In Which List Education Comes As Per Indian Constitution?


In Which List Education Comes As Per Indian Constitution
Concurrent list subject Under Article 42 of the constitution, an amendment was added in 1976 and education became a concurrent list subject which enables the central government to legislate it in the manner suited to it.
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Is education a class 10 state list?

Education is part of which of the following?A.State ListB.Union ListC.Concurrent ListD.Residuary powers Answer Verified Hint: Unlike the British Parliament, the Indian Parliament does not have unlimited power to legislate. The Seventh Schedule (Articles 245-246) of the Indian Constitution provides that the Parliament can make laws for the whole or any part of India within its area of competence as defined under the distribution of legislative powers between the Union and States.

The constitutional provisions on the subject of the distribution of legislative powers between the Union and States contain three lists: Union or Federal List, State List and Concurrent List. The Parliament has exclusive right to legislate on those items mentioned in the Union or Federal List and the state legislatures have the exclusive right to legislate on items in the State List.

Both the Parliament and state legislatures can legislate on items mentioned in the Concurrent List. Complete Step by Step answer: Option A: State List is incorrect. Earlier education was a subject in the State List but the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976 shifted it to the Concurrent List.

Now, education is available to both the Parliament and state assemblies to legislate upon. Option B: Union List is incorrect.Option C: Concurrent List is correct. The 42nd Amendment to the Constitution moved education from the State List to the Concurrent List and thus both the Parliament and the state assemblies can legislate upon it.

Option D: Residuary powers are incorrect. Note: The Union List has 97 numbered topics, the State List has 66 numbered topics and the Concurrent List has 47 numbered topics. In the 42nd Constitutional Amendment of 1976, five topics were moved from the State List to the Concurrent List.
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Is education in India Concurrent List?

Transferred Subjects – Through the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 Five subjects were transferred from State to Concurrent List. They are:

  1. Education
  2. Forests
  3. Weights & Measures
  4. Protection of Wild Animals and Birds
  5. Administration of Justice

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When education comes under Concurrent List?

Education was put in concurrent list through which constitut Free 10 Questions 10 Marks 6 Mins

The legislative section of the Indian constitution is divided into three lists including union, state and concurrent list. In beginning, the Indian constitution had defined ‘education’ as a subject of state matter but in 1976, it was transferred to the concurrent list through the enactment of the 42nd amendment.

All three lists of the constitution:

Has subjects of National importance. Has subjects of local and state importance. Has subjects of common interest both to Centre and State
Union alone can make laws. State Govt. alone can make laws. Both the Centre and State can frame laws.
Defence, Banking, Currency, Foreign affairs and communication Police, trade, commerce agriculture and irrigation. Education, Forest, Trade Union, Marriage, Adoption and Succession.

Hence, we can say that Education was put on the concurrent list through the enactment of the 42nd amendment. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Education was put in concurrent list through which constitut
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Is education state or central?

Curriculum and school education boards – National Skill Development Agency (NSDA)’s National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF), is a quality assurance framework which grades and recognises levels of skill based on the learning outcomes acquired through both formal or informal means.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT): The NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India. It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India. The NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. There are other curriculum bodies governing school education system specially at state level called SCERTs.

State government boards of education: Most of the state governments have at least one “State board of secondary school education”. However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one. Also the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a larger state. The boards set curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 for affiliated schools. The curriculum varies from state to state and has more local appeal with examinations conducted in regional languages in addition to English – often considered less rigorous than national curricula such as CBSE or ICSE/ISC. Most of these conduct exams at 10th and 12th level, but some even at the 5th and 8th level.

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 9 to 12 for affiliated schools and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th levels. Students studying the CBSE Curriculum take the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) at the end of grade 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) at the end of grade 12. Examinations are offered in Hindi and English.

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 for affiliated schools and conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE – Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC – Class/Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE – Class/Grade 12). CISCE English level has been compared to UK’s A-Levels; this board offers more choices of subjects. CBSE exams at grade 10 and 12 have often been compared with ICSE and ISC examinations. ICSE is generally considered to be more rigorous than the CBSE AISSE (grade 10) but the CBSE AISSCE and ISC examinations are almost on par with each other in most subjects with ISC including a slightly more rigorous English examination than the CBSE 12th grade examination. The CBSE and ISC are recognised internationally and most universities abroad accept the final results of CBSE and ISC exams for admissions purposes and as proof of completion of secondary school.

