and are obtained from the food consumed. These fats play a major role in controlling inflammation,, and brain development. It also serves as a storage unit for storing the body’s extra calories in fat cells or adipose tissue that helps to insulate the body.

## What is macro minerals class 12 physical education?

The Categories of Minerals – The different types of Minerals can be broadly classified into two types known as micro Minerals and macro Minerals.

Micro Minerals: Micro Minerals are also known as trace Minerals and are needed in small amounts. The list of the trace elements includes iron, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride, zinc, cobalt, and selenium. If the micro Minerals are taken in excessive amounts, they can cause mineral toxicity that can lead to numerous health issues like nausea, diarrhea, discoloration, etc. Macro Minerals: The macro Minerals are needed by the body in large quantities. Examples of macro Minerals include calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur. These Minerals are essential for the metabolism and proper functioning of the human body. We don’t produce these components and hence need to obtain them from different sources like food and supplements. The deficiency of macro Minerals in the body has an adverse impact on human physiology.

## What are the functions of carbohydrates Class 12?

They serve as primary energy sources. They provide energy. They help in the regulation of blood glucose. They provide the carbon skeleton for the synthesis of some non-essential amino acids.

### What are the importance of carbohydrates Class 12?

It serves as storage molecules, for example, glycogen in animals and starch in plants. It is used as the main source of energy. For example, fiber is a carbohydrate that aids in digestion.

#### What are the 4 main functions of carbohydrates?

The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body There are five primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body. They are energy production, energy storage, building macromolecules, sparing protein, and assisting in lipid metabolism.

## What is carbohydrates and its benefits?

Though there are many benefits of carbohydrates, you need to make sure you’re eating them in moderation. A carbohydrate-intensive diet can cause high blood sugar and unwanted weight gain. But it’s important that you eat an appropriate amount of healthy carbohydrates in order to meet your body’s nutritional needs and maintain a healthy weight.

What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients – along with proteins and fats – that your body requires daily. There are three main types of carbohydrates: starches, fiber, and sugars. Starches are often referred to as complex carbohydrates. They are found in grains legumes and starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn.

Sugars are known as simple carbohydrates. There are natural sugars in vegetables, fruits, milk, and honey. Added sugars are found in processed foods, syrups, sugary drinks, and sweets. Why do you need carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy: They help fuel your brain, kidneys, heart muscles, and central nervous system. What are some healthy sources of carbohydrates? To reap the benefits of carbohydrates, you should choose carbohydrates loaded with nutrients. Christie Ferriell, a registered dietitian and nutrition manager at Reid Health, recommends you get at least half of your carbohydrates from whole grains.

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Whole grains: quinoa, amaranth, barley, brown rice, oatmeal, whole-grain pasta and whole-grain breakfast cereals Fruits: berries, citrus fruits, melons, apples, pears, bananas and kiwifruit Starchy vegetables: sweet potatoes, yams, corn. peas and carrots Legumes: lentils, black beans, pinto beans, navy beans, chick peas and soybeans Milk products: low-fat milk, plain yogurt and soy yogurt

Healthy foods lower in carbohydrates (less than 10 grams per serving) include

Nonstarchy vegetables: leafy greens, spinach, cabbage, asparagus, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, cucumbers, peppers, zucchini and mushrooms Nuts and seeds: pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, almonds, cashews, walnuts, peanuts and pistachios Soy milk and tofu

How many grams of carbohydrates do you need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 suggest that most adults get 45 to 65 percent of their calories from carbohydrates. Since carbohydrates contain four calories per gram, you should consume 225 to 325 grams of carbohydrates on a daily basis if you’re following a 2000-calorie diet.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture you should consume at the very least the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of carbohydrates which is 130 grams for adults 175 grams for women who are pregnant and 210 grams for women who are breastfeeding. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women should consume 25 grams of fiber daily, while men should consume 38 grams of fiber daily.

