In Which City International Statistical Education Centre Is Situated?

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In Which City International Statistical Education Centre Is Situated
Kolkata International Statistical Education Centre (ISEC) Kolkata 700108, WB, India.
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Where IS the International Statistical institute situated?

International Statistical Institute (ISI) The International Statistical Institute was the first statistical institution at the international level, created in 1885 in London. This is a non-profit, non-government organization having had a consultative status in the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations since 1948.

  1. The ISI headquarters is located in the Hague, Most national statistical offices around the world are represented as part of organizational affiliation to the Institute, which also includes international agencies, central banks and academic departments.
  2. ISI’s mission is to globally promote and support the development of statistics, promote the profession a statistician and the international statistical community, as well as improve statistical methods and popularize them in the world.

As part of the ISI activity, conferences, workshops, professional ethics trainings are organized, awards and distinctions are given, consultancy is provided and journals are published. The ISI World Statistics Congresses (WSC) take place once every two years in different countries are the highpoint of activities of the ISI.

During the meetings the President of Statistics Poland, as ex officio member of the Institute, also participates. The conferences are of scientific nature and enable meeting of people specializing in various statistical domains. Associated with the WSC are Satellite Meetings, some of which were organized in Poland, like in Cracow, in 2011.

International Association for Official Statistics – IAOS is an association founded in 1985. It is an international non-governmental organization (NGO), which was created and developed as a specialized section of the International Statistical Institute.

to promote the understanding and advancement of official statistics and related subjects. to foster the development of effective and efficient official statistical services, particularly in developing countries, through international contacts among individuals and organizations, including users of official statistics as well as research institutions.

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Why is ISI in Kolkata?

History – ISI’s origin can be traced back to the Statistical Laboratory in Presidency College, Kolkata, set up by Mahalanobis, who worked in the Physics Department of the college in the 1920s. During 1913–1915, he did his Tripos in Mathematics and Physics at the University of Cambridge, where he came across Biometrika, a journal of statistics founded by Karl Pearson,

Since 1915, he taught physics at Presidency College, but his interest in statistics grew under the guidance of polymath Brajendranath Seal, Many colleagues of Mahalanobis took an interest in statistics and the group grew in the Statistical Laboratory. Considering the extensive application of statistics in solving various problems in real life such as analyzing multivariate anthropometric data, applying sample surveys as a method of data collection, analyzing meteorological data, estimating crop yield etc., this group, particularly, Mahalanobis and his younger colleagues S.S.

Bose and H.C. Sinha felt the necessity of forming a specialized institute to facilitate research and learning of statistics. On 17 December 1931, Mahalonobis held a meeting with Pramatha Nath Banerji (Minto Professor of Economics), Nikhil Ranjan Sen (Khaira Professor of Applied Mathematics) and Sir R.N.

  • Mukherjee,
  • This meeting led to the establishment of the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), which was formally registered on 28 April 1932, as a non-profit distributing learned society under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860.
  • Later, the institute was registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act XXVI of 1961, amended in 1964.

Mukherjee accepted the role of the president of ISI and held this position until his death in 1936. In 1953, ISI was relocated to a property owned by Professor Mahalanobis, named “Amrapali”, in Baranagar, which is now a municipality at the northern outskirts of Kolkata.

  • In 1931, Mahalanobis was the only person working at ISI, and he managed it with an annual expenditure of Rs.250.
  • It gradually grew with the pioneering work of a group of his colleagues including S.S.
  • Bose, Samarendra Kumar Mitra (Head of the Computing Machines and Electronics Laboratory and designer of India’s first computer), J.M.

Sengupta, Raj Chandra Bose, Samarendra Nath Roy, K.R. Nair, R.R. Bahadur, Gopinath Kallianpur, D.B. Lahiri, and Anil Kumar Gain, Pitamber Pant, who had received training in statistics at the institute, went on to become a secretary to the first prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and was a great source of help and support to the institute.

  • The institute started a training section in 1938.
  • In due course, many of the early workers left the ISI for careers in the United States or for positions in the public and private sectors in India.
  • By the 1940s, the ISI was internationally known and was taken as a model when the first institute of statistics was set up in the United States by Gertrude Cox – perhaps the only time an institute in a developing country was used as a model in a developed country.

As asked by the government of India, in 1950, ISI designed and planned a comprehensive socio–economic national sample survey covering rural India. The organisation named National Sample Survey (NSS) was founded in 1950 for conducting this survey. The field work was performed by the Directorate of NSS, functioning under the Ministry of Finance, whereas the other tasks such as planning of the survey, training of field workers, review, data processing and tabulation were executed by ISI.

In 1961, the Directorate of NSS started functioning under the Department of Statistics of government of India, and later in 1971, the design and analysis wing of NSS was shifted from ISI to the Department of Statistics forming the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).J.B.S. Haldane joined the ISI as a research professor from August 1957, and stayed on until February 1961, when he had a falling out with ISI Director P.C.

Mahalanobis over Haldane’s going on a much-publicized hunger strike to protest the United States pressuring U.S. National Science Fair winners Gary Botting and Susan Brown from attending an ISI banquet to which many prominent Indian scientists had been invited.

Haldane helped the ISI grow in biometrics. Haldane also played a key role in developing the structure and content of the courses offered by ISI. Until 1959, ISI was associated with the University of Calcutta, By ‘The Indian Statistical Institute Act 1959’ of the Parliament of India, amended in 1995, ISI was declared an institute of national importance, and was authorised to hold examinations and to grant degrees and diplomas in Statistics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Economics, and in any other subject related to statistics as identified by the institute from time to time.

ISI is a public university, as the same act also states that ISI would be funded by the Central Government of India. ISI had by the 1960s started establishing special service units in New Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Hyderabad to provide consultancy services to business, industry and governmental public service organisations in the areas of statistical process control, operations research and industrial engineering.
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Where is the famous Indian Statistical Institute situated?

This Institute of National Importance is a unique mulit-locational one. The Headquarters are in Kolkata, with Centres in Bengaluru, Delhi, Chennai and Tezpur and a branch in Giridih.
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How many ISI institutes are there in India?

Indian Statistical Institute | Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation | Government Of India The Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) was registered on 28th April, 1932 as a non-profit distributing learned society under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1860.

  • The outstanding contributions made by the Institute in theoretical and applied statistical work culminated in the recognition of the Institute as an “Institute of National Importance” by an Act of the Parliament in 1959.
  • The Headquarters of ISI is located at Kolkata.
  • It has four centers located at,, and,

Offices of the Institute, located in several other cities in India, are primarily engaged in projects and consultancy in Statistical Quality Control and Operations Research. : Indian Statistical Institute | Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation | Government Of India
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How many countries are in ISI?

The International Statistical Institute, ISI, aims to lead, support and promote the understanding, development and good practice of statistics worldwide, by providing the core global network for statistics. Founded in 1885, the ISI family is made up of seven associations and its organizational members, covering a range of statistical areas and interests, with over 4500 members from over 100 countries.

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Who is the father of Indian Statistics?

Father of Indian Statistics: Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis – Google Arts & Culture Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (1950) Indian Statistical Institute Fatherof Indian Statistics Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis is also known as the father of Indian Statistics.

  • He was a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and a planner by conviction.
  • His contributions were massive on the academic side as the builder of the Indian Statistical Institute, organizer of the Indian statistical systems, pioneer in the applications of statistical techniques to practical problems, architect of the Indian Second Five Year Plan, and much more.

Statistical science was a virgin field and practically unknown in India before the twenties. Developing statistics was like exploring a new territory. It needed a pioneer and an adventurer like him, with his indomitable courage and tenacity to fight all opposition, clear all obstacles, and throw open wide pastures of new knowledge for the advancement of science and society.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis view about statistics Indian Statistical Institute Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis perceived statistics ‘as a universal tool of inductive inference, research in natural and social sciences, and technological applications’ and ‘as a key technology for increasing the efficiency of human efforts in the widest sense’.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of two. (1895) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was born into a family well established in Calcutta (Kolkata), who were relatively wealthy and whose members were enterprising, adventurous, imbued with liberal Brahmo Samaj traditions, and active in all Bengali life.210, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta, where Prasanta Chandra was born.

  1. Indian Statistical Institute He was born on 29th June 1893 at 210 Cornwallis Street (his grandfather’s house) as the elder son among two sons and four daughters of Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirodbasini Devi.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of seven.
  3. 1900) Indian Statistical Institute The family background and the contacts he had with the great intellectuals and social reformers of Bengal cut him out for the active life he had to lead over the next seventy years.