National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS): The NIOS conducts two examinations, namely, Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary Examination (All India) and also some courses in Vocational Education. National Board of education is run by Government of India’s HRD Ministry to provide education in rural areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode. A pilot project started by CBSE to provide high class affordable education, provides education up to 12th standard. Choice of subjects is highly customisable and equivalent to CBSE. Home-schooled students usually take NIOS or international curriculum examinations as they are ineligible to write CBSE or ISC exams.

Hindu, vedic & sanskrit education: The Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Sanskrit Shiksha Board ( MSRVSSB ) is a national-level school education board which grants the Veda Bhushan (10th) and Veda Vibhushan (12th) certificates to students of affiliated schools. MSRVSSB certificates are accredited by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) and AICTE as the recognised qualifications for admission into other tertiary institutions for a higher degree. Along with the modern subjects, the students are also taught Hindu scriptures, vedas, upnishads, ayurveda and sanskrit, Govt of India has granted legal authority to MSRVSSB to affiliate and recognise vedic and sanskrit schools run by other organisations. MSRVSSB is run by the Maharishi Sandipani Rashtriya Ved Vidya Pratishthan (MSRVVP), which already runs several vedic school and MSRVSSB also accrredits schools run by other organisations.

Islamic madrasah : Their boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama.

Autonomous schools : Such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula,

International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge International Examinations (CAIE): These are generally private schools that have dual affiliation with one of the school education board of India as well as affiliated to the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations (CAIE).

International schools, which offer 10th and 12th standard examinations under the International Baccalaureate, Cambridge Senior Secondary Examination systems or under their home nations school boards (such as run by foreign embassies or the expat communities).

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Is high school a class 10 in India?

The Secondary School –

The secondary stage of education covering 2-3 years of academic study starts with classes 8th-10th, consisting of students aged between 14-16 years. The schools that impart education up to 10th class are known as Secondary Schools, High Schools, Senior Schools, etc.

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    Why education is in Concurrent List class 10?

    The Concurrent List contains subjects of common interest to both the Union as well as the States. These include education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption, and succession. Both, the Central and the state governments can make laws in the Concurrent List.
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    Why was education transferred from state list to Concurrent List?

    Which subject was transferred from State List to Concurrent List by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976?(A) Education(B) Local self-government(C) Agriculture(D) Irrigation Answer Verified

      Hint: The 42nd Amendment Act was enacted in 1976, reorganizing the Seventh Amendment to ensure that the subjects of the State list such as education, forestry, wildlife and bird protection, the administration of justice, and weights and measures were transferred to the Concurrent List. Complete solution: Hence, the correct answer is option A. Note:

    The Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India includes powers that will be overseen by the union and the state government. The clause is divided into three categories: Union List, State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, the remaining power remains in the Federal Government, as in the Canadian federal government.

    Through the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976, Five subjects were transferred from State to Concurrent List. They are:(1)Education(2)Forests(3)Weights & Measures(4)Protection of Wild Animals and Birds(5)Administration of Justice.The similarities are interesting but not essential to the same list. If any provision of legislation passed by the State Legislature is detrimental to any provision of legislation enacted by Parliament with the power to legislate, or to any provision of legislation in respect of one of the provisions of Concurrent, of that country, or, as the case may be, the existing law will apply and the law enacted by the Legislature, to the point of abhorrence, shall be null and void.

    : Which subject was transferred from State List to Concurrent List by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976?(A) Education(B) Local self-government(C) Agriculture(D) Irrigation
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    Which is included in Union list?

    Union List includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency. They are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country.
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    What comes under state list?

