New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4?


New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4
Benefits of 5+3+3+4 Education System –

According to the new assessment plan, students will be evaluated on their basic learning in grades 3,5, and 8 using a 360-degree progress report card.With the new New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4 structure, board exams will be simplified to measure pupils’ essential competencies.The new initiative highlights the necessity of growth by enrolling kids between the ages of 3 and 6 in formal education.Both academics and practitioners agree that early childhood care and education (ECCE) is crucial in defining a child’s future. As a result, the NEP 2020 5+3+3+4 structure’s proudest achievement is perhaps the inclusion of pre-primary under its scope.Since the new school system combines multidisciplinary education and topic choices in the middle school years, stronger career counseling services are essential to assist students in making the best decisions possible.Choosing favored subjects as early as middle school may lay the burden of making a professional decision on parents or teachers, who are frequently unprepared to do so.

The switch from the 10+2 to the New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4 education system offers many opportunities for students’ growth and sheds light on the areas that need improvement in schools. The examination pattern has also undergone a cumulative modification.

The evaluation will focus on the child’s growth during the early years. In this structure, core concepts and knowledge applications will be tested on the board exams. By bringing this scientific approach to education, the education system aims to bring India up to par with the world’s leading nations.

offers education infrastructure solutions and a collection of & LMS features for all stakeholders of a school to aid in the education process. To know more about NEP, read our detailed blog. : The 5+3+3+4 Education System Simplified
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What is 5 3 3 4 education system in India?

New Education Policy 2020 Schools System: 5+3+3+4 Education Structure – The New Education Policy 2020 has introduced a new 5+3+3+4 education structure that will replace the existing 10+2 system. Under this structure, the first five years of schooling will be focused on foundational learning, followed by three years of preparatory schooling, three years of middle stage schooling, and four years of secondary education. New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4
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What is the new educational system of India?

New Education System – The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will switch to a new educational model in the following academic year. To prepare for the transition from the current academic system to a higher-graded one that would align with the National Education Policy, the board will be issuing a directive to all CBSE-affiliated schools (NEP 2020).

  • The CBSE 10+2 education system will be replaced with the 5+3+3+4 system.
  • The chief of CBSE stated that the NEP’s distinguishing characteristic is the participation of children from three to six in formal education.
  • She also emphasised how many CBSE schools are already involved in teaching younger children through their preparatory and pre-nursery programmes.

The board will try to include this in the CBSE system architecture officially.
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What are the benefits of 5 3 3 4 education system?

Some of the pros are development of foundational and life skills among learners from an early age, say education experts – New Education Policy 2020 5+3+3+4 Students at CM Rise School in Bhopal; (Photo: India Today archives) The plan announced by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to shift from the 10+2 education model to the new 5+3+3+4 framework from the next academic session—in accordance with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020—appears to sync with the different stages of cognitive development of children as well as adheres to international trends.

“As per the UN Sustainable Development Goals, opportunities for lifelong learning should be promoted through the formal education system, and NEP is essentially aligned with this global education goal,” says Anne Dias, director (academics, quality analysis and trainings), VIBGYOR Group of Schools. The shift to the 5+3+3+4 system is expected to ensure seamless transition of a child from the foundational (first) to the secondary (last) stage.

Experts feel the shift will be positive as the formative years will be part of the main schooling. “As the entire education system is shifting to competency-based learning, the CBSE’s decision will curb rote learning. Learning will get more realistic, holistic and experiential,” says Shitala Prabhu, principal, RBK Global School, Bhayandar, Maharashtra.

The decision takes into account the various stages of development of children and creates room for providing foundational literacy and multidisciplinary, vocational and critical-thinking skills. Shashi Banerjee, director of education, Shiv Nadar School, says, “The decision clearly indicates gradual progression towards holistic learning.

If implemented properly, it will make learning more meaningful.” She adds that it is critical to provide room for children to grow up with foundational skills from a young age. The biggest advantage will be the inclusion of pre-primary years in the NEP, something not considered in the 10+2 system.