Gurucharan Mahalanobis, Grandfather of Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ actual surname was “Bandyopadhaya”. Possibly six generations before, Guru Charan Mahalanobis started using the surname Mahalanobis as he was appointed to keep the accounts of land and land revenue of Mahal of ancient Bengal.

  1. They knew him as “Nauvice”.
  2. In Persian “nauvice” means scribe of Mahal (A Mughual administrative unit), so his surname “Mahalanobis” came from the concept of “Mahal” and “Nauvice”.
  3. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s roots were in Panchasar village, now in Vikrampur, Bangladesh.
  4. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s grandfather was Guru Charan Mahalanobis who was follower of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.

His father was Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis, a pioneering entrepreneur, who successfully ran a dealership in sports goods, gramophones and records. Through this efforts, the first successful recording of Rabindranath Tagore’s voice was made in 1924. Prof.

  1. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s mother was Nirodbasini Devi, who was the sister of Dr.
  2. Nilratan Sircar, the eminent physician, educationist, and industrialist of that time.
  3. Brahmo Boys’ School (1904) Indian Statistical Institute He started his education at Brahmo Boys’ School, which was founded by his grandfather Guru Charan Mahalanobis in 1904.

Prasanta Chandra with his friends just before he left for England in 1913 (1913) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis earned a Bachelor degree in Science with Honours in Physics from the Calcutta University under Presidency College in 1912, before he sailed to England and joined Cambridge University The Indian Daily news, 23rd June, 1915 (1915-06-23) Indian Statistical Institute He obtained Mathematics Tripos part I in 1914, and Physics Tripos part II in 1915 from Cambridge University.

Standing from right- H.O.William, W.I. Saxton, unidentified person, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, F.B. Johnston, G.A.Lupton, A.W.Neal, E.H. Toulmin, and E.A.Cameau; Degree day, Kings College, Cambridge, 1915 (1915) Indian Statistical Institute As a student, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis never confined himself in his subject books.

He was very interested in various subjects like amateur astronomy, philosophy, architecture, and psychology. Around this time, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis met with pioneer of Mathematics Srinivasa Ramanujan in Cambridge. He had his initiation in Statistics in 1915 through Biometrika, the journal founded by Karl Pearson.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with Prof. Peake and others Physics Department, Presidency College, Calcutta Indian Statistical Institute He first joined Presidency College in 1915 as a temporary Professor. In 1922 he became Asst. Professor of Physics and taught Physics for 33 years (1915-1948). He was also the Principal of Presidency College for a few years and held the post of Meteorologist in the Alipore Observatory in Calcutta from 1922 to 1926.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and his wife Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis married Nirmal Kumari (nicknamed Rani), who was the daughter of Puritan Brahmo leader and educationist of Bengal Heramba Chandra Moitra.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Nirmal Kumari was the person who stood by the Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in all his struggles, helped him in all his endeavours and exercised a great influence on his life.P.C.Mahalanobis and Mrs.
  • Mahalanobis in Ankara, Turkey, November 1948 (1948) Indian Statistical Institute She often accompanied Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis on his frequent tours abroad. Their companionship lasted for 49 years until the death of Mahalanobis. Prasanta Chandra, Nirmal kumari Mahalanobis with Rabindranath Tagore, 1925 (1925) Indian Statistical Institute Rabindranath Tagore, Prof.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Nirmal Kumari Mhahalanobis shared a unique relationship.
  • Rabindranath Tagore used to take a keen interest in Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s statistical work from the very beginning.
  • Even his career in statistics was very largely influenced by the poet.
  • Brajendra Nath Seal, Prof.

of Philosophy, University of Calcutta introduced Prasanta Chandra to actual statistical analysis for the first time. Indian Statistical Institute When Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis expressed his interest to work on Statistics, he approached Rabindranath Tagore for his kind opinion.

Tagore sent him to meet with Dr. Brajendranath Seal (B.N.Seal). He was further encouraged to engage in statistical research by B.N. Seal who asked him to take up a certain statistical exercise with respect to the examination result of Calcutta University. Statistical Laboratory, Presidency College, Calcutta.

Indian Statistical Institute Establishment of Indian Statistical Institute At the time Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was a Professor of Physics at Presidency College, he was highly involved in the work of statistics. He set up the Statistical laboratory in the baker laboratory of Presidency College, Calcutta, in the early 1920s.

In the initial phase, his statistical research was in anthropometry, in meteorology and in problems of flood control in North Bengal and Orissa. Indian Statistical Institute Indian Statistical Institute On 17th December, 1931, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis set up the Indian Statistical Institute for advanced research and training in statistics.

Later during the 1950s, ISI shifted to the present premises at Baranagar, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru viewing a model of the ISI building, 1953 (1953) Indian Statistical Institute In 1932, the Institute was located in a small portion of the Physics Department of the Presidency College but by 1972 the Institute had several large building of its own to provide working space for research and training in diverse subjects such as: anthropometry, biochemistry, botany, computer science, crop science, economics, human genetics, precensus, psychometry, sociology, and statistics.

The Institute’s activities were not confined within Calcutta but spread all over the India. Portrait of C.R.RAO Indian Statistical Institute While Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis struggled against many odds in his bid to develop statistics as a science in India, he was lucky to receive whole hearted cooperation and help from a number of people.

He had a special ability for locating talents. From the very beginning of the Institute he was assisted by a number of young and talented researchers, namely Harish Chandra Sinha, Raj Chandra Bose, Samarendra Nath Roy, and Keshvan Raghavan Nair. In 1941 came Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao.

That Mahalanobis was not wrong in his selection of comrades-in-arms was evident from the fact that many of his early associates earned international fame for themselves and the Institute for their outstanding contributions to statistics.J.B.S.Haldane speaking at the degree course opening ceremony at the Institute, 16th August, 1960 (1960-08-16) Indian Statistical Institute Indian Statistical Institution started courses of study leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Statistics and Master of Statistics from July, 1960 and also made arrangement for the award of Degrees Ph.D.

and D.Sc. in Statistics. Academician A.N.Kolmogorov, S.N.Bose, Prasanta Chandra at a special convocation held to confer Honorary degree of Doctor of Science of the ISI to Kolmogorov Indian Statistical Institute The First Convocation of the Indian Statistical Institute was held in the mango-grove of the Institute on 12 February 1962.

The event of first convocation was marked with the conferment of Honorary Doctor of Science to five eminent people: Professor Satyendra Nath Bose, Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sri Jawaharlal Nehru, Academician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov and Dr. Walter Andrew Shewhart, During the first convocation, the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred to two students, Kalyanapuram Ranga Parthasarathy and Jayaram Sethuraman, and Master of Statistics Degree to Narasimha Sreenivasa Iyengar, Vasant Tukaram Korde, Tares Maitra, Manjula Mukhopadhyay, Ganesan Parthasarathy, Kadiyala Koteswara Rao, and Paras Nath Singh.

Mahalanobis Distance- the major tools widely used in taxonomical classification even today. Indian Statistical Institute Contribution to the field of Statistics The anthropometric studies led to the formulation of D2- Statistic, known in statistical literature as Mahalanobis Distance, which has proved to be a valuable tool not only in taxonomy but in many other fields including economics and geology.

  1. A rich field of research in multivariate analysis opened up; Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (R.A.Fisher) accepted this concept by giving it the name ‘Mahalanobis D-square’ or ‘Mahalanobis distance’, Report on Rainfall and Floods in North Bengal (1870-1922) (1870) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was again called upon to tackle the problem of flooding after two devastating floods, one in North Bengal in 1922 and the other in Orissa in 1926.

This led him to undertake extensive statistical studies of rainfall and floods in Bengal and Orissa covering a span of about sixty years. The studies yielded some of the basic calculations that were later used for the two hydro-electric and irrigation projects in Hirakud and Damodar Valley.

  • Prasanta Chandra’s first paper on statistics, published in the Records of the Indian Museum, Vol.23, 1922.
  • 1922) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ first systematic work was on a statistical study of the anthropometric measurements of Anglo-Indians in Calcutta and his first paper was on “Anthropological Observations on the Anglo-Indian of Calcutta Part-I Analysis of Male Stature’urt”, which was published in the records of the Indian Museum in 1922.
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Sankhya- the Indian journal of Statistics started in 1933 (1933) Indian Statistical Institute Sankhya, The Indian Journal of Statistics, founded by Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1933 is the official publication of Indian Statistical Institute.

  • Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis explained his reasons for choosing the name Sankhya,
  • In his words: “We believe that the idea underlying this integral concept of statistics finds adequate expression in the ancient Indian word Sankhya.
  • In Sanskrit the usual meaning is ‘number’, but the original root meaning was ‘determinate knowledge” He was the editor of Sankhya from 1933 to 1972.