    Items on the list – The 59 items currently on the list are:

    1. Public order (but not including the use of any naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any contingent or unit thereof in aid of the civil power).
    2. Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of Entry 2-A of List-I,
    3. Officers and servants of the High Court ; procedure in rent and revenue courts; fees taken in all courts except the Supreme Court,
    4. Prisons, reformatories, Borstal institutions and other institutions of a like nature and persons detained therein; arrangements with other States for the use of prisons and other institutions.
    5. Local government, that is to say, the constitution and powers of municipal corporations, improvement trusts, district boards, mining settlement authorities and other local authorities for the purpose of local self-government or village administration.
    6. Public health and sanitation ; hospitals and dispensaries,
    7. Pilgrimages, other than pilgrimages to places outside India.
    8. Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.
    9. Relief for the disabled and unemployable,
    10. Burials and burial grounds ; cremations and cremation grounds.
    11. ***
    12. Libraries, museums and other similar institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
    13. Communications, that is to say, roads, bridges, ferries, and other means of communication not specified in List I ; municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provisions of List I and List III with regard to such water-ways ; vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles.
    14. Agriculture, including agricultural education and research; protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases.
    15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases; veterinary training and practice.
    16. Ponds and the prevention of cattle trespass.
    17. Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of Entry 56 of List I.
    18. Land, that is to say, rights in or over land, land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land ; land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization,
    19. ***
    20. ***
    21. Fisheries,
    22. Courts of wards ; subject to the provisions of Entry 34 of List I; encumbered and attached estates.
    23. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union.
    24. Industries subject to the provisions of Entries 7 and 52 of List I.
    25. Gas and gas-works,
    26. Trade and commerce within the State subject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
    27. Production, supply and distribution of goods subject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
    28. Markets and fairs,
    29. Weights and measures except establishment of standards.
    30. Money-lending and money-lenders ; relief of agricultural indebtedness.
    31. Inns and inn-keepers.
    32. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, other than those specified in List I, and universities ; unincorporated trading, literary, scientific, religious and other societies and associations; co-operative societies,
    33. Theatres and dramatic performances ; cinemas subject to the provisions of Entry 60 of List I; sports, entertainments and amusements,
    34. Betting and gambling,
    35. Works, lands and buildings vested in or in the possession of the State.
    36. Acquisition or requisitioning of property, except for the purposes of the Union, subject to the provisions of entry 42 of List III.
    37. Elections to the Legislature of the State subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament.
    38. Salaries and allowances of members of the legislature of the State, of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, if there is a Legislative Council, of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof.
    39. Powers, privileges and immunities of the Legislative Assembly and of the members and the committees thereof and, if there is a Legislative Council, of that Council and of the members and the committees thereof; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of the Legislature of the State.
    40. Salaries and allowances of Ministers for the State.
    41. State public services ; State Public Service Commission.
    42. State pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the State or out of the Consolidated Fund of the State.
    43. Public debt of the State.
    44. Treasure trove,
    45. Land revenue, including the assessment and collection of revenue, the maintenance of land records, survey for revenue purposes and records of rights, and alienation of revenues.
    46. Taxes on agricultural income,
    47. Duties in respect of succession to agricultural land.
    48. Estate duty in respect of agricultural land.
    49. Taxes on lands and buildings.
    50. Taxes on mineral rights subject to any limitations imposed by Parliament by law relating to mineral development.
    51. Duties of excise on the following goods manufactured or produced in the State and countervailing duties at the same or lower rates on similar goods manufactured or produced elsewhere in India – (a) alcoholic liquors for human consumption (b) opium, Indian hemp and other narcotic drugs and narcotics but not including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
    52. Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein. (As per One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016
    53. Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity,
    54. Taxes on the sale of petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas, aviation turbine fuel and alcoholic liquor for human consumption, but not including sale in the course of inter-State trade or commerce or sale in the course of international trade or commerce of such goods.(Subs.)
    55. Taxes on advertisements other than advertisements published in the newspapers (As per One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016
    56. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways,
    57. Taxes on vehicles, whether mechanically propelled or not, suitable for use on roads, including tram-cars subject to the provisions of Entry 35 of List III,
    58. Taxes on animals and boats.
    59. Tolls,
    60. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
    61. Capitation taxes,
    62. Taxes on entertainments and amusements to the extent levied and collected by a Panchayat or a Municipality or a Regional Council or a District Council.
    63. Rates of stamp duty in respect of documents other than those specified in the provisions of List I with regard to rates of stamp duty.
    64. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this list.
    65. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this list.
    66. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this list, but not including fees taken in any court.

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    How many subjects are there in concurrent list 2022?

    And in concurrent list there was 47 subjects but now it is 52 subjects in concurrent list.
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    Where is education in the Constitution?