Rote learning will be on its way out through the adoption of NEP, making learning more practical and project based. “It also encourages single regulation for all levels of school education in India. The grading system will ensure healthy competition among learners. With better benchmarking, the curriculum and assessment tools will ensure a more effective learning output,” says Dias.

A longer foundational stage will ensure that children’s language, communication, numeracy and social skills are strong before they enter the preparatory stage, which involves further skill-building in these areas. “The middle stage focuses on experiential learning, which then leads to the last stage—the secondary stage.

Here, the focus on multidisciplinary education is bound to lead students to lateral and critical thinking, and this makes them world ready,” points out Dias. Banerjee adds that many of the children moving to the preparatory stage will be those who began their schooling online, due to the Covid pandemic.

“Incorporating aspects from the play-way method and discovery and inquiry-based learning will be critical to make them ready to move to the more academic middle and secondary stages,” she says. Multidisciplinary learning and the spirit of inquiry are maintained through the middle years with project-based learning, interdisciplinary learning, experiential learning and more.
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What is 10 2 3 education system?

10 + 2 + 3 as a common structure of education is recommended Option 4 : The Kothari Commission 1964-66 Free 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins 10+2+3 educational structure in India:

  • At the time of the Kothari Commission (1964-66) in the country, there were four patterns of the educational structure, viz., 10+2+3,10+2+2,11+3,11-12+1+3.
  • Therefore the Commission emphasized the necessity of the introduction of a uniform educational structure of 10+2+3.
  • Teachers, students, and various educational bodies of the country accepted this pattern and desired that by the end of the Fifth Five Year Ran in the whole country 10+2+3 educational patterns should be adopted.
  • The new pattern of education which has become popular as the 10+2+3 scheme seeks to divide schooling into two stages of education.
  • After a child enters kindergarten at the age of four, he will finish 10 years of schooling-the first stage of education-and take a secondary school certificate examination at the end of it.
  • In the second stage, he will take two more years to finish his high school certificate examination; in the third stage, he will take a bachelor’s degree at the end of three years at university.

Kothari Commission (1964-66)

  • It was set up under the chairmanship of ‘Daulat Singh Kothari to examine all aspects of educational sectors in India and to produce appropriate strategies and guidelines for the upliftment of education.
  • The major recommendations of the committee were:
    • the three-language formula,
    • the common school system,
    • 10+2+3 structure of education, and
    • neighborhood school.
  • Two of the unique features of the Report are:
    1. Its comprehensive approach to educational reconstruction; and
    2. Its attempt to project a blueprint of a national system (all level) of education for India.
  • According to this; Commission, education was intended to increase productivity, develop social and national unity, consolidate democracy, modernize the country, and develop social, moral, and spiritual values.

Therefore, 10 + 2 + 3 as a common structure of education is recommended by The Kothari Commission 1964-66, The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) thought over the problem of a 10+2+3 educational structure. But it introduced a new pattern of 8+3+3, In other words, the first 8 years of education were termed as junior classes, after this the three-year duration was to be of higher secondary and three years for the first-degree course.
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What is the new policy of education 2023?

NEP 2023 for teaching in Mother Tounge or Regional Language – One of the most important reforms in NEP is that the students will get to study in their Mother Tongue or regional language till the 5th standard. Additionally, the government has also said that they can increase this limit to the 8th standard as well.
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What is the purpose of new education policy?

Features of National Education Policy 2020 – The National Education Policy as submitted by the Kasturirangan Committee submitted an education policy that seeks to address the following challenges facing the existing education system:

  1. Quality
  2. Affordability
  3. Equity
  4. Access
  5. Accountability
  • The policy provides for reforms at all levels of education from school to higher education.
  • NEP aims to increase the focus on strengthening teacher training, reforming the existing exam system, early childhood care and restructuring the regulatory framework of education.
  • Other intentions of the NEP include:
    • Increasing public investment in education,
    • Setting up NEC (National Education Commission),
    • Increasing focus on vocational and adult education,
    • Strengthening the use of technology, etc.

Compare the features of the New Education Policy with,
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What are the top 3 education systems in the world?