Extraction of fiber from the jute bundles Indian Statistical Institute Then came the epoch-making investigation on the technique of large scale sample surveys, with which Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ name will always be associated. Systematic work on the surveying of agriculture crops began in 1937, which culminated in a large scale sample survey of the acreage and yield of jute crop in 1941.

It covered the whole province of Bengal and was extended to all important crops in both Bengal and Bihar in 1943. Worker collecting sample from the field Indian Statistical Institute This was followed by sample surveys for collecting socio-economic data, such as public preference. A large number of surveys were conducted from 1937-1950 in Bengal for collecting information on crops and socio-economic data, which gave opportunities for improving the design of sample surveys and for gaining experience in the collection of data from the field.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with R.A.Fisher in Amrapali, 1945 (1945) Indian Statistical Institute During the sample census on jute crop in Bengal, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis insisted on the use of sampling methodology. But the Government officials had no idea about sampling and the survey was on the verge of being abandoned altogether.

At this juncture, R.A. Fisher came to India in 1938 and in a memorandum submitted to the Viceroy, he strongly recommended the use of sampling methodology in India. At last a large scale sample survey of the area under jute for the whole province of Bengal was undertaken in 1940. Archival video of P.C.Mahalanobis’s visit to an Indian village for a sample survey.

Indian Statistical Institute Several hurdles had to be crossed in convincing the administrators that gaps in national income statistics could be filled through data obtained by sampling, and that there would be a need for continuous collection of information to assess the progress of economic development and to make policy decisions.

  • Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis won the battle and the National Sample Survey was established in 1950,
  • It is a continuing survey in which information is collected year by year with the help of a whole time field organization, spread all over India, and which provides periodic estimates on social and economic factors affecting the nation economy.

Prasanta Chandra with Central and State statisticians during a reception at his New Delhi residence, 8, King George Avenue, 3rd December 1954 (1954-12-03) Indian Statistical Institute A Central Statistical Unit was established by the Government of India in 1949 to work under the technical guidance of Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis as Honorary Statistical Adviser to the cabinet.

For more than two years this unit was entirely staffed from and run by ISI. After two years the Central Statistical Organizations was formed for coordinating all statistical activities of the Government.P.C.Mahalanobis at the conference on standardization and Quality Control at ISI (Presidency College Premises) 08.02.1948 (1948-02-08) Indian Statistical Institute After meeting with Dr.

Walter Shewart, who was known as the ‘Father of Statistical Quality Control’, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis wrote to the Government of India in 1942 pointing out the advantages of using statistical quality control methods, particularly in the industries.

  • As a consequence, the Indian Statistical Institute took initiative in spreading the use of quality control methods in industry by establishing Statistical Quality Control units in different parts of India since 1953.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture on fractile graphical analysis, 1958 (1958) Indian Statistical Institute Even when Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was working on his planning models, he had not stopped giving new ideas in statistical methodology. In 1958 he found a simple but very effective technique known as Fractile Graphical Analysis. The first Electronic Analogue Computer designed by Samarendra Kumar Mitra and constructed by ISI in 1953.

1953) Indian Statistical Institute Start of a new era: introduction of computers Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis was one of the first people in the country to recognize the importance of machines – mechanical, electrical as well as electronic – to make fast, accurate and complicated calculations with masses of figures.

In the 1950s, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged to have a large number of electromechanical data processing machines from IBM; the Hollerith and the Power Samas varieties were installed to process NSS data. Through his initiative in 1953, a small analog computer was designed and built in the Institute.

  • In 1956, Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged for the installation of a British made digital computer, the HEC-2M, Hollerith – Electronic Digital Computer, the first of its kind to be in operation anywhere in India.
  • A front-view of the Soviet electronic computer, URAL which was obtained by the Institute as a gift from the USSR through the United Nations, a team of soviet experts installed it in 1958.

, 1958, From the collection of: During 1955, the USSR Government had offered the Institute a big electronic digital computer called URAL through the UNTAA (United Nations Technical Aid Administration). The URAL computer was received in March 1958 and installed on 20 December 1958 in the Institute for the processing of statistical data by the Soviet engineers who handed it over for use in February 1959.

Prof. & Mrs. Neils Bohr were shown round the Electronic Division of ISI, January, 1960, 1960, From the collection of: By 1959-60, the Indian Statistical Institute became, for all practical purposes, a National Computer Centre for the country. It met the computational requirements for scientific problems in organizations like the Ministry of Defense, The Atomic Energy Commission, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, and the Meteorology Department.

The Indian Statistical Institute – Jadavpur University (ISI-JU) computer was Commissioned by Shri.M.C.Chagla, then Union Minister of Education, at Jadavpur on 2nd April, 1966, 1966-04-02, From the collection of: The first solid state digital computer in India, ISIJU-1, was designed, developed and constructed by the engineers of the Institute in collaboration with the Jadavpur University in 1965.

  • Dinosaur Fossil at ISI.
  • Indian Statistical Institute Contribution of ISI: excavation of a dinosaur In 1957, Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis invited Dr.
  • Pamela Robinson of the University College London to the ISI to set up the Geological Studies Unit.
  • The team under the leadership of Dr.Pamela Robinson discovered for the first time in India the fossil bones of the giant prehistoric lizard; the largest animal that lived on the earth.

Prasanta Chandra, C.R.Rao, Pamela Robinson, Alec J. Smith (Prof. of University College, London) K.B.Madhava and others studying in front of fossil bone of Dinosaur excavated by ISI team. Indian Statistical Institute Over ten tons of bone material were collected from the Pranhita–Godavari valley and brought to Calcutta.

The bones were assembled and later mounted in 1976, in record time into a full length skeleton of the dinosaur in the Geological Studies Unit. The skeleton was named Barapasaurus tagorie. Prasanta Chandra and Jawaharlal Nehru at Amrapali. Indian Statistical Institute Contribution to national development Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis played an important role in Indian National Economic Planning. He took major responsibility in drafting the Second Five Year Plan for India. He believed in perspective planning and used simple logical ideas in deriving an economic model for planning in a under developed country, like India.

Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurating studies relating to planning for national development at the institute, 3rd November, 1954 (1954-11-03) Indian Statistical Institute As a member of the Planning Commission, he sold the idea of making large investments in heavy industries, setting aside other sectors of development, a policy which helped the country considerably in rapid industrialization.

Satyendranath Bose, Prasanta Chandra and Norbert Weiner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) at Amrapali Garden, 1953 (1953) Indian Statistical Institute The growing importance of the Institute was reflected in the continuous inflow of visitors, over a thousand leading scientists of the world visited the Indian Statistical Institute.

  1. Many of these scientists spent long periods of time at the institute and often stayed with Mahalanobis at his residence.J.D.Bernal, Nirmal Kumari Frederic Joliot- Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie and Prasanta Chandra during a visit in January 1950.
  2. 1950) Indian Statistical Institute From 1937 to 1967 about six hundred leading scientists and economists of the world came to the Institute, among them were J.B.S.

Haldane, Abraham Wald, J.K. Galbraith, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie, Norbert Weiner, Chou-en-Lai, Prime Minister of China, Ho-chi-minh, and President of the People’s Republic of Vietnam to name a few. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture at the Vatican City, Rome, 1963 (1963) Indian Statistical Institute International liasions with ISI As the Indian Statistical Institute started earning international fame, Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was becoming more and more preoccupied with assignments outside. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis worked for international understanding and collaboration in scientific research with foreign scientists. Prasanta Chandra attending the United Nations Statistical Commission as Chairman, New York, 16th April- 3rd May, 1956 (1956-04-16) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis started going abroad from 1946 in connection with the work at the United Nations Statistical Commission in various capacities: as member; Vice-Chairman and Chairman; as its representative on the Population Commission in 1948; and as a member of drafting committee at the Regional Meeting of Statisticians.P.C.Mahalanobis delivering his lecture in International House of Japan.

Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis attended all the sessions of the Statistical Commission from the Nuclear Session in February-June 1946, to the 16th session in October 1970—an unparalleled record. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the International Symposium on Higher Education, Moscow,1962.

(1962) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis chaired the Conference of Statisticians of the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, ECAFE (now Economic and Statistical Commission for Asia and Pacific, ESCAP) in 1952.P.C.Mahalanobis receiving an award (1959) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.

  • He was elected as fellow of the:- Royal Society of London in 1945, – Chairman of the United Nations Sub- Commission on Statistical Sampling (five sessions- 1947-1951)- Fellow of International Econometric Society (1951)- Chairman of United Nations Statistical Commission (1954-1958)- President of National Institute of Sciences of India (1957 and 1958)- Fellow of American Statistical Association (1961)
  • – Fellow of World Academy of Art and Science (1963).