    The disposition of a noteworthy education-related court case has gone virtually unnoticed in the fog of the pandemic. In Gary B. v Snyder, a case concerning Detroit Public Schools (DPS), the question of whether education is a constitutional right, protected under the Fourteenth Amendment, was once again put to the test.

    Fortunately, through a convoluted series of court decisions and legislative action, the answer is still no – there is no federally protected constitutional right to education, at least for now. However, as decisions played out in Gary B., that lawsuit is a cautionary tale that could lead to a change in the federal role in education, including here in Kansas, based potentially on the interpretation of a single judge.

    Background There is not a single mention of education in the U.S. Constitution. The establishment of education is one of the powers reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment, Education is not a constitutionally protected right. That is an assertion made by the U.S.

    • Supreme Court every time it has been challenged.
    • The lineage begins with San Antonio Independent School District v.
    • Rodriguez in 1973.
    • The court opined that education “is not among the rights afforded explicit protection under our Federal Constitution.” Three other cases, all in the 1980s, affirmed that interpretation.

    A lawsuit filed in 2016 by a group of seven DPS students, in what became the Gary B. case, sought to challenge precedent under the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The plaintiffs attended five of Detroit’s lowest-performing schools.

    • The proficiency rates of students in these schools were near zero.
    • In one of the schools, 100% of sixth-graders were non-proficient in both reading and math.
    • The University of Michigan Law School summarized that plaintiffs “documented what it alleged to be pervasive conditions that denied children the opportunity to attain literacy, including lack of books, classrooms without teachers, insufficient desks, buildings plagued by vermin, unsafe facilities, and extreme temperatures.” What separates the Gary B.

    case is that the plaintiffs sought redress from the federal court system, not the state. What they were really seeking was additional funding from the state to improve educational conditions including more money for full-time teachers, curriculum materials and building conditions.

    1. That these students were subjected to such deplorable conditions is patently unacceptable, but not surprising in the Detroit system.
    2. Corruption has been rampant in the DPS system for decades.
    3. The state took control of DPS two decades ago, but that didn’t solve the problems.
    4. While the plaintiffs were warehoused in squalor getting no education, several principals were taking millions in kickbacks.

    Ultimately, a dozen were convicted on kickback schemes, Court decisions and the suit settlement. Two years after the suit was filed, a Federal District Court judge granted the defendant’s motion to dismiss the case. Judge Stephen Murphy agreed with the state that the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment “does not require a state to provide access to minimally adequate education.” The plaintiffs immediately appealed to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.

    In what could have paved the way for epic changes in public education, the Sixth Circuit ignored Supreme Court precedent and ruled in favor of the students. In April of this year, a Court panel declared, in a 2-1 decision, that the Due Process clause of the U.S. Constitution can be applied to ensure students get at least a basic minimum education.

    Specifically, the majority opinion states: “In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education.” This decision, in the parlance of our times, is a game-changer. Simultaneously, while the appeals process was progressing, the State of Michigan was working out a monetary solution to the suit.

    • A month after the Appeals Court decision, Governor Gretchen Whitmer* and the plaintiffs signed an agreement that settled the case.
    • Basically, the state agreed to increase aid to DPS by $100 million.
    • The individual plaintiffs also received a cash settlement to further their educations.
    • Ultimately, the Fourteenth Amendment was used as a tool to get what all education lawsuits are about: more money.

    The potential bombshell decision by an Appeals Court panel did not go unnoticed by the full 16-member Appeals Court. Because of the potential impact and the reversal of Supreme Court precedent, the full Circuit Court of Appeals voted to rehear the case.

    The full Court vacated the 2-1 decision. Ultimately, having won additional money from the state, the plaintiffs moved to dismiss the case. On June 11 the Circuit Court of Appeals granted the dismissal. Judge Eric Murphy’s dissenting opinion is paramount in the big picture. Judge Eric Murphy’s 24-page dissent from the majority opinion in the three-judge panel decision is full of supporting precedent – and reason – as to why the U.S.

    Constitution does not protect a right to education. He immediately cites Rodriguez in which the Supreme Court was clear that education “is not among the rights afforded explicit protection under our Federal Constitution.” He is clear in his opinion that “the importance of a service performed by the State does not determine whether it must be regarded as fundamental,”( emphasis added ) Judge Murphy makes a clear distinction between states interfering with fundamental rights and compelling states to provide funds they may need to exercise the rights.