Countries With Best Education System in the World 2022. United States. United Kingdom. Canada.
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What are the 4 A’s in teaching?

The 4As of adult learning: Activity, Analysis, Abstraction, and Application is illustrated in Figure 6-1. The constructivist approach to teaching asserts that a Learner gains and builds knowledge through experience. It recognizes that life experiences are rich resources for continued learning.
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What are the 4 A’s in education?

School Lesson Plan Choose a topic that you want the children in your class to learn and apply the 4-A’s of activating prior knowledge, acquiring new knowledge, applying the knowledge, and assessing the knowledge.
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What is the 6 3 3 education system?

This explains the reason why the government came up with the 6-3-3-4 policy on education. The 6-3-3-4 concept of education allows the child to spend six years at the primary level, three years at the junior secondary school level, another three years at the senior secondary level, and four years at the tertiary level.
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What is the 8 4 4 system of education?

The 8-4-4 System – The 8-4-4 system that consists of 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education, and 4 years of university education is attended by students who have completed two years of pre-school education (aged 3–6 years old). The system’s main purpose was to improve the development of self-expression, self-discipline and independence.

Comparisons of Education Systems in Kenya

7-4-2-3 System 8-4-4 System
Once shared by the 3 East African Countries (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania) Implemented in Kenya Only
7 years of primary school education 8 years of primary school education
4+ and additional 2 years of upper secondary education Only 4 years of secondary school education
3 years of university education 4 years of university education
CPE (Certificate of Education) KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education)
KCE (Kenya Certificate of Education) KCSE (Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education)

The 8-4-4 curriculum offers Science, Social Studies, Kiswahili, English, Math, Religious education, Creative arts, Physical Education (PE), and life skills studies at the Primary level. The system offers an estimate of thirty subjects grouped in 6 categories (Languages, Science, Applied Sciences, Humanities, Creative Arts, and Technical Subjects).

Subjects groups offered in Secondary Schools

Learning Areas Subjects
Languages English, Kiswahili, Arabic, German, French
Science Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology
Applied Sciences Home Science, Agriculture, Computer Studies
Humanities History, Geography, Religious Education, Life Skills, Business Studies
Creative Arts Music, Art and Design
Technical Subjects Drawing and design, Building/Construction, Power and Mechanics, Metal work, Aviation, Woodwork, Electronics

In 2027 the last class of the 8-4-4 curriculum is to do their national examination (K.C.S.E) making them the last class to do the 8-4-4 system.
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What is meant by 10 2 4 pattern of education?

School education – Education in India is a Concurrent List subject, that is both the Indian central government, and the state governments have responsibility for enacting and implementing education policy. The central board and most of the state boards uniformly follow the ” 10+2 ” pattern of education.

 3  In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges (Maharashtra) or Higher Secondary Schools(most other states), : 44  and then 3 years of study for a bachelor’s degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 8 years of elementary education (5 years Primary School and 3 years Middle School), 2 years of Secondary education followed by 2 years of Higher Secondary Schools or Junior colleges.

: 5  This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66. There are two types of educational institutions in India, 1) Recognized institutions – primary school, secondary school, special schools, intermediate schools, colleges and universities who follow courses as prescribed by universities or boards and are also open for inspection by these authorities, 2) Unrecognized Institutions, which do not fulfill conditions as stated for the recognized ones.
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What are the new changes in education policy?

New National Education Policy 2022 नई शिक्षा नीति What is NEP 5+3+3+4 Structure PDF National Educational Policy (NEP) : The union cabinet paved the way for transformative reform in the school and higher education system by launching the New National Education Policy (NEP) on 29th July 2020.

  1. They also renamed MHRD as the Ministry of Education,
  2. After the old national education policy which was launched way back in 1986, this is the first education policy of the 21st century that has replaced 34 years old education policy.
  3. The new NEP is based on four pillars which are Access, Equity, Quality, and Accountability.

In this new policy, there will be a 5+3+3+4 structure which comprises 12 years of school and 3 years of / pre-school replacing the old 10+2 structure.
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What are the new changes in education system?