Prasanta Chandra receiving the Bulgarian Science Academy award, 1962 (1962) Indian Statistical Institute

  1. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalaonbis was honored with several awards: -The Weldon Medal from Oxford University (1944), – Sir Devaprasad Sarbadhikari Gold Medal from Calcutta University (1957), – Gold Medal from Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1964),- Durga Prasad Khaitan Memorial Gold Medal from Asiatic Society (1968),- Srinivasa Ramanujam Gold Medal (1968),
  2. – Honorary Deshikottama from Visva Bharati University (1961).

Photograph of the Padmavibhushan Certificate (1968-04-16) Indian Statistical Institute

  • In 1968, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award by the Republic of India for his contribution to science and services to the country.
  • He also received honorary doctorates from Calcutta University (1957), Sofi University (1961), Delhi University (1964) and Stockholm University (1966).

Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis viewed statistics not as a branch of mathematics but as a technology. Mathematics and probability theory are only the means to promote the use of statistical methods in the world of reality.

  • He shaped Indian Statistical Institute as a beacon of knowledge with commitment for national development and social welfare.
  • He is still being remembered for the Mahalanobis Distance, a statistical measure, and for his great contribution in the large scale sample survey.
  • He continues to inspire statisticians in India and around the world.

Credits: Story P.C.Mahalanobis Memorial Museum & Archives; Reprography and Photography Unit; Library, Documentation and Information Science Division

  1. ISI Team
  2. Text References :
  3. 3. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis A Biography by Ashok Rudra by Oxford University Press,1996

Co-ordinator: Dr. Kishor Chandra SatpathyPhoto Design & Restoration: Mr.Tapas BasuResearch & Compilation: Ms. Keya Das & Ms. Kasturi BasuSpecial thanks to Dr. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay,Director and Dr. Dipti Prasad Mukherjee,Deputy Director of Indian Statistical Institute in making this online exhibit possible.1.

  1. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society,Volume 19,London,The Royal Society.2.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis by A.
  3. Mahalanobis, National Book Trust India, New Delhi,1983.
  4. Credits: All media The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.

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: Father of Indian Statistics: Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis – Google Arts & Culture
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Who is CEO of ISI?

Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence
Incumbent Lieutenant General Nadeem Anjum since 20 November 2021
Inter-Services Intelligence
Abbreviation DG ISI
Member of National Security Council
Residence Chaklala, Rawalpindi
Appointer Prime Minister
Term length 3 years (on the wishes of the Prime Minister)
Inaugural holder Maj. General Shahid Hamid
Formation 1948

The director-general (DG) is head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan’s premier intelligence service, operationally responsible for providing critical national security and intelligence assessment to the government of Pakistan, Colonel Shahid Hamid had conceived the idea of ISI.
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What is the highest rank in ISI?

Inter-Services Intelligence

بین الخدماتی سراغرسانی
Insignia of the ISI
Intelligence agency overview
Formed 1 January 1948 ; 74 years ago
Headquarters Aabpara, Islamabad, Pakistan 33°42′14.3″N 73°04′47.0″E  /  33.703972°N 73.079722°E
Employees ~10,000 (2009)
Annual budget Classified
Intelligence agency executive

Lt. Gen. Nadeem Anjum, Director-General

Child Intelligence agency

Covert Action Division

The Inter-Services Intelligence ( ISI ; Urdu : بین الخدماتی مخابرات, romanized : bayn khadamatiy mukhabarati ) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, It is responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing any information from around the world that is deemed relevant to Pakistan’s national security,

  1. As one of the principal members of the Pakistani intelligence community, the ISI reports to its Director-General and is primarily focused on providing intelligence to the Pakistani government,
  2. The ISI primarily consists of serving military officers drawn on secondment from the three service branches of the Pakistan Armed Forces (i.e.

the Pakistan Army, Pakistan Navy, and Pakistan Air Force ), hence the name “Inter-Services”; however, the agency also recruits many civilians. Since 1971, it has been formally headed by a serving three-star general of the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan on the recommendation of the Chief of Army Staff, who recommends three officers for the position.

As of 2021, the ISI is currently headed by Lieutenant-General Nadeem Anjum, The ISI director-general reports directly to both the Prime Minister and the Chief of Army Staff. The agency gained global recognition and fame in the 1980s, when it backed the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet Union during the Soviet–Afghan War in the former Democratic Republic of Afghanistan,

Over the course of the conflict, the ISI worked in close coordination with the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States and the Secret Intelligence Service of the United Kingdom to run Operation Cyclone, a program to train and fund the mujahideen in Afghanistan with support from China, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and other Muslim nations,
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Who can give ISI exam?

ISI Admission Test 2023 Eligibility Criteria Candidate should have successfully completed and passed 10+2 or equivalent examination. Candidate must have studied and passed English and Mathematics in 10+2 or equivalent examination.
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Who founded ISI in Calcutta?

Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India – Google Arts & Culture Professor Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis established the Indian Statistical Institute(ISI) as a learned society, on 17th December, 1931 intialily at the Baker Laboratory of Presidency College,Calcutta and later shifted to the present premises at Baranagar in Kolkata during 1950’s, to promote research in the theory and applications of statistics as a new scientific discipline in India.

Mahalanobis with his assosicates and successors, rentlessly nurtured with care and patience this sapling which has now grown into an imposing banayan tree, very much like the one which is the Institute emblem, a haven for bright and talented academics working in a number of disciplines.The institute gained the status of an Institution of National Importance by an Act of the Indian Parliament in 1959.Over the decades, the institute has grown steadily and at present, ISI has its headquarter in Baranagar, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal.

It has five subsidiary centres focused in academic at Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Tezpur, Giridih and a network of Statistical Quality Control and Operation Research Unit at Baroda, Mumbai, Pune, Coimbatore, Chennai and Hyderabad. : Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India – Google Arts & Culture
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Who is the father of statistics?

Father of Indian Statistics: Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis – Google Arts & Culture Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (1950) Indian Statistical Institute Fatherof Indian Statistics Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis is also known as the father of Indian Statistics.

He was a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and a planner by conviction. His contributions were massive on the academic side as the builder of the Indian Statistical Institute, organizer of the Indian statistical systems, pioneer in the applications of statistical techniques to practical problems, architect of the Indian Second Five Year Plan, and much more.

Statistical science was a virgin field and practically unknown in India before the twenties. Developing statistics was like exploring a new territory. It needed a pioneer and an adventurer like him, with his indomitable courage and tenacity to fight all opposition, clear all obstacles, and throw open wide pastures of new knowledge for the advancement of science and society.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis view about statistics Indian Statistical Institute Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis perceived statistics ‘as a universal tool of inductive inference, research in natural and social sciences, and technological applications’ and ‘as a key technology for increasing the efficiency of human efforts in the widest sense’.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of two. (1895) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was born into a family well established in Calcutta (Kolkata), who were relatively wealthy and whose members were enterprising, adventurous, imbued with liberal Brahmo Samaj traditions, and active in all Bengali life.210, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta, where Prasanta Chandra was born.

  1. Indian Statistical Institute He was born on 29th June 1893 at 210 Cornwallis Street (his grandfather’s house) as the elder son among two sons and four daughters of Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirodbasini Devi.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of seven.
  3. 1900) Indian Statistical Institute The family background and the contacts he had with the great intellectuals and social reformers of Bengal cut him out for the active life he had to lead over the next seventy years.

Gurucharan Mahalanobis, Grandfather of Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ actual surname was “Bandyopadhaya”. Possibly six generations before, Guru Charan Mahalanobis started using the surname Mahalanobis as he was appointed to keep the accounts of land and land revenue of Mahal of ancient Bengal.

  1. They knew him as “Nauvice”.
  2. In Persian “nauvice” means scribe of Mahal (A Mughual administrative unit), so his surname “Mahalanobis” came from the concept of “Mahal” and “Nauvice”.
  3. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s roots were in Panchasar village, now in Vikrampur, Bangladesh.
  4. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s grandfather was Guru Charan Mahalanobis who was follower of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.

His father was Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis, a pioneering entrepreneur, who successfully ran a dealership in sports goods, gramophones and records. Through this efforts, the first successful recording of Rabindranath Tagore’s voice was made in 1924. Prof.

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Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s mother was Nirodbasini Devi, who was the sister of Dr. Nilratan Sircar, the eminent physician, educationist, and industrialist of that time. Brahmo Boys’ School (1904) Indian Statistical Institute He started his education at Brahmo Boys’ School, which was founded by his grandfather Guru Charan Mahalanobis in 1904.