    That would change if education was subjected to substantive due process pursuant to the Fourteenth Amendment. Judge Murphy’s opinion can be viewed through the prism of how the Kansas Supreme Court has meddled in education, specifically in the Montoy and Gannon cases. Judge Murphy used the term “jumble” to describe how a right to a federal constitutional minimum education would interfere with the separation of powers.

    Would the feds “compel the states to raise their taxes to generate the needed funds?How old may textbooks be before they become constitutionally outdated?Which HVAC systems must public systems use?” He could have just as appropriately added what the Kansas Supreme Court has used to overstep their authority in the Montoy and Gannon cases: conflating money and test scores,

    It’s unfortunate the Kansas Supreme Court didn’t consider this quote from the Rodriguez case when ordering the Kansas legislature to drastically increase public school funding: “Our judicial commissions give us no special insights into these ‘difficult questions of educational policy.'” Amen to that.

    Conclusion Legally, it’s as if the Appeals Court panel’s initial decision never happened. However, as the University of Michigan’s Law School states, even though the case “does not have precedential valuethe language of the opinion still exists for plaintiffs to potentially draw on in the future.” Does this mean that in the relatively near future the courts could change course and find that education is a federal constitutional right? Time will tell.

    It’s entirely within the scope of reason that there will be a slew of post-COVID-19 lawsuits if there is a lingering financial burden on states and localities, those entities that actually foot the bill for the vast majority of public education. If it is found that a basic education is protected under an interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, that would open the floodgates to federal intervention in public education.

    You thought Common Core was bad? How about a nationwide uniform curriculum in, say, for example, American History? That’s not hard to imagine. You can bet if there is an administration friendly to teachers’ unions, like the NEA and AFT, school choice would be in the crosshairs.

    • This is why Gary B.
    • Is so significant.
    • It serves as a reminder of just how close we could be to a federalized education system.
    • Let’s hope the reasoned words of Judge Eric Murphy are heeded in future decisions.
    • The case is commonly known as Gary B.v.
    • Snyder because Rick Snyder was the governor of Michigan when the suit was filed.

    Gretchen Whitmer replaced Snyder as governor in 2019 and the case is also known as Gary B.v. Whitmer,
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    Is education local or state?

    Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United States. It is States and communities, as well as public and private organizations of all kinds, that establish schools and colleges, develop curricula, and determine requirements for enrollment and graduation.

    1. The structure of education finance in America reflects this predominant State and local role.
    2. Of an estimated $1.15 trillion being spent nationwide on education at all levels for school year 2012-2013, a substantial majority will come from State, local, and private sources.
    3. This is especially true at the elementary and secondary level, where about 92 percent of the funds will come from non-Federal sources.

    That means the Federal contribution to elementary and secondary education is about 8 percent, which includes funds not only from the Department of Education (ED) but also from other Federal agencies, such as the Department of Health and Human Services’ Head Start program and the Department of Agriculture’s School Lunch program.

    Although ED’s share of total education funding in the U.S. is relatively small, ED works hard to get a big bang for its taxpayer-provided bucks by targeting its funds where they can do the most good. This targeting reflects the historical development of the Federal role in education as a kind of “emergency response system,” a means of filling gaps in State and local support for education when critical national needs arise.

    The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency’s name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day.

    The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students.

    World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts.

    And in 1944, the “GI Bill” authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college. The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik.

    To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.

    1. The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department’s equal access mission.
    2. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education.

    In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students.

    In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency. Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department’s elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools.

    Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students. Despite the growth of the Federal role in education, the Department never strayed far from what would become its official mission: to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access.

    The Department carries out its mission in two major ways. First, the Secretary and the Department play a leadership role in the ongoing national dialogue over how to improve the results of our education system for all students. This involves such activities as raising national and community awareness of the education challenges confronting the Nation, disseminating the latest discoveries on what works in teaching and learning, and helping communities work out solutions to difficult educational issues.

    Second, the Department pursues its twin goals of access and excellence through the administration of programs that cover every area of education and range from preschool education through postdoctoral research. For more information on the Department’s programs see the President’s FY 2022 Budget Request for Education,

    One final note: while ED’s programs and responsibilities have grown substantially over the years, the Department itself has not. In fact, the Department has the smallest staff of the 15 Cabinet agencies, even though its discretionary budget alone is the third largest, behind only the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services.