What if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, you should see a doctor or dietitian who can help you plan meals to control your blood sugar. Though your daily carbohydrate requirements are the same as those for someone without diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating too many carbohydrates in one sitting.

### What are carbohydrates in sport?

Eating at All Day Events: – It is important that athletes eat after competing to make sure that they will have enough energy in the muscles for the next race or competition, whether it be in the same day or the following days. The same dietary intake principles used to plan the pre-exercise meal can also apply to foods eaten at all-day events.

1. If an athlete races at 10:00 a.m.
2. And again after two hours, foods that are high in protein and fat will more than likely still be in the stomach potentially causing stomach or gastrointestinal (GI) distress.
3. The following guidelines have been recommended to help athletes make wise food choices at all-day events.

One hour or less between events or heats:

Stick with carbohydrates that are in liquid form, such as sports drinks. If something solid needs to be eaten, try fruits like oranges, watermelon, cantaloupe, peaches, pears, applesauce, or bananas.

These foods consist of mostly carbohydrates and water. They are digested very fast and therefore, will not cause as much of a problem with stomach cramping or GI distress. Another key point to making food choices with limited time between events, is limiting the quantity of the food eaten.

Foods containing carbohydrates and some protein can be eaten, as there is enough time to digest them before competition. Try eating granola bars with jerky, hot or cold cereal with nonfat milk, or english muffins along with fruit like bananas, apples, oranges, peaches, or pears. Be sure to drink plenty of fluids, like water or a sports drink, for hydration, electrolyte replacement, and restoration of glycogen stores. Avoid drinks that contain caffeine, carbonation, and other stimulants.

Four or more hours between events or heats: With four or more hours between events or heats, an athlete may want a meal, which should be composed primarily of carbohydrates. Keep the meals simple. The following meal examples for this situation are appropriate:

A turkey sandwich on two slices of whole wheat bread, Greek yogurt with fruit, and water or a sports (fluid replacement) drink; or Spaghetti with lean meatballs, bread, salad with dressing, and water or a sports (fluid replacement) drink.

If there is a certain meal pattern before competition that an athlete thinks is a winning combination, then they should stick to it. Athletes who make food choices at concession stands need to know how to make the best choices. Most concession stands are filled with high-fat, high-calorie foods that are not designed to maximize performance.

1. It is always wiser for athletes to pack a cooler from home with winning combinations, than to rely on the food at a concession stand.
2. Table 3 has a list of nutrient-dense foods that are easy to pack in a cooler and will help supply energy throughout the day.
3. During Exercise: Consuming carbohydrates during exercise lasting longer than 60 minutes ensures that the muscles receive adequate amounts of energy, especially during the later stages of the competition or workout.

This has also been found to improve performance. The form of carbohydrates consumed does matter. Some athletes prefer to use a sports drink, whereas others prefer to eat solid or gel forms of carbohydrates. Use the following guidelines when consuming sports drinks with carbohydrates.

Consume 6 to 12 ounces of a sports drink with 6-8% carbohydrate concentration every 15-30 minutes during exercise (see Table 4). One gulp is about 2 ounces. Water is needed to aid in absorption of the carbohydrate. Drinks with a concentration greater than 10 percent are often associated with abdominal cramps, nausea, and diarrhea. For high intensity activities, sports drinks and gels containing multiple forms of sugar can increase absorption and delivery of carbohydrates.

Note: Sports drinks should not be confused with “energy” drinks. “Energy” drinks typically contain one or more stimulants and their carbohydrate concentration is usually greater than 10%. * Sports drinks are beverages that contain electrolytes and carbohydrates, not caffeine and other stimulants. TABLE 3 IMAGE TEXT: COOLER FLUIDS