Prasanta Chandra with his friends just before he left for England in 1913 (1913) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis earned a Bachelor degree in Science with Honours in Physics from the Calcutta University under Presidency College in 1912, before he sailed to England and joined Cambridge University The Indian Daily news, 23rd June, 1915 (1915-06-23) Indian Statistical Institute He obtained Mathematics Tripos part I in 1914, and Physics Tripos part II in 1915 from Cambridge University.

Standing from right- H.O.William, W.I. Saxton, unidentified person, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, F.B. Johnston, G.A.Lupton, A.W.Neal, E.H. Toulmin, and E.A.Cameau; Degree day, Kings College, Cambridge, 1915 (1915) Indian Statistical Institute As a student, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis never confined himself in his subject books.

He was very interested in various subjects like amateur astronomy, philosophy, architecture, and psychology. Around this time, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis met with pioneer of Mathematics Srinivasa Ramanujan in Cambridge. He had his initiation in Statistics in 1915 through Biometrika, the journal founded by Karl Pearson.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with Prof. Peake and others Physics Department, Presidency College, Calcutta Indian Statistical Institute He first joined Presidency College in 1915 as a temporary Professor. In 1922 he became Asst. Professor of Physics and taught Physics for 33 years (1915-1948). He was also the Principal of Presidency College for a few years and held the post of Meteorologist in the Alipore Observatory in Calcutta from 1922 to 1926.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and his wife Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis married Nirmal Kumari (nicknamed Rani), who was the daughter of Puritan Brahmo leader and educationist of Bengal Heramba Chandra Moitra.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis Indian Statistical Institute Nirmal Kumari was the person who stood by the Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in all his struggles, helped him in all his endeavours and exercised a great influence on his life.P.C.Mahalanobis and Mrs.
  • Mahalanobis in Ankara, Turkey, November 1948 (1948) Indian Statistical Institute She often accompanied Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis on his frequent tours abroad. Their companionship lasted for 49 years until the death of Mahalanobis. Prasanta Chandra, Nirmal kumari Mahalanobis with Rabindranath Tagore, 1925 (1925) Indian Statistical Institute Rabindranath Tagore, Prof.

  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Nirmal Kumari Mhahalanobis shared a unique relationship.
  • Rabindranath Tagore used to take a keen interest in Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s statistical work from the very beginning.
  • Even his career in statistics was very largely influenced by the poet.
  • Brajendra Nath Seal, Prof.

of Philosophy, University of Calcutta introduced Prasanta Chandra to actual statistical analysis for the first time. Indian Statistical Institute When Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis expressed his interest to work on Statistics, he approached Rabindranath Tagore for his kind opinion.

  • Tagore sent him to meet with Dr.
  • Brajendranath Seal (B.N.Seal).
  • He was further encouraged to engage in statistical research by B.N.
  • Seal who asked him to take up a certain statistical exercise with respect to the examination result of Calcutta University.
  • Statistical Laboratory, Presidency College, Calcutta.

Indian Statistical Institute Establishment of Indian Statistical Institute At the time Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was a Professor of Physics at Presidency College, he was highly involved in the work of statistics. He set up the Statistical laboratory in the baker laboratory of Presidency College, Calcutta, in the early 1920s.

In the initial phase, his statistical research was in anthropometry, in meteorology and in problems of flood control in North Bengal and Orissa. Indian Statistical Institute Indian Statistical Institute On 17th December, 1931, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis set up the Indian Statistical Institute for advanced research and training in statistics.

Later during the 1950s, ISI shifted to the present premises at Baranagar, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru viewing a model of the ISI building, 1953 (1953) Indian Statistical Institute In 1932, the Institute was located in a small portion of the Physics Department of the Presidency College but by 1972 the Institute had several large building of its own to provide working space for research and training in diverse subjects such as: anthropometry, biochemistry, botany, computer science, crop science, economics, human genetics, precensus, psychometry, sociology, and statistics.

  • The Institute’s activities were not confined within Calcutta but spread all over the India.
  • Portrait of C.R.RAO Indian Statistical Institute While Prof.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis struggled against many odds in his bid to develop statistics as a science in India, he was lucky to receive whole hearted cooperation and help from a number of people.

He had a special ability for locating talents. From the very beginning of the Institute he was assisted by a number of young and talented researchers, namely Harish Chandra Sinha, Raj Chandra Bose, Samarendra Nath Roy, and Keshvan Raghavan Nair. In 1941 came Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao.

That Mahalanobis was not wrong in his selection of comrades-in-arms was evident from the fact that many of his early associates earned international fame for themselves and the Institute for their outstanding contributions to statistics.J.B.S.Haldane speaking at the degree course opening ceremony at the Institute, 16th August, 1960 (1960-08-16) Indian Statistical Institute Indian Statistical Institution started courses of study leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Statistics and Master of Statistics from July, 1960 and also made arrangement for the award of Degrees Ph.D.

and D.Sc. in Statistics. Academician A.N.Kolmogorov, S.N.Bose, Prasanta Chandra at a special convocation held to confer Honorary degree of Doctor of Science of the ISI to Kolmogorov Indian Statistical Institute The First Convocation of the Indian Statistical Institute was held in the mango-grove of the Institute on 12 February 1962.

The event of first convocation was marked with the conferment of Honorary Doctor of Science to five eminent people: Professor Satyendra Nath Bose, Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sri Jawaharlal Nehru, Academician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov and Dr. Walter Andrew Shewhart, During the first convocation, the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred to two students, Kalyanapuram Ranga Parthasarathy and Jayaram Sethuraman, and Master of Statistics Degree to Narasimha Sreenivasa Iyengar, Vasant Tukaram Korde, Tares Maitra, Manjula Mukhopadhyay, Ganesan Parthasarathy, Kadiyala Koteswara Rao, and Paras Nath Singh.

Mahalanobis Distance- the major tools widely used in taxonomical classification even today. Indian Statistical Institute Contribution to the field of Statistics The anthropometric studies led to the formulation of D2- Statistic, known in statistical literature as Mahalanobis Distance, which has proved to be a valuable tool not only in taxonomy but in many other fields including economics and geology.

A rich field of research in multivariate analysis opened up; Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (R.A.Fisher) accepted this concept by giving it the name ‘Mahalanobis D-square’ or ‘Mahalanobis distance’, Report on Rainfall and Floods in North Bengal (1870-1922) (1870) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was again called upon to tackle the problem of flooding after two devastating floods, one in North Bengal in 1922 and the other in Orissa in 1926.

This led him to undertake extensive statistical studies of rainfall and floods in Bengal and Orissa covering a span of about sixty years. The studies yielded some of the basic calculations that were later used for the two hydro-electric and irrigation projects in Hirakud and Damodar Valley.

Prasanta Chandra’s first paper on statistics, published in the Records of the Indian Museum, Vol.23, 1922. (1922) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ first systematic work was on a statistical study of the anthropometric measurements of Anglo-Indians in Calcutta and his first paper was on “Anthropological Observations on the Anglo-Indian of Calcutta Part-I Analysis of Male Stature’urt”, which was published in the records of the Indian Museum in 1922.

Sankhya- the Indian journal of Statistics started in 1933 (1933) Indian Statistical Institute Sankhya, The Indian Journal of Statistics, founded by Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1933 is the official publication of Indian Statistical Institute.

  1. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis explained his reasons for choosing the name Sankhya,
  2. In his words: “We believe that the idea underlying this integral concept of statistics finds adequate expression in the ancient Indian word Sankhya.
  3. In Sanskrit the usual meaning is ‘number’, but the original root meaning was ‘determinate knowledge” He was the editor of Sankhya from 1933 to 1972.

Extraction of fiber from the jute bundles Indian Statistical Institute Then came the epoch-making investigation on the technique of large scale sample surveys, with which Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ name will always be associated. Systematic work on the surveying of agriculture crops began in 1937, which culminated in a large scale sample survey of the acreage and yield of jute crop in 1941.

  1. It covered the whole province of Bengal and was extended to all important crops in both Bengal and Bihar in 1943.
  2. Worker collecting sample from the field Indian Statistical Institute This was followed by sample surveys for collecting socio-economic data, such as public preference.
  3. A large number of surveys were conducted from 1937-1950 in Bengal for collecting information on crops and socio-economic data, which gave opportunities for improving the design of sample surveys and for gaining experience in the collection of data from the field.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with R.A.Fisher in Amrapali, 1945 (1945) Indian Statistical Institute During the sample census on jute crop in Bengal, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis insisted on the use of sampling methodology. But the Government officials had no idea about sampling and the survey was on the verge of being abandoned altogether.