    In addition, the Department provides over $150 billion in new and consolidated loans annually. Last Modified: 06/15/2021
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    What is the rank of Indian education system?

    Is India’s education system good? India holds a satisfactory position in the list of the world’s best education systems, according to a CEOWORLD survey with a quality index of 59.1.
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    What is 12 class called in India?

    India – In India, the HSC/Intermediate and PUC Certificates is known as “Class 12th Certificate” and also known as “+2 Certificate”. It is awarded to senior high school students by almost all National and State Boards and It is also awarded to junior college students by some state boards.

    • It is awarded after successful completion of exams like Higher Secondary Exam, PUC Exam, Intermediate Exam,SSC (Senior School Certificate)Exam etc.
    • It is conducted at the state level by the state boards of education like Kerala Board of Public Examination (KBPE), Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan (BSER), Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (MSBSHSE), Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh (BIEAP), Department of Pre Universit Education, Karnataka (DPUE,Karnataka), West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE), Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB) etc and at the national level by the national boards of education like Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) as All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) as Indian School Certificate (ISC), and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).

    CBSE conducts it once a year and NIOS twice a year in public examinations with an option of on-demand examinations. On the other hand, the 10th class exam which is also conducted at state level by the state boards of education and at the national level by the Central Board of Secondary Education and in India this exam is known as SSC exam.
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    In which list do education and marriage fall?

    Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list.
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    What is 10th education called in India?

    The SSC or SSLC is obtained on passing the ‘Class 10th Public Examination’ which is commonly referred to as ‘Class 10th Board Examinations’ in India. The SSC is also known as Matriculation in many states of india.
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    What is education till class 10 called?

    Primary and secondary education Read about primary and secondary education in India. Which diplomas can students obtain? And to which Dutch diplomas can you compare these Indian diplomas? Primary education or elementary education lasts 8 years in India. Pupils aged 6 to 14 complete the following 2 stages:

    primary stage, grade I-V; upper primary stage, grade VI-VIII.

    Students complete lower secondary education (grade IX-X) by taking exams for a Standard X diploma. In India, lower secondary education is also known as simply ‘secondary education’.

    : 2 years (grade XI and X). Content: usually 5 exam subjects (see ‘Standard X diploma curriculum’ below). Function of the diploma: access to and to some study programmes in, Diploma: Standard X diploma. Please note: the name of the diploma varies. Common names include All India Secondary School Certificate, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and Secondary School Certificate.

    We compare the Standard X diploma (or an equivalent) to a diploma. The of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is a national guideline for the curriculum of primary and secondary education. The Indian states can follow this guideline when designing their curricula, but they may also deviate from it.

    2 languages mathematics science (a combination of biology, physics and chemistry) social science (usually a combination of geography, sociology, economics, political science and history)

    After obtaining the Standard X diploma, students can continue on to upper secondary education. It is also known as higher secondary education or senior secondary education. Upper secondary education consists of an academic stream and a vocational stream. Depending on the stream they choose, students obtain 1 of the following diplomas:


    Students conclude the academic stream of upper general secondary education with exams for a Standard XII diploma.

    : 2 years (grade XI and XII). Content: usually 5 exam subjects (see ‘Standard XII diploma curriculum’ below). Function of the diploma: access to, Diploma: Standard XII diploma. Please note: the name of the diploma varies. Common names include All India Senior School Certificate, Indian School Certificate, Higher Secondary School Certificate, Intermediate Examination Certificate.

    We compare the Standard XII diploma (or an equivalent) with a pass grade in 5 to a diploma. The curriculum usually consists of the following subjects:

    1 or 2 languages; 3 or 4 electives.

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    What does state list include class 10?

    CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences Civics Federalism Notes – Q.1. What is federalism ? Ans. Federalism is a system of government under which power is divided between a central authoirty and its various constituent units. The various constituent units and the central authority run their adiministration independently and do not interfere unnecessarily in the affairs of one another.Q.2.

    NCERT Solutions NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Hindi NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Sanskrit NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Foundation of IT RD Sharma Class 10 Solutions

    Q.3. ‘The federal system has dual objective’. Mention the dual objectives. Ans. To safeguard and promote the unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.Q.4. Mention any two features of federalism. Ans. (i) There are two or more levels of government, (ii) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens.Q.5.