Open Learning and Distance Education System In India – The government has emphasised on the importance of open and distance education as it is estimated to play a crucial role in increasing the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER). The government has set measures to improve the open and distance learning infrastructure such as blended online courses, digital repositories, funding of researches, improving student services, maintaining the standards of imparting quality education, and more such measures.
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What will be the education in 2030?

Future Schools 2030 It is predicted that education systems will undergo significant changes, with schools becoming interactive environments where innovations in technology and curricula will fundamentally transform the role of teachers and reshape the landscape of learning.
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Which country in Europe has the best education system?

Quality of education in the EU and Switzerland – The European education system is based on the general standards of the Bologna Process, with some differences in each country. The education system in Switzerland and the European Union is highly valued in the world: the curricula of these countries are among the best in the world.

  1. From a very young age, children are taught and encouraged to think independently and creatively, as well as being taught leadership skills.
  2. Most European countries teach in their official language, but many kindergartens, schools and universities also offer programs in English.
  3. They are more expensive.

Preschool education in the EU and Switzerland is optional. Most kindergartens are private and accept children who are 5-6 years old. Each European country regulates preschool education in its own way. Schools are divided into primary and secondary schools.

  • Secondary education up to 16 years of age is compulsory.
  • After the tenth grade, students choose whether to continue their studies to prepare for university or get a professional education in order to start their career faster.
  • The International Baccalaureate (IB) is the most popular university preparation program in the EU and Switzerland.

The IB certificate gives the holder the opportunity to enroll in any university in the world. Students study six subjects for the IB certificate. There are four compulsory subjects: the language spoken in the country, a foreign language, mathematics and natural science.

The remaining two subjects are chosen by the student, taking into account their future specialization at the university or interest in the subject. The higher education system in the EU, Switzerland and Britain differs from the system adopted in the USA and Australia in terms of the length of study at each stage.

For example, in Europe, the standard bachelor’s degree takes three to four years to complete, and the master’s program takes one year. In the USA and Australia, these programs last longer: the bachelor’s degree normally takes four years and the master’s degree takes two years.

The educational programs of universities in the European Union and Switzerland are similar; and therefore, when moving from one European country to another, European degrees are mutually recognized generally and by employers. In some countries, residents and citizens can receive education free of charge.

For example, in Portugal, the child of a holder of a residence permit by investment can enroll in a public university free of charge, Higher education in Europe increases the chances of students being offered internships in leading global companies, gaining valuable contacts and building an international career.
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Which country is No 1 in study?

USA. For decades, the US has reigned supreme as the world’s most popular study abroad destination. The country’s prestigious institutions dominate global university rankings, attracting students from across the world with an appetite for academic excellence.
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Which is the No 1 educated country?

Canada has emerged the most educated country in the world in 2022 and the country has a literacy rate of 60 Percentage, according to OECB data.
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What are the 4 levels of education in India?

The School System – India is divided into 28 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory.

  1. As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them.
  2. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education.
  3. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list,

That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.

There is a national organization that plays a key role in developing policies and programmes, called the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum Framework. Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT).

These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states’ departments of education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by the NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.

  • The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century.
  • The government committed to earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for education, half of which would be spent on primary education.

The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent in 1997-98. The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18).

  1. The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two.
  2. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school.
  3. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level.

Students throughout the country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below. There are mainly three streams in school education in India.

Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number of “central schools” (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is being taught.

One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are available. All of them follow textbooks written and published by the NCERT.

  1. In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules.
  2. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes.
  3. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there.
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The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference held in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister for Education.

  • The main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination.
  • In October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate’s Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country.

The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting public examinations.

  • Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this Council.
  • All these are private schools and generally cater to children from wealthy families.
  • Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher secondary).

Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years.
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What state is number 3 in education?

State Rankings

State Academic Performance Rank Academic Investment Rank
California 34 3
Colorado 13 40
District of Columbia 38 31
Georgia 31 7

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What is 3S education?

A gap has emerged in teaching artificial intelligence (AI) in business education, where a style of curriculum based on strategy is missing. This article presents a new framework, the 3S Process, as a method for teaching leaders how to strategically adopt AI within their organizations.