Food Serving Size Fat Carbohydrates Protein
Baby carrots 7 carrots 0 g 3 g 0 g
Peanut butter pretzels 8 pieces 7 g 15 g 5 g
Celery 1 large stalk 0 g 2 g 0 g
Cherry tomatoes 1/2 cup 0 g 7 g 1 g
Chocolate milk (lowfat) 1 cup 2 g 26 g 8 g
String cheese 2 sticks 12 g 2 g 16 g
Dried mango 1 package 0 g 56 g 4 g
Sports drink 8 oz 0 g 14 g 0 g
Snack bar (oatmeal raisin walnut) 1 bar 5 g 43 g 10 g
Fresh fruit 1 piece or 1 cup <1 g 19 g .3 g
Ginger snaps 1 oz 3 g 22 g 2 g
Hummus 1/4 cup 5 g 13 g 3 g
High protein milk shake 1 bottle (12 fl oz) 4.5 g 40 g 20 g
Nuts (mixed) 1/4 cup 15 g 7 g 5 g
Peanut butter 2 tbsp 16 g 7 g 5 g
Pita bread (whole wheat large pita) 1 pita 2 g 35 g 6 g
Turkey sandwich (3 slices deli meat, mustard, 2 slices whole wheat bread), baby carrots turkey: 1 slice mustard: 1 tbsp bread: 1 slice 7 carrots 1 g per slice 0 g 5 g 0 g 0 g 0 g per slice 24 g 3 g 5 g per slice 0 g 2 g <1 g
Vanilla wafers 4 wafers 10 g 19 g <1 g
Whole grain bagel 1 bagel (4 oz) 1.5 g 47 g 11 g
Whole grain cereal 1 cup 1 g 47 g 7 g
Whole grain crackers 5 crackers 15 g 11 g 1 g
Greek yogurt tubes 4 tubes 4 g 24 g 20 g

img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’https://www.saradaschool.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/daqoqenixi.jpg’ alt=’What Are Carbohydrates Class 12 Physical Education’ /> TABLE 4 IMAGE TEXT: CALCULATING CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN BEVERAGES. To asses the concetration of a fluid replacement drink or any beverage, use the following calculations: Amount of carbohydrate in grams (from the label) divded by the volume in one serving (use 240 ml per cup), time 100 = the percentage.

• Remember that sports drinks are beverages that contain electrolytes and carbohydrates, not caffeine and other stimulants.
• Consuming a carbohydrate snack as soon as possible after training will allow the body to start replenishing glycogen stores in the body.

Additionally, consuming a couple of mixed meals high in carbohydrates within six hours after training or a competition ensures that the muscles continue with glycogen restoration.

Athletes who may benefit from recovery nutrition include those who are competing in tournament play or have multiple competitions over the course of one or several days, have skipped meals throughout the day, did not consume enough calories, and want to improve strength and power.The recommendation is 1-1.2 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight per hour for the first four hours after exercise. Refueling may be enhanced by consuming small amounts of carbohydrate more frequently (every 15-30 minutes) for up to four hours.Add a small amount (~20 grams) of protein to the first feeding to stimulate muscle repair and rebuilding.Table 5 and 6 list recovery tips and examples of recovery snacks.

TABLE 5 IMAGE TEXT: POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY TIPS

To refill energy in the muscle with trainings less than eight hours apart, eat as soon as possible after exercise and then every 15-30 minutes for up to four hours.Choose higher-carbohydrate foods such as bagels, pasta, fruits, yogurts, cereal with low-fat milk, peanut butter, sports drinks, granola bars, french toast, sub sandwiches, baked potatoes with chili, smoothie made with fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, and frozen yogurt.Include protein to aid in muscle recovery and promote muscle growth.If you can’t consume solid foods as soon as possible after exercise, try 2-4 cups of a sports drink, then consume solid fod within four hours post-exercise.Consume 1-1.2 g of carbohydrates per kilogram body weight per hour for the first four hours after glycogen-depleting exercise. Be sure to rehydrate as well.