  1. At this juncture, R.A.
  2. Fisher came to India in 1938 and in a memorandum submitted to the Viceroy, he strongly recommended the use of sampling methodology in India.
  3. At last a large scale sample survey of the area under jute for the whole province of Bengal was undertaken in 1940.
  4. Archival video of P.C.Mahalanobis’s visit to an Indian village for a sample survey.

Indian Statistical Institute Several hurdles had to be crossed in convincing the administrators that gaps in national income statistics could be filled through data obtained by sampling, and that there would be a need for continuous collection of information to assess the progress of economic development and to make policy decisions.

  • Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis won the battle and the National Sample Survey was established in 1950,
  • It is a continuing survey in which information is collected year by year with the help of a whole time field organization, spread all over India, and which provides periodic estimates on social and economic factors affecting the nation economy.

Prasanta Chandra with Central and State statisticians during a reception at his New Delhi residence, 8, King George Avenue, 3rd December 1954 (1954-12-03) Indian Statistical Institute A Central Statistical Unit was established by the Government of India in 1949 to work under the technical guidance of Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis as Honorary Statistical Adviser to the cabinet.

  • For more than two years this unit was entirely staffed from and run by ISI.
  • After two years the Central Statistical Organizations was formed for coordinating all statistical activities of the Government.P.C.Mahalanobis at the conference on standardization and Quality Control at ISI (Presidency College Premises) 08.02.1948 (1948-02-08) Indian Statistical Institute After meeting with Dr.

Walter Shewart, who was known as the ‘Father of Statistical Quality Control’, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis wrote to the Government of India in 1942 pointing out the advantages of using statistical quality control methods, particularly in the industries.

  1. As a consequence, the Indian Statistical Institute took initiative in spreading the use of quality control methods in industry by establishing Statistical Quality Control units in different parts of India since 1953.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture on fractile graphical analysis, 1958 (1958) Indian Statistical Institute Even when Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was working on his planning models, he had not stopped giving new ideas in statistical methodology. In 1958 he found a simple but very effective technique known as Fractile Graphical Analysis. The first Electronic Analogue Computer designed by Samarendra Kumar Mitra and constructed by ISI in 1953.

(1953) Indian Statistical Institute Start of a new era: introduction of computers Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis was one of the first people in the country to recognize the importance of machines – mechanical, electrical as well as electronic – to make fast, accurate and complicated calculations with masses of figures.

In the 1950s, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged to have a large number of electromechanical data processing machines from IBM; the Hollerith and the Power Samas varieties were installed to process NSS data. Through his initiative in 1953, a small analog computer was designed and built in the Institute.

In 1956, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged for the installation of a British made digital computer, the HEC-2M, Hollerith – Electronic Digital Computer, the first of its kind to be in operation anywhere in India. A front-view of the Soviet electronic computer, URAL which was obtained by the Institute as a gift from the USSR through the United Nations, a team of soviet experts installed it in 1958.

, 1958, From the collection of: During 1955, the USSR Government had offered the Institute a big electronic digital computer called URAL through the UNTAA (United Nations Technical Aid Administration). The URAL computer was received in March 1958 and installed on 20 December 1958 in the Institute for the processing of statistical data by the Soviet engineers who handed it over for use in February 1959.

  1. Prof. & Mrs.
  2. Neils Bohr were shown round the Electronic Division of ISI, January, 1960, 1960, From the collection of: By 1959-60, the Indian Statistical Institute became, for all practical purposes, a National Computer Centre for the country.
  3. It met the computational requirements for scientific problems in organizations like the Ministry of Defense, The Atomic Energy Commission, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, and the Meteorology Department.

The Indian Statistical Institute – Jadavpur University (ISI-JU) computer was Commissioned by Shri.M.C.Chagla, then Union Minister of Education, at Jadavpur on 2nd April, 1966, 1966-04-02, From the collection of: The first solid state digital computer in India, ISIJU-1, was designed, developed and constructed by the engineers of the Institute in collaboration with the Jadavpur University in 1965.

Dinosaur Fossil at ISI. Indian Statistical Institute Contribution of ISI: excavation of a dinosaur In 1957, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis invited Dr. Pamela Robinson of the University College London to the ISI to set up the Geological Studies Unit. The team under the leadership of Dr.Pamela Robinson discovered for the first time in India the fossil bones of the giant prehistoric lizard; the largest animal that lived on the earth.

Prasanta Chandra, C.R.Rao, Pamela Robinson, Alec J. Smith (Prof. of University College, London) K.B.Madhava and others studying in front of fossil bone of Dinosaur excavated by ISI team. Indian Statistical Institute Over ten tons of bone material were collected from the Pranhita–Godavari valley and brought to Calcutta.

  • The bones were assembled and later mounted in 1976, in record time into a full length skeleton of the dinosaur in the Geological Studies Unit.
  • The skeleton was named Barapasaurus tagorie.
  • Prasanta Chandra and Jawaharlal Nehru at Amrapali.
  • Indian Statistical Institute Contribution to national development Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis played an important role in Indian National Economic Planning. He took major responsibility in drafting the Second Five Year Plan for India. He believed in perspective planning and used simple logical ideas in deriving an economic model for planning in a under developed country, like India.

Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurating studies relating to planning for national development at the institute, 3rd November, 1954 (1954-11-03) Indian Statistical Institute As a member of the Planning Commission, he sold the idea of making large investments in heavy industries, setting aside other sectors of development, a policy which helped the country considerably in rapid industrialization.

Satyendranath Bose, Prasanta Chandra and Norbert Weiner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) at Amrapali Garden, 1953 (1953) Indian Statistical Institute The growing importance of the Institute was reflected in the continuous inflow of visitors, over a thousand leading scientists of the world visited the Indian Statistical Institute.

  • Many of these scientists spent long periods of time at the institute and often stayed with Mahalanobis at his residence.J.D.Bernal, Nirmal Kumari Frederic Joliot- Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie and Prasanta Chandra during a visit in January 1950.
  • 1950) Indian Statistical Institute From 1937 to 1967 about six hundred leading scientists and economists of the world came to the Institute, among them were J.B.S.

Haldane, Abraham Wald, J.K. Galbraith, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie, Norbert Weiner, Chou-en-Lai, Prime Minister of China, Ho-chi-minh, and President of the People’s Republic of Vietnam to name a few. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture at the Vatican City, Rome, 1963 (1963) Indian Statistical Institute International liasions with ISI As the Indian Statistical Institute started earning international fame, Prof.

  1. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was becoming more and more preoccupied with assignments outside. Prof.
  2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis worked for international understanding and collaboration in scientific research with foreign scientists.
  3. Prasanta Chandra attending the United Nations Statistical Commission as Chairman, New York, 16th April- 3rd May, 1956 (1956-04-16) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis started going abroad from 1946 in connection with the work at the United Nations Statistical Commission in various capacities: as member; Vice-Chairman and Chairman; as its representative on the Population Commission in 1948; and as a member of drafting committee at the Regional Meeting of Statisticians.P.C.Mahalanobis delivering his lecture in International House of Japan.

Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis attended all the sessions of the Statistical Commission from the Nuclear Session in February-June 1946, to the 16th session in October 1970—an unparalleled record. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the International Symposium on Higher Education, Moscow,1962.

(1962) Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis chaired the Conference of Statisticians of the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, ECAFE (now Economic and Statistical Commission for Asia and Pacific, ESCAP) in 1952.P.C.Mahalanobis receiving an award (1959) Indian Statistical Institute Prof.

  • He was elected as fellow of the:- Royal Society of London in 1945, – Chairman of the United Nations Sub- Commission on Statistical Sampling (five sessions- 1947-1951)- Fellow of International Econometric Society (1951)- Chairman of United Nations Statistical Commission (1954-1958)- President of National Institute of Sciences of India (1957 and 1958)- Fellow of American Statistical Association (1961)
  • – Fellow of World Academy of Art and Science (1963).

Prasanta Chandra receiving the Bulgarian Science Academy award, 1962 (1962) Indian Statistical Institute

  1. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalaonbis was honored with several awards: -The Weldon Medal from Oxford University (1944), – Sir Devaprasad Sarbadhikari Gold Medal from Calcutta University (1957), – Gold Medal from Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1964),- Durga Prasad Khaitan Memorial Gold Medal from Asiatic Society (1968),- Srinivasa Ramanujam Gold Medal (1968),
  2. – Honorary Deshikottama from Visva Bharati University (1961).

Photograph of the Padmavibhushan Certificate (1968-04-16) Indian Statistical Institute

  • In 1968, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award by the Republic of India for his contribution to science and services to the country.
  • He also received honorary doctorates from Calcutta University (1957), Sofi University (1961), Delhi University (1964) and Stockholm University (1966).

Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis Indian Statistical Institute Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis viewed statistics not as a branch of mathematics but as a technology. Mathematics and probability theory are only the means to promote the use of statistical methods in the world of reality.

  • He shaped Indian Statistical Institute as a beacon of knowledge with commitment for national development and social welfare.
  • He is still being remembered for the Mahalanobis Distance, a statistical measure, and for his great contribution in the large scale sample survey.
  • He continues to inspire statisticians in India and around the world.

Credits: Story P.C.Mahalanobis Memorial Museum & Archives; Reprography and Photography Unit; Library, Documentation and Information Science Division

  1. ISI Team
  2. Text References :
  3. 3. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis A Biography by Ashok Rudra by Oxford University Press,1996

Co-ordinator: Dr. Kishor Chandra SatpathyPhoto Design & Restoration: Mr.Tapas BasuResearch & Compilation: Ms. Keya Das & Ms. Kasturi BasuSpecial thanks to Dr. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay,Director and Dr. Dipti Prasad Mukherjee,Deputy Director of Indian Statistical Institute in making this online exhibit possible.1.

  • Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society,Volume 19,London,The Royal Society.2.
  • Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis by A.
  • Mahalanobis, National Book Trust India, New Delhi,1983.
  • Credits: All media The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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: Father of Indian Statistics: Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis – Google Arts & Culture
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How many people write ISI exam?

Hello aspirant, Hope you are doing well.According to 2019,number of students appearing for ISI for UG is 217,PG is 411 and doctoral students is 2016.So,similarly in 2020 was almost same.Accordingly,same no.of students have filled the form for the year 2021. For more details,click on the link given below- ISI exam Good Luck!!
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Is ISI exam easy?

is isi exam very difficult. what is its cutoff.and most effective method to prepare Hello aspirant Yes isi exam is a little harder to crack but don’t worry with proper hardwork and practice you will be able to score well in the exam and don’t be anxious every other entrance exam has a certain level of difficulty to choose the best among the rest.

To prepare for the exam you should know the exam pattern throughly which is as follows:- t here are two parts of the entrance examination i.e. part-1 and part-2. Part-1: the entrance exam will be of objective nature which will comprise of the multiple-choice questions. part-2: Exam will be of descriptive nature comprising of short answer type questions.

In addition to that, there will be some questions from reasoning also in the entrance test. You should practice as much as you can and check previous years question papers to get a better idea. Use this link for the same:- https://www.isical.ac.in/~admission/Syllabus-And-QP.html The cut-off of ISI exam is every year.
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What is the salary of ISI?

How much does Indian Statistical Institute in India pay? The average Indian Statistical Institute monthly salary ranges from approximately ₹ 21,171 per month for Junior Systems Administrator to ₹ 1,09,548 per month for Assistant Professor.
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What is the new name of ISI?

History Of ISI –

  • The ISI was founded on January 6, 1947, and in June 1947, Dr Lal C. Verman was the first ISI Director.
  • ISI is now known as BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards). It sets the standard of quality for consumer goods and industrial goods. It verifies each product’s quality and standard and gives them a certification mark.
  • By 1986 legislation, BIS is permitted to provide certification.
  • The ISI label is mandatory for the sale of certain products in India. Any manufacturing company that meets the BIS criteria for its product or service can qualify for ISI certification.

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Who is the first ISI in the world?

Adolphe Quetelet The origins of the International Statistical Institute (ISI) can be traced back to a series of International Statistical Congresses, the first of which was convened by Adolphe Quetelet in 1853 in Brussels. The ISI was formally founded in 1885, during a meeting held to celebrate the Jubilee of the London Statistical Society. Rawson W. Rawson The first President of the ISI was Rawson W. Rawson who served from 1885 to 1899, the year he died. Other early Presidents also served long terms. Since 1975, however, the terms of Presidents have been limited to two years. Of the 36 ISI Presidents so far, 20 were from Europe, 8 from North America, 4 from Asia, 2 from South America, and 2 from Australia. Florence Nightingale There are several interesting examples of the early development and applications of statistics by ISI members. For example, Florence Nightingale was a pioneer in the development of statistical graphics to visually represent data. She developed diagrams called coxcombs and used them to illustrate the various causes of death during the Crimean War.
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Who is number one ISI in the world?

Frequently Asked Questions – Question 1: Who is No 1 intelligence agency? Answer: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), USA Question 2: When was CIA USA founded? Answer: September 18, 1947 Question 3: Who is top 10 intelligence agency in the world? Answer: We have shared the list above. Please check. : Top 10 Best Intelligence Agencies in the World 2022-2023
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Who is the mother of Indian Statistics?

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
P.C. Mahalanobis
Born 29 June 1893 Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India
Died 28 June 1972 (aged 78) Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Alma mater University of Calcutta ( B.Sc.) King’s College, Cambridge ( B.A.)
Known for Mahalanobis distance Feldman–Mahalanobis model
Spouse Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis
Awards Padma Vibhushan (1968) Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE, 1942) Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) Weldon Memorial Prize (1944)
Scientific career
Fields Mathematics, statistics
Institutions University of Cambridge Indian Statistical Institute
Doctoral advisor William Herrick Macaulay
Doctoral students Samarendra Roy
Other notable students Raj Chandra Bose C.R. Rao
Signature

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis OBE, FNA, FASc, FRS (29 June 1893– 28 June 1972) was an Indian scientist and statistician. He is best remembered for the Mahalanobis distance, a statistical measure, and for being one of the members of the first Planning Commission of free India,
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Who is the Father of maths?

Who is Archimedes? – The Father of Math is the great Greek mathematician and philosopher Archimedes. Perhaps you have heard the name before–the Archimedes’ Principle is widely studied in Physics and is named after the great philosopher. This esteemed scholar has several feathers in his cap in math and physics, coining him one of the leading scientists of the classical era.

Archimedes was the master brain behind pi, also known as the measurement encapsulating the area of the circle and the surface area and volume of spheres. Archimedes devoted his entire life to scholarly pursuits and was fueled by a burning desire to know, explore, and uncover the unknown in all walks of life.

In the following sections, we will take a peek into Archimedes’ early life, education, epic work, and immortal contribution to Math.
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Who is the first founder of statistics?

Origins in probability theory – Basic forms of statistics have been used since the beginning of civilization. Early empires often collated censuses of the population or recorded the trade in various commodities. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were some of the first states to extensively gather data on the size of the empire’s population, geographical area and wealth.

The use of statistical methods dates back to at least the 5th century BCE. The historian Thucydides in his History of the Peloponnesian War describes how the Athenians calculated the height of the wall of Platea by counting the number of bricks in an unplastered section of the wall sufficiently near them to be able to count them.

The count was repeated several times by a number of soldiers. The most frequent value (in modern terminology – the mode ) so determined was taken to be the most likely value of the number of bricks. Multiplying this value by the height of the bricks used in the wall allowed the Athenians to determine the height of the ladders necessary to scale the walls.

The Trial of the Pyx is a test of the purity of the coinage of the Royal Mint which has been held on a regular basis since the 12th century. The Trial itself is based on statistical sampling methods. After minting a series of coins – originally from ten pounds of silver – a single coin was placed in the Pyx – a box in Westminster Abbey,

After a given period – now once a year – the coins are removed and weighed. A sample of coins removed from the box are then tested for purity. The Nuova Cronica, a 14th-century history of Florence by the Florentine banker and official Giovanni Villani, includes much statistical information on population, ordinances, commerce and trade, education, and religious facilities and has been described as the first introduction of statistics as a positive element in history, though neither the term nor the concept of statistics as a specific field yet existed.

The arithmetic mean, although a concept known to the Greeks, was not generalised to more than two values until the 16th century. The invention of the decimal system by Simon Stevin in 1585 seems likely to have facilitated these calculations. This method was first adopted in astronomy by Tycho Brahe who was attempting to reduce the errors in his estimates of the locations of various celestial bodies.

The idea of the median originated in Edward Wright ‘s book on navigation ( Certaine Errors in Navigation ) in 1599 in a section concerning the determination of location with a compass. Wright felt that this value was the most likely to be the correct value in a series of observations. Sir William Petty, a 17th-century economist who used early statistical methods to analyse demographic data. The birth of statistics is often dated to 1662, when John Graunt, along with William Petty, developed early human statistical and census methods that provided a framework for modern demography,

  1. He produced the first life table, giving probabilities of survival to each age.
  2. His book Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality used analysis of the mortality rolls to make the first statistically based estimation of the population of London,
  3. He knew that there were around 13,000 funerals per year in London and that three people died per eleven families per year.

He estimated from the parish records that the average family size was 8 and calculated that the population of London was about 384,000; this is the first known use of a ratio estimator, Laplace in 1802 estimated the population of France with a similar method; see Ratio estimator § History for details.