At a high-level, the 3S Process consists of three stages (Story, Strategy, and Solution), which are described in detail in the article. Stage 1: Story in the process is inspired by the Harvard Case Method to provide context for a problem. Stage 2: Strategy uses Design Thinking to produce candidate solutions.

The substage of Empathy in Design Thinking plays a crucial role to reduce bias in designing AI. Virtualization technology is a tool for students to experience hands-on learning in prototype development. Stage 3: Solution is where students advocate for their conceptual AI solution in the context of the case study.

  1. AI is a type of complex system; therefore, students should consider feedback loops and the potential for unintended biases to enter a deployed solution.
  2. The presentation of the 3S Process in this article is conceptual.
  3. Further empirical studies, including evaluations of the 3S Process in classroom settings, will be considered in the future.

Introduction There is a growing interest in teaching artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in business schools around the world (S.-W., 2018). However, an acclaimed approach to teaching AI (Figure 1) in the context of business, especially in terms of entrepreneurship, remains elusive. Figure 1. AI Venn Diagram. Based on the author’s experience working with numerous corporations of varying size, current Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs that include AI can be grouped according to three styles of curricula: 1. General Technology (providing a broad overview of AI techniques), 2.

Specialized Technology (in-depth instructing of AI algorithms, data science, and optimization), and, 3. Decision Making (using AI/ML to inform the decision-making process). A fourth style based on strategy is missing from approaches to business education. How should leaders be educated in strategically adopting AI/ML in their organizations, and within their products and services (Stachowicz-Stanusch & Wolfgang, 2019)? Watkins writes, “A business strategy is a set of guiding principles that, when communicated and adopted in the organization, generates a desired pattern of decision making” (2007).

To glean the most from AI, it should be adopted strategically in organizations to solve business problems (and not just be another piece of technology), in order to garner exponential benefits overtime. The goal of this article is to provide a significant step towards addressing these problems by providing a new framework for a strategy-based approach, referred to as the 3S Process (Bhalla, 2019).

  1. At a high-level, the 3S Process consists of story, strategy, and solution (Figure 2).
  2. The 3S Process is inspired by the Harvard Case Method (Rebeiz, 2011) and the approach of Design Thinking (Brown, 2009).
  3. The case method provides the context for an example problem, and Design Thinking provides a strategic process for developing a considered solution.

Design Thinking has been shown as an effective tool in business education, and in particular, in entrepreneurship education (Brown & Katz, 2011). Figure 2.3S Process Methodology One of the aims of this work is to understand how to develop AI/ML in order to innovate products and services, and ultimately grow organizations. The 3S Process is the result of codifying the author’s experience in teaching technical, graduate-level courses in AI and ML (in computer science departments at universities), and the author’s experience in consulting with business and technical leaders (C-suite executives) in small to medium enterprises (SMEs).

It was observed that although many organizations wanted to adopt AI, it was not clear to them how to adopt AI. This observation fits with a survey of thousands of executives about how their companies use AI, and the data shows that only 8% of firms engage in core practices to support widespread adoption of AI (Fountaine et al., 2019).

The author’s objective was to devise a step-by-step process, which was based on commonly known educational techniques and strategic practices, to enable delivery of an approachable framework. Framework: The 3S Process Stage 1: Story is based on the Harvard Case Method.

Broadly, there are four types of case situations (Ellet, 2007): • Problems, • Decisions, • Evaluations, and, • Rules. For the purposes of the 3S Process, only case types of problems are considered (since other case types are not applicable). The intention of using a case method is to set the context of the problem to be solved.

Harvard Business School (HBS) is in the midst of creating their own set of AI cases (Kenny, 2018). It will be interesting to see how HBS frames their AI cases (as well as other business schools that use case methods), and if/how the AI cases extend beyond typical problems.

Stage 2: Strategy is inspired by the approach of Design Thinking. Design Thinking was originally conceptualized for the design of physical products (Brown, 2008). Over time, Design Thinking has been applied not just to the field of industrial design, but to several others also, including the design of businesses themselves (Martin, 2009).