TABLE 6 IMAGE TEXT: RECOVERY SNACK IDEAS

Cereal with milkFruit and nonfat yogurtPita and hummusTrail mixChocolate milk (lowfat)Banana with peanut butter

#### What is the role of carbohydrates in enhancing physical performance?

Position der Arbeitsgruppe Sporternährung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (DGE): Kohlenhydrate in der Sporternährung – 1 ALBERT-LUDWIGS-UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG, Institut für Sport und Sportwissenschaft, Arbeitsbereich Ernährung, Freiburg, Germany 2 DEUTSCHE SPORTHOCHSCHULE KÖLN, Institut für Biochemie; Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Leistungssport, Köln, Germany 3 HOCHSCHULE FÜR ANGEWANDTE WISSENSCHAFTEN HAMBURG, Fakultät Life Sciences/Department Ökotrophologie, Hamburg, Germany 4 OLYMPIASTÜTZPUNKT RHEINLAND-PFALZ/ SAARLAND, Germany 5 BUNDESINSTITUT FÜR RISIKOBEWERTUNG (BfR), Berlin, Germany 6 OLYMPIASTÜTZPUNKT STUTTGART, Germany 7 UNIVERSITÄTSKLINIKUM TÜBINGEN, Abteilung Sportmedizin, Tübingen, Germany 8 DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FÜR ERNÄHRUNG E.V.

(DGE), Germany 9 REDAKTION LEISTUNGSSPORT (DOSB), Germany 10 RHEINISCHE FRIEDRICHWILHELMS- UNIVERSITÄT BONN, Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften, Ernährungsphysiologie, Bonn, Germany 11 UNIVERSITÄT PADERBORN, Institut für Ernährung, Konsum und Gesundheit, Paderborn, Germany Carbohydrates are an important source of energy during physical exercise.

Carbohydrates lead to a higher energy yield and higher energy flux per liter of oxygen than the oxidation of fatty acids. However, the storage capacity for carbohydrates in liver and muscles is limited. Therefore, athletes performing prolonged endurance or intermittent high-intensity exercise should include a high proportion of carbohydrates in their daily diet.

The individual amount depends on body weight and the extent of physical activity. Energy expenditure during physical exercise results in a gradual depletion of carbohydrate stores. The extent to which carbohydrate stores are depleted is dependent on the duration and intensity of exercise. Therefore, particularly during prolonged intense exercise, performance may be improved by consuming an adequate quantity of carbohydrates during exercise.

In addition, following a long period of intensive physical activity, rapid post-exercise intake of carbohydrates can help replenish carbohydrate stores more quickly. This position paper sets out current guidelines for the type, quantity and timing of carbohydrate intake in sport.

1. It will also discuss the significance of “carbohydrate loading”, the glycemic index, and training without prior intake of carbohydrates.
2. Ey Words: Carbohydrate Intake, Glycemic Index, Physical Activity, Glycogen Stores, Energy Supply Kohlenhydrate haben eine wichtige Rolle bei der Energieversorgung des Sportlers.

Durch den Abbau von Kohlenhydraten ist sowohl die pro Liter aufgenommenen Sauerstoff erzielte Energieausbeute als auch die energetische Flussrate höher als bei der Oxidation von Fettsäuren. Die Speicherkapazität für Kohlenhydrate in Leber und Muskulatur ist jedoch begrenzt.

1. Ausdauersportlern bzw.
2. Sportlern mit intensiven, länger anhaltenden, intermitierenden Belastungen wird daher empfohlen, dass die tägliche Ernährung einen hohen Anteil an Kohlenhydraten aufweist.
3. Die genaue Menge richtet sich dabei nach dem Körpergewicht und dem Umfang der körperlichen Aktivität.
4. Trotzdem kommt es während sportlicher Aktivität zu einer Reduktion der Kohlenhydratspeicher.

In welchem Ausmaß die Kohlenhydratspeicher entleert werden, hängt insbesondere von der Dauer und Intensität der Belastung ab. Vor allem bei längeren, intensiven Belastungen ist es daher leistungsfördernd, wenn während der Belastung ausreichend Kohlenhydrate zugeführt werden.