    • There are two kinds of routes through which federations have been formed.’ Name the two routes by giving one example of each. Ans.
    • I) Coming together federations – USA (ii) Holding together federations – India.Q.6.
    • Name any two examples of coming together federation. Ans.
    • USA and Australia.Q.7.
    • Name any two holding together federation.

    Ans. India and Spain.Q.8. Mention the three tier system prevailing in India. Ans. (i) Union Government (ii) State Government (iii) Local Government Q.9. Categorise the following under Union list or Concurrent list. (i) Currency (ii) Education Ans. (i) Currency – Union List (ii) Education – Concurrent List Q.10.

    What is a Union List ? Ans, Subjects of national importance like defence, foreign affairs, atomic energy, banking, post and telegraph are included in the Union List. Only the central government can pass laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List because we need a uniform policy on important or national issues throughout the country.

    The Union List has 97 subjects.Q.11. What is a State List ? Ans. It comprises those important subjects on which the state government can pass laws. Subjects like police, local governments, trade and commerce, agriculture within the state are included in the State List.

    1. The State List has 66 subjects.Q.12.
    2. What is a Concurrent List ? Ans.
    3. The Concurrent List comprises of the subjects which are of common concern both to the centre and the state governments.
    4. Ordinarily both the central and the state governments can frame laws on these subjects.
    5. However, if there is a conflict between the central law and the state law, over a subject in the Concurrent List, the central law would be effective.

    This List includes subjects like criminal and civil procedure, marriage and divorce, education, economic planning, trade unions etc. The Concurrent List has 47 subjects.Q.13. What are Residuary Powers ? Ans. Matters which are not included in the division of powers, are known as residuary powers.

    1. It was felt that there can be subjects which are not mentioned in either of these lists.
    2. The central government has been given the power to legislate on these ‘residuary’ subjects.Q.14.
    3. Name an Indian state which enjoys a special status. Ans.
    4. Jammu and Kashmir.Q.15.
    5. What are Union Territories ? Ans.
    6. These are areas which are too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing states.Q.16.

    Who governs the Union Territories ? Ans. The Union Government.Q.17. What is the importance of judiciary in a federal government ? Ans. The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures. In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.Q.18.

    • What is decentralisation ? Ans.
    • When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to local government, it is called decentralisation.Q.19.
    • What is Gram Panchayat ? Ans.
    • It is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch and a president or sarpanch.Q.20.
    • What is Panchayat Samiti ? Ans.

    A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form a Panchayat Samiti or block or mandal.Q.21. How are village Sarpanch or Panches elected? Ans, They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village.Q.22. How judiciary acts as an umpire in a federal nation? Ans.

    • Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
    • The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.Q.23.
    • What is Zila Parishad ? Ans.
    • All the Panchayat Samiti’s or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila Parishad.Q.24.

    Who is a Mayor ? Ans. He is an elected Chairperson of the Municipal Corporation.Q.25. How had federalism helped Belgium to solve the ethnic problem ? Ans. (i) Before 1993 most of the powers in Belgium were in the hands of the central government, i.e., Belgium had a unitary government.

    • Ii) After 1993 the regional governments were given constitutional powers.
    • Thus Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government.Q.26.
    • Which law will remain prevalent if there is any conflict over a subject mentioned in the Concurrent list? Ans.
    • The law passed by the Union Government will prevail.Q.27.

    How many languages have been recognised as scheduled languages? Ans.22 languages.Q.28. Which two languages have been identified as the official languages? Ans. English and Hindi.
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    What is state list 10th class?

    State list means the important subjects on which the state government can pass the law. The important subjects include police, trade, commerce, agriculture, and local government.
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    Is education a state subject India?

    The Indian constitution in its original enactment defined education as state subject. Under Article 42 of the constitution, an amendment was added in 1976 and education became a concurrent list subject which enables the central government to legislate it in the manner suited to it.
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    Which level of education is class 10?

    Levels or Stages of Education in India today Education in India follows a uniform structure of school education which is known as the 10+2 system. This system is being followed by all Indian States and Union Territories. But not all of them follow a distinct pattern as per the system.1.

    Pre Primary Stage – Pre primary education in India is provided to children between 3–6 years by Kindergarten, Playway or Play Schools. These schools have varying terminology for different levels of classes, beginning from – Pre-Nursery, Nursery, KG, LKG (Lower Kindergarten) and UKG (Upper Kindergarten).