Since its inception, there have been many variations and extensions to Design Thinking, each suited to a specific type of problem (Tschimmel, 2012). In this work, the original description of Design Thinking is used, which has five phases: • Empathy, • Define, • Ideate, • Prototype, and, • Test.

  • Stage 3: Solution is the result of the Design Thinking approach within the context of a specific story.
  • It is important to note that arriving at a solution is in actuality building an AI system (Meadows, 2008), which is integrated into another product or service.
  • The performance, or even the behaviour itself, of the system may change with use, for example, the collection and variation of data over time.

To navigate through the framework, the 3S Process is subdivided into nine substages (Figure 3). The graph, with substages as nodes and with transitions from one substage to another as directed edges, represents common paths through the 3S Process. The connectivity (traversals through the graph) should be adapted to the problem to be solved. Figure 3. Graph of the nine substages of the 3S Process. Stage 1: Story – Scenario A case study, provided by educators to students, establishes the context of the problem space. Equally as important, the case study is the basis for discussion between students and educators.

Stage 1: Story – Research Conduct research to better understand the problem space. What are the important details regarding the problem? What aspects of the problem space can be ignored? Narrow the scope of the problem, focus. Stage 2: Strategy – Empathy Understand the potential biases, for example, training data, particular algorithms, and potential users.

Examine the problem from multiple opposing viewpoints (Martin, 2009). What are the privacy and security concerns? Stage 2: Strategy – Define What exactly is the problem to be solved? Define a set of quantitative/qualitative metrics to measure the success of a solution for solving the problem.

Stage 2: Strategy – Ideate Brainstorm several candidate solutions. What are the available resources (for example, data and infrastructure)? If a full, candidate solution cannot be implemented as a prototype in a classroom setting, can a subset of the problem be addressed? Stage 2: Strategy – Prototype Ideally, a prototype should be designed quickly and implemented efficiently.

Fast prototyping leads to the possibility for a greater number of iterations of the Ideate-Prototype-Test cycle. Stage 2: Strategy – Test Perform quantitative and qualitative measurements to evaluate the level of success of the candidate solution. If possible, compare the candidate solution to other solutions that were tested previously, and compare to other solutions in the market (or discussed in the case study).

Stage 3: Solution – Deploy In the context of the case study, make persuasive arguments for the reasoning behind the selected solution. How would the adoption of the selected solution be marketed externally of the organization, or sold internally within the organization? How would the performance of the selected AI system be monitored over time? Stage 3: Solution – Feedback How will the transition from training data to continuous data be managed? What derived data can be realized? Important Features of the Framework There are three important features of this framework.

First, the step of Empathy in Design Thinking is used to help address ethical issues when developing and deploying an AI solution. Second, a software stack using virtualization technology is discussed for how AI prototypes can be developed in practice.

  1. Third, complex systems are examined, since even a simple set of rules and algorithms can lead to unpredictable results.
  2. Complexity is an important, but often ignored aspect of AI, which is ultimately the pursuit of designing a complex system that displays agency.
  3. Empathy One of the greatest aspects to Design Thinking is in the phase Empathy.
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The ability for a designer to empathize with the end customer (and other stakeholders in the design-production-consumption process) for a product in the context of its environment leads to more human-centric and sustainable solutions. In the 3S Process, the designer is to be empathetic to reduce bias in the end solutions, be it for human-to-machine or machine-to-machine interfaces.

  1. For example, Microsoft Inc.
  2. Released Tay, a chat-bot, in March 2016 (Johnston, 2017).
  3. Tay used Twitter as the interface to converse with humans.
  4. By people posting offensive Tweets to Tay, the chat-bot quickly learned and then started to post its own inflammatory Tweets.
  5. Tay was taken down after only 16 hours of public operation.

By employing the stage of Empathy to this research project, the developers could have anticipated the possibility of such an outcome and could have added measures to their AI chat-bot to mitigate bias. Virtualization While Stage 1: Story, with the case method at its core, is purely an intellectual exercise, Stage 2: Strategy offers the opportunity for learning through practical examples and exercises with software.