  • Although the original scope of statistics was limited to data useful for governance, the approach was extended to many fields of a scientific or commercial nature during the 19th century.
  • The mathematical foundations for the subject heavily drew on the new probability theory, pioneered in the 16th century by Gerolamo Cardano, Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal,

Christiaan Huygens (1657) gave the earliest known scientific treatment of the subject. Jakob Bernoulli ‘s Ars Conjectandi (posthumous, 1713) and Abraham de Moivre ‘s The Doctrine of Chances (1718) treated the subject as a branch of mathematics. In his book Bernoulli introduced the idea of representing complete certainty as one and probability as a number between zero and one.

  1. A key early application of statistics in the 18th century was to the human sex ratio at birth.
  2. John Arbuthnot studied this question in 1710.
  3. Arbuthnot examined birth records in London for each of the 82 years from 1629 to 1710.
  4. In every year, the number of males born in London exceeded the number of females.

Considering more male or more female births as equally likely, the probability of the observed outcome is 0.5^82, or about 1 in 4,8360,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000; in modern terms, the p -value, This is vanishingly small, leading Arbuthnot that this was not due to chance, but to divine providence: “From whence it follows, that it is Art, not Chance, that governs.” This is and other work by Arbuthnot is credited as “the first use of significance tests ” the first example of reasoning about statistical significance and moral certainty, and ” perhaps the first published report of a nonparametric test “, specifically the sign test ; see details at Sign test § History,

  • The formal study of theory of errors may be traced back to Roger Cotes ‘ Opera Miscellanea (posthumous, 1722), but a memoir prepared by Thomas Simpson in 1755 (printed 1756) first applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation.
  • The reprint (1757) of this memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors are equally probable, and that there are certain assignable limits within which all errors may be supposed to fall; continuous errors are discussed and a probability curve is given.

Simpson discussed several possible distributions of error. He first considered the uniform distribution and then the discrete symmetric triangular distribution followed by the continuous symmetric triangle distribution. Tobias Mayer, in his study of the libration of the moon ( Kosmographische Nachrichten, Nuremberg, 1750), invented the first formal method for estimating the unknown quantities by generalized the averaging of observations under identical circumstances to the averaging of groups of similar equations.

Roger Joseph Boscovich in 1755 based in his work on the shape of the earth proposed in his book De Litteraria expeditione per pontificiam ditionem ad dimetiendos duos meridiani gradus a PP. Maire et Boscovicli that the true value of a series of observations would be that which minimises the sum of absolute errors.

In modern terminology this value is the median. The first example of what later became known as the normal curve was studied by Abraham de Moivre who plotted this curve on November 12, 1733. de Moivre was studying the number of heads that occurred when a ‘fair’ coin was tossed. with -1 < x < 1. Pierre-Simon Laplace (1774) made the first attempt to deduce a rule for the combination of observations from the principles of the theory of probabilities. He represented the law of probability of errors by a curve and deduced a formula for the mean of three observations.

  1. Laplace in 1774 noted that the frequency of an error could be expressed as an exponential function of its magnitude once its sign was disregarded.
  2. This distribution is now known as the Laplace distribution,
  3. Lagrange proposed a parabolic fractal distribution of errors in 1776.
  4. Laplace in 1778 published his second law of errors wherein he noted that the frequency of an error was proportional to the exponential of the square of its magnitude.

This was subsequently rediscovered by Gauss (possibly in 1795) and is now best known as the normal distribution which is of central importance in statistics. This distribution was first referred to as the normal distribution by C.S. Peirce in 1873 who was studying measurement errors when an object was dropped onto a wooden base.

He chose the term normal because of its frequent occurrence in naturally occurring variables. Lagrange also suggested in 1781 two other distributions for errors – a raised cosine distribution and a logarithmic distribution, Laplace gave (1781) a formula for the law of facility of error (a term due to Joseph Louis Lagrange, 1774), but one which led to unmanageable equations.

Daniel Bernoulli (1778) introduced the principle of the maximum product of the probabilities of a system of concurrent errors. In 1786 William Playfair (1759-1823) introduced the idea of graphical representation into statistics. He invented the line chart, bar chart and histogram and incorporated them into his works on economics, the Commercial and Political Atlas,

This was followed in 1795 by his invention of the pie chart and circle chart which he used to display the evolution of England’s imports and exports. These latter charts came to general attention when he published examples in his Statistical Breviary in 1801. Laplace, in an investigation of the motions of Saturn and Jupiter in 1787, generalized Mayer’s method by using different linear combinations of a single group of equations.

In 1791 Sir John Sinclair introduced the term ‘statistics’ into English in his Statistical Accounts of Scotland, In 1802 Laplace estimated the population of France to be 28,328,612. He calculated this figure using the number of births in the previous year and census data for three communities. The method of least squares, which was used to minimize errors in data measurement, was published independently by Adrien-Marie Legendre (1805), Robert Adrain (1808), and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1809). Gauss had used the method in his famous 1801 prediction of the location of the dwarf planet Ceres,

The observations that Gauss based his calculations on were made by the Italian monk Piazzi. The method of least squares was preceded by the use a median regression slope. This method minimizing the sum of the absolute deviances. A method of estimating this slope was invented by Roger Joseph Boscovich in 1760 which he applied to astronomy.

The term probable error ( der wahrscheinliche Fehler ) – the median deviation from the mean – was introduced in 1815 by the German astronomer Frederik Wilhelm Bessel, Antoine Augustin Cournot in 1843 was the first to use the term median ( valeur médiane ) for the value that divides a probability distribution into two equal halves., the “probable error” of a single observation was widely used and inspired early robust statistics (resistant to outliers : see Peirce’s criterion ). In the 19th century authors on statistical theory included Laplace, S. Lacroix (1816), Littrow (1833), Dedekind (1860), Helmert (1872), Laurent (1873), Liagre, Didion, De Morgan and Boole,

  1. Gustav Theodor Fechner used the median ( Centralwerth ) in sociological and psychological phenomena.
  2. It had earlier been used only in astronomy and related fields.
  3. Francis Galton used the English term median for the first time in 1881 having earlier used the terms middle-most value in 1869 and the medium in 1880.

Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874), another important founder of statistics, introduced the notion of the “average man” ( l’homme moyen ) as a means of understanding complex social phenomena such as crime rates, marriage rates, and suicide rates, The first tests of the normal distribution were invented by the German statistician Wilhelm Lexis in the 1870s.
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Does ISI accept JEE?

No, you need to appear for the ISI Admission Test for Admission in B.Stat and B.Math Courses at ISI Kolkata, which is undoubtedly one of the best Research Institutes for Mathematics, Statistics, Computational and Data Sciences. For more information about ISI Admission Procedure do follow the link below https://www.careers360.com/exams/isi-admission-test
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What is ISI famous for?

Functions –

Collection of information and extraction of intelligence from information

ISI obtains information critical to Pakistan’s strategic interests. Both overt and covert means are adopted.

Classification of intelligence

Data is sifted through, classified as appropriate, and filed with the assistance of the computer network in ISI’s headquarters in Islamabad.

Aggressive intelligence

The primary mission of ISI includes aggressive intelligence which comprises espionage, psychological warfare, subversion, and sabotage,

Counterintelligence

ISI has a dedicated section which spies against enemy intelligence collection.
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What does the statistical institute of Jamaica do?

Surveys Division – The Surveys Division is responsible for compiling Labour Market indicators as well as undertaking all household surveys. The Division consists of three (3) Units:-

Household Unit Establishment Unit Special Projects Unit

Household Unit The Household Unit is responsible for the delivery of two major surveys:

The Jamaica Labour Force Survey The Jamaica Labour Force Survey is a quarterly survey that provides detailed information on a variety of issues related to the labour market such as the level and pattern of employment and unemployment. This survey targets members of the civilian, non-institutional households who are 14 years old and over in all the parishes of Jamaica. Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions The Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions is a household survey which is conducted annually since its inception in1988. It provides data on demographic characteristics of households, household consumption, health, education, housing, social protection and other social indicators for tracking Jamaica’s social development.

Establishment Unit The Establishment Unit has responsibility for the following:

Employment, and Earnings Survey which collects data quarterly from establishments employing 10 or more persons. Production Statistics Survey which compile statistics on the nature and values of production in Jamaica.

Special Project Unit The Special Projects Unit manages surveys that are undertaken by STATIN on a contractual basis. It conducts surveys on behalf of the government of Jamaica, including Ministries, Agencies and Departments, international organizations such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), International Development Bank (IDB), International Labour Organization (ILO) and other private institutions.
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