• Auch in der Nachbelastungsphase nach längerer und intensiver körperlicher Aktivität können durch rasche Zufuhr von Kohlenhydraten die Speicher schneller wieder aufgefüllt werden.
• Im vorliegenden Positionspapier werden die aktuellen Richtlinien zu Art, Menge und Zeitpunkt der Kohlenhydratzufuhr im Sport vorgestellt.

Zudem werden Konzepte zur Bedeutung des sog. carbohydrate loadings, des glykämischen Indexes sowie zum Training ohne vorherige Kohlenhydratzufuhr, diskutiert. Schlüsselwörter: Kohlenhydratzufuhr, glykämischer Index, körperliche Aktivität, Glycogenspeicher, Energieversorgung Among macronutrients, carbohydrates are particularly important for athletic performance ( 41 ).

• Carbohydrates have a very high energy efficiency and can be metabolized both aerobically and anaerobically ( 26 ).
• Particularly when oxygen uptake is considered, which is particularly important in endurance sports, the energy yield in terms of the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) per liter of oxygen is higher for carbohydrates than for fatty acids ( 4 ).

The total energy yield during anaerobic (2 Mol ATP/Mol glucose) and aerobic (36 Mol ATP/Mol glucose) glucose metabolism is less than for the metabolism of fatty acids (e.g.122 ATP/Mol stearic acid), but the flux of energy, i.e. the ATP yield per unit of time is much higher for carbohydrates ( 18 ).

Compared to energy yield from fatty acids, ATP resynthesis/unit of time is twice as high for aerobic metabolism of glucose. In the case of anaerobic metabolism of glucose, this value is actually four times higher ( 14 ). Therefore, it has been shown that a high proportion of carbohydrates in the diet can significantly improve physical performance during prolonged, intense physical exercise ( 32 ).

Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the level of carbohydrate stores in the liver and muscles affects training-induced adaptation processes in the body ( 16, 30, 41 ). The importance of carbohydrate intake for athletic performance will be demonstrated below with reference to the following aspects: – Carbohydrates in the period before physical exercise – Carbohydrates during physical exercise – Carbohydrates in the period immediately after physical exercise

## What is carbohydrates and its benefits?

Though there are many benefits of carbohydrates, you need to make sure you’re eating them in moderation. A carbohydrate-intensive diet can cause high blood sugar and unwanted weight gain. But it’s important that you eat an appropriate amount of healthy carbohydrates in order to meet your body’s nutritional needs and maintain a healthy weight.

• What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients – along with proteins and fats – that your body requires daily.
• There are three main types of carbohydrates: starches, fiber, and sugars.
• Starches are often referred to as complex carbohydrates.
• They are found in grains legumes and starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn.

Sugars are known as simple carbohydrates. There are natural sugars in vegetables, fruits, milk, and honey. Added sugars are found in processed foods, syrups, sugary drinks, and sweets. Why do you need carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy: They help fuel your brain, kidneys, heart muscles, and central nervous system. What are some healthy sources of carbohydrates? To reap the benefits of carbohydrates, you should choose carbohydrates loaded with nutrients. Christie Ferriell, a registered dietitian and nutrition manager at Reid Health, recommends you get at least half of your carbohydrates from whole grains.

Whole grains: quinoa, amaranth, barley, brown rice, oatmeal, whole-grain pasta and whole-grain breakfast cereals Fruits: berries, citrus fruits, melons, apples, pears, bananas and kiwifruit Starchy vegetables: sweet potatoes, yams, corn. peas and carrots Legumes: lentils, black beans, pinto beans, navy beans, chick peas and soybeans Milk products: low-fat milk, plain yogurt and soy yogurt

Healthy foods lower in carbohydrates (less than 10 grams per serving) include

Nonstarchy vegetables: leafy greens, spinach, cabbage, asparagus, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, cucumbers, peppers, zucchini and mushrooms Nuts and seeds: pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, almonds, cashews, walnuts, peanuts and pistachios Soy milk and tofu