    Most of the pre-primary education in India is provided by private schools.2. The Primary Stage – Primary education in India offered by both private and government schools usually consist of students aged between 5 to 12 years. The duration of study in this stage is 4-5 years.

    • Common subjects include English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science and General Knowledge.
    • Sometimes also termed as Elementary Education, it is free in government schools but it is paid in the private schools.
    • The Government has made elementary education compulsory for children between the age group of years 6 and 14.

    Most of the primary education provided by primary schools in India is imparted from class 1 st to class 4 th or 5 th, Some of the states/UTs which follow 1 st to 5 th class of primary education are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 1 st to 4 th classes of primary education are Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry 3) The Middle Stage – Middle stage of education covering 3-4 years of academic study is formed by 5 th -8 th class consisting of students aged between 12 to 14 years.

    The schools which impart education up till 8 th class are known with various names like – High School, Senior School. Some of the states/UTs which follow 5 th -7 th class of middle stage are Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 6 th -8 th class of middle stage are Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi etc.4) The Secondary Stage – Secondary Stage of education covering 2-3 years of academic study starts with classes 8 th -10 th, consisting of students aged between 14-16 years.

    The schools which impart education up till 10 th class are known as Secondary Schools, High Schools, Senior Schools etc. Some of the states/UTs which follow 8 th -10 th class of secondary stage are Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 9 th -10 th class of secondary stage are Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal region of Pondicherry etc.5) Senior Secondary Stage – Senior Secondary Education in India is of only 2 years. There is uniformity on this level of education in terms of duration and classes i.e.

    all the States/UTs follow this 10+2 pattern. Senior Secondary Schools in India include classes 11 th to 12 th, consisting students aged between 16-18 years. At this level of education students have the freedom to choose their preferred stream and subjects.

    They can pursue Arts, Commerce, Science (medical & non medical). The schools which provide education up till 12 th class are commonly known as Senior Secondary Schools or Higher Secondary Schools. Some universities and colleges also offer the education of these classes.6) Undergraduate Stage – Undergraduate education in India is of 3-4 years.

    Undergraduate stage of education is also known as higher education in India. Students studying in this level, generally begin their education from 18 onwards. As per one estimate 88% of undergraduate education is provided by Colleges in India. Majority of the undergraduate courses of 3 years duration belong to field of arts, humanities, science etc.

    • And majority of 4 years of duration belong to the field of agriculture, engineering, pharmaceutical sciences technology.
    • However, there are courses belonging to fields of architecture, law and medicine whose duration is 5 years.7) Postgraduate Stage – Postgraduate education in India is of 2-3 years.
    • Postgraduate stages of courses are known as Masters courses or Doctorate courses.

    Masters course are usually of 2 years duration and doctorate (research) courses are of 3 years duration. Also referred as higher education, 56% of post-graduate education is imparted through colleges. PG education in India is largely provided by universities in India.

    1. PG education caters largely to a specific field or sub field of any preferred discipline.
    2. Thus, one can specialise in any of preferred subjects at this level.
    3. Those who are interested in conducting large amount of research work pursue these courses.
    4. Adult Education in India – Adult Education in India comes under the purview of the Department of School Education and Literacy.

    The Bureau of Adult Education and National Literacy Mission under the Department functions as the Secretariat of the, National Literacy Mission was set up on 5th May,1988 to impart a new sense of urgency and seriousness to adult education. The Directorate of Adult Education provides necessary technical and resource support to the NLMA.

    Distance Education in India – Distance education provided by institutes is controlled by the Distance Education Council of India. Distance education is helpful to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges. At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling offers education through distance learning.

    While, at the college or university level, Open universities provides distance education. Distance education can also be pursued online via internet. Some like the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) provides online education through – BITS Virtual University.

    1. Homeschooling in India – Homeschooling isn’t widespread in India and neither it is widely accepted.
    2. This type of alternative education It is considered for handicapped or those who are unable to attend regular school due to various factors.
    3. While some use Montessori method, Unschooling, Radical Unschooling, Waldorf education or School-at-home.

    Others prefer CBSE, NIOS or NOS and IGCSE prescribed syllabus. : Levels or Stages of Education in India today
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