  1. It would be difficult, if not impossible due to time constraints, for students (for example, in an MBA course on AI) to implement a full-fledged AI system in the context of solving a case study problem.
  2. Instead, the emphasis should be on implementing a solution that addresses a subproblem, as a way to gain experience in AI through hands-on learning.

Virtualization software, for example, Docker (Boettiger, 2015), can be used as part of the Ideate-Prototype-Test substages of the 3S Process. Docker performs operating-system-level virtualization and runs software packages referred to as containers. Containers are isolated from each other and bundle their own application, tools, libraries, and configuration files.

  1. Containers can communicate with each other using specific channels and message passing.
  2. Docker works with operating systems that run on desktop personal computers and servers.
  3. Therefore, the focus here can be thought of as AI running in the cloud and not at the edge (that is, embedded AI).
  4. The idea here is that educators develop software that is built on top of virtualization technology (Figure 4), thus allowing students to focus on the code, algorithms, and concepts needed to build prototypes to address specific subproblems.

Depending on the technical know-how of the students, they could work at a high-level (that is, determining effects based on adjusting parameters), at a low-level (write the code for specific algorithms), or somewhere in between these two positions. Figure 4. Docker stack. There are five advantages to using virtualization software from an educational perspective.1. Cross-platform. This allows the software to be available to a wider audience, and independent of the host operating systems (macOS, Windows, and many distributions of the Linux operating system).2.

Software bundles. The particular software needed can be used and pre-configured (for example, pre-populating a database).3. Customizable. Specific applications can be written that run on top of Docker (for example, Python programs, which can use the vast number of AI/ML packages that are readily available).4.

Modular. Each software bundle running on top of Docker can be developed and updated independently, meaning that educators can take a step-by-step approach to creating curriculum.5. Cloud-ready. Containers can be integrated into web services for production (that is, use the code that was developed for a prototype as part of the code base for the solution).

Furthermore, developing web services offer the opportunity to integrate with other cloud services (for example, Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, IBM Watson), through application programming interfaces (APIs), resulting in faster prototyping, access to pre-trained AI models, and continuously receiving new capabilities.

Interoperability between web services based on virtual containers is one of the best methods to realize powerful, complex AI systems today. Complexity Stage 1: Story is based on the Harvard Case Method to provide context to a problem space, and Stage 2: Strategy uses Design Thinking and virtualization to develop practical prototypes to address subproblems.

  1. Stage 3: Solution completes the 3S Process.
  2. Since it is not reasonable for students to implement a production-ready AI system in a classroom setting, the best practice would be for students to develop persuasive arguments for their particular, conceptual solutions, and try to anticipate unintended consequences.

Unexpected behaviour can occur in AI due to it being a type of complex system. Mitchell defined a “complex system” this way: “A system in which large networks of components with no central control and simple rules of operation give rise to complex collective behaviour, sophisticated information processing, and adaptation via learning or evolution.” (2009) Information returning to an AI system can be considered as either as a positive feedback loop (amplification) or a negative feedback loop (dampening).

It is critical to understand the information returning to the system, the correct method to process the information, and the best practice to store the information. For example, unexpected feedback changed the behaviour of the chat-bot Tay, as discussed previously. Conclusion To summarize, this article presents a new framework, the 3S Process, for teaching AI in the context of business education.

Stage 1: Story uses the Harvard case method to set the context of the problem space. Students are expected to engage in discussion to further understand the problem at hand, to uncover details and narrow the scope of the problem space. Stage 2: Strategy is based on the approach of Design Thinking to develop a prototype, which for practical purposes in a classroom setting addresses a subproblem unveiled in the case study.

Particular emphasis is placed on the substage of Empathy to reduce potential biases in the final AI system. Furthermore, virtualization software can be used to create practical candidate solutions, and thus provide a hands-on learning opportunity for the Ideate-Prototype-Test substage cycle. Stage 3: Solution is where students advocate for their conceptual AI solution in the context of the case study and describe their Design Thinking thought process to reach their AI solution.