How many grams of carbohydrates do you need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 suggest that most adults get 45 to 65 percent of their calories from carbohydrates. Since carbohydrates contain four calories per gram, you should consume 225 to 325 grams of carbohydrates on a daily basis if you’re following a 2000-calorie diet.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture you should consume at the very least the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of carbohydrates which is 130 grams for adults 175 grams for women who are pregnant and 210 grams for women who are breastfeeding. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women should consume 25 grams of fiber daily, while men should consume 38 grams of fiber daily.

What if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, you should see a doctor or dietitian who can help you plan meals to control your blood sugar. Though your daily carbohydrate requirements are the same as those for someone without diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating too many carbohydrates in one sitting.

All carbs are bad! – This common misconception has left people feeling confused about whether to consume carbs. People often opt for a low-carb diet without understanding that there are many healthy carbohydrate food sources to choose from, and that they are one of the Big Three macronutrients that our body needs.

Balanced nutrition is crucial for exercise, and its fundamentals depend on a balanced intake of the macros – protein, carbs, and fats. Carbohydrates are especially important as they are an essential source of energy in an athlete’s diet and help maintain peak performance during physical activity. Here are five reasons why you need carbs in your diet to help with exercise and performance: 1.

Carbohydrates fuel the brain and muscles. Include healthy carbs like brown rice, quinoa, whole-grain bread and pasta, sweet potatoes, fruits, and vegetables in your daily diet. Carbohydrates are the principal energy source for our brains and bodies to function well, as they provide fuel for the central nervous system and energy for working muscles.

• Think of it as fuel for your car: our bodies store carbs in our muscles as glycogen, which is then converted to glucose when you need it.
• Carbs help delay fatigue, sustaining you through prolonged workouts or competitive sports.2.
• Carbohydrates prevent muscle breakdown.
• Each macronutrient that your body needs has a unique role to play in carrying out day-to-day bodily functions.

If you limit carbohydrates, protein will be needed as an energy source and not get utilized to build lean muscles. But when you consume enough carbs throughout the day, the protein consumed remains free to perform its main task, which is to help repair and rebuild muscle tissue.

Hence, adequate carbohydrate intake can prevent muscle breakdown from glycogen depletion, especially if you’re working to repair or build your muscles.3. Carbohydrates should make up most of the diet. The daily carb needs vary from individual to individual depending on the type of exercise, sports, or fitness regime they engage in daily.

Individuals engaging in a general fitness program can usually meet their daily needs by consuming a balanced diet of about 3 to 5 grams of carbs per kilogram of body weight. However, those who need a lot of endurance and stamina to sustain training and exercise require a high-carb diet.

1. Athletes may need to engage in carbohydrate loading (i.e., tapering exercise and eating higher than normal levels of carbohydrates) to fuel performances such as marathon running, etc.4.
2. Carbohydrates before a workout will boost your performance.
3. Research reveals that eating a high-carbohydrate diet before prolonged exercise helps improve endurance and performance and is crucial for athletes preparing to compete.

Subsequent studies also proved that fatigue occurs when muscle glycogen concentrations reduce to low values, confirming its importance during prolonged exercise. Hence, activity longer than one hour requires extra attention to carbohydrate refuelling.5.

• Carbohydrates support and accelerate muscle recovery.
• Stud y suggests that after a heavy workout, your body requires both protein and carbohydrates to rebuild muscles.
• The glucose from the carbs provides the muscles with energy to repair themselves using protein.
• Hence, consuming carbohydrates after exercise helps replenish the energy stores that get used up during strenuous exercise.

Remember, balanced nutrition is key to maintaining your active fitness routine, so the sooner you get glucose into your bloodstream after a workout, the faster your muscles start rebuilding themselves to become stronger. A post-exercise recovery shake with a right balance of carbohydrates and protein is the perfect way to refuel.