Students should remember that AI is a type of complex system and postulate potential feedback loops, while taking into account the potential for unintended biases to enter the system. When educators use the 3S Process the expectation should not be that business students develop a deep, technical understanding of AI.

  1. Instead, the hope is that the 3S Process provides students with critical thinking and hands-on experience with AI, so that they can make more informed strategic decisions about AI as leaders in their future organization and as part of teams.
  2. Business education using the 3S Process can equip leaders with common language and understating regarding AI, thereby improving communication between management and technical experts.

It should be noted that the 3S Process can be adapted from use in education to be applied to entrepreneurship. Instead of using a case study, Stage 1: Story is based on the business problem to be solved and context is provided by market realities. Instead of addressing a subproblem, Stage 2: Strategy directly addresses the business problem.

As with the education case, leaders should be aware of bias in the business case as well. The use of virtualization software at this stage has a real benefit, as it can be transferred with ease to production, Stage 3: Solution, particularly for cloud services. Leaders will have to sell their solutions internally within their organization and measure external market response.

Complexity will still play a factor and require leaders to continually monitor the performance of their AI system. Finally, the 3S Process is a complex network itself. The author’s intent is that leaders can leverage the 3S Process, and that the resulting collective behaviour will lead to the emergence of creative thinking around integrating AI in business.

Acknowledgements Many thanks to the two anonymous reviewers & TIM Review editors for their valuable feedback. Bhalla, N.3S Process: Re-Envisioning AI in Business Education. ISPIM Connects Ottawa, 2019.1-9. Boettiger, C.2015. An introduction to Docker for reproducible research. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review – Special Issue on Repeatability and Sharing of Experimental Artifacts: 71-79.

Brown, T.2008. Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review. Brown, T.2009. Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation, New York City, NY, HarperBusiness. Brown, T. & KATZ, B.2011. Change by Design. Product Innovation Management, 29: 381-383.

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Boston, MA, Harvard Business School Publishing. Meadows, D.H.2008. Thinking in Systems: A Primer. White River Junction, VT, Chelsea Green Publishing. Mitchell, M.2009. Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Rebeiz, K.S.2011. An Insider Perspective on Implementing the Harvard Case Study Method in Business Teaching.

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XXIII ISPIM Conference: Action for Innovation: Innovating from Experience, 2012 Barcelona. Watkins, M.D.2007. Demistifying strategy: The What, Who, How, and Why. Harvard Business Review. Figure 1. AI Venn Diagram. Figure 1. AI Venn Diagram. Figure 2.3S Process Figure 4. Docker stack.
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What is the 8 4 4 system of education?

The 8-4-4 System – The 8-4-4 system that consists of 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education, and 4 years of university education is attended by students who have completed two years of pre-school education (aged 3–6 years old). The system’s main purpose was to improve the development of self-expression, self-discipline and independence.

Comparisons of Education Systems in Kenya

7-4-2-3 System 8-4-4 System
Once shared by the 3 East African Countries (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania) Implemented in Kenya Only
7 years of primary school education 8 years of primary school education
4+ and additional 2 years of upper secondary education Only 4 years of secondary school education
3 years of university education 4 years of university education
CPE (Certificate of Education) KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education)
KCE (Kenya Certificate of Education) KCSE (Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education)

The 8-4-4 curriculum offers Science, Social Studies, Kiswahili, English, Math, Religious education, Creative arts, Physical Education (PE), and life skills studies at the Primary level. The system offers an estimate of thirty subjects grouped in 6 categories (Languages, Science, Applied Sciences, Humanities, Creative Arts, and Technical Subjects).

Subjects groups offered in Secondary Schools

Learning Areas Subjects
Languages English, Kiswahili, Arabic, German, French
Science Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology
Applied Sciences Home Science, Agriculture, Computer Studies
Humanities History, Geography, Religious Education, Life Skills, Business Studies
Creative Arts Music, Art and Design
Technical Subjects Drawing and design, Building/Construction, Power and Mechanics, Metal work, Aviation, Woodwork, Electronics

In 2027 the last class of the 8-4-4 curriculum is to do their national examination (K.C.S.E) making them the last class to do the 8-4-4 system.
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