In What Ways Did Gandhiji And Tagore Differ On Education?
Differences between Gandhi and Tagore’s view of education – Both aimed at higher goals yet were different in their aims. Gandhi laid emphasis on the complete development of the child and eradicating casteism while Tagore was emphatic about self-realisation through education.
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- 1 What is the difference between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore?
- 2 What is the Rabindranath Tagore view on education?
- 3 What was Gandhi’s concept of education?
- 4 What is the similarity between Gandhi and Dewey educational philosophy?
- 5 What are the main contribution of Gandhian thought on education?
- 6 Why did Rabindranath Tagore called Gandhiji Mahatma?
What is the difference between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore?
The difference between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore based on their occupation is that Mahatma Gandhi was a lawyer, whereas Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali poet, playwright, painter, philosopher, and social reformer.
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What is the Rabindranath Tagore view on education?
I f one thing is said to have not changed since time immemorial, it is the greatest esteem for knowledge and respect for the learned in our society. Had there been no evolutionary development of speech and spread of knowledge through language, it’s difficult to imagine how humanity would have flourished.
- This could be one reason why even in the 21st century parents constantly strive towards providing better education to their children.
- Unfortunately, the Indian education system at present is jay-walking.
- In-spite of being home for great philosophies on education, the system is failing to pick up messages from the subtle frequencies of great philosophers.
Our divine poet, Rabindranath Tagore was born during a period of strife in pre-independence India. He stood for the development of a free mind, free knowledge and a free nation. Even as a young boy he could sense that school was nothing but a dead routine and lifeless.
He regarded schools as mills of rote learning with no freedom for creativity. Schooling almost had no influence in his life. According to him, the primary objective of education was to enable the preservation of the perfect symphony between one’s life and the world outside. There are four fundamental principles in Tagore’s educational philosophy; naturalism, humanism, internationalism and idealism.
Tagore and Gandhi : Similarities & Differences
Shantiniketan and Visva Bharathi are both based on these very principles. He insisted that education should be imparted in a natural surroundings. He believed in giving children the freedom of expression. He said, “Children have their active subconscious mind which like a tree has the power to gather its food from the surrounding atmosphere”.
- He also said that an educational institution should not be ” a dead cage in which living minds are fed with food that’s artificially prepared.
- Hand work and arts are the spontaneous over flow of our deeper nature and spiritual significance”.
- According to him, “Education means enabling the mind to find out that ultimate truth which emancipates us from the bondage of dust and gives us wealth not of things but of inner light, not of power but of love.
It is a process of enlightenment. It is divine wealth. It helps in realization of truth”. The aim of education is to bring about perfection of man by dispelling ignorance and ushering in the light of knowledge. It should enable us to lead a complete life – economic, intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual.
The main objective of his school – Shantiniketan was to cultivate a love for nature, to impart knowledge and wisdom in one’s native language, provide freedom of mind, heart and will, a natural ambience, and to eventually enrich Indian culture. For Tagore, religion was an ideal. His ‘Visva Bharathi World University’ stood for his nobility of soul.
In the pamphlet named ‘The Centre of Indian Culture’, the poet expresses the ideals of Visva Bharathi. There he writes, ‘In education, the most inspiring atmosphere of creative activity is important. Primary function of the institution must be constructive; scope must be for all kinds of intellectual exploration.
Teaching must be one with culture, spiritual, intellectual, aesthetic, economic and social. True education is to realize at every step how our training and knowledge have an organic connection with our surroundings”. Tagore says, “We should know that the great task of our institution is to provide for the education of the mind and all the senses through various activities”.
Referring to religion, Rabindranath Tagore likens an educational institution to ‘a wide meeting place where all sects may gather together and forget their differences’. In the memorandum of association of the Visva Bharati, Tagore writes the objectives as, “To study the mind of man in its realization of different aspects of truth from diverse points of view, the culture of Visva Bharati is the culture of man and its keynote lies in the truth that human personality is not a mean trifle, it is also the Divine personality”.
He also lays emphasis on the learner’s contact with nature. Apart from physical activity, nature teaches a man more than any institution. Educational institutions should realize the importance of this fact and inculcate co-curricular activities to good effect. Tagore believes that, one of the main aims of education is to prepare the individual for the service of the nation and education stands for human regeneration, cultural representation, harmony and intellectualism.
Educational institutions should build on the power of thinking and imagination in an individual and help turn herself/himself into a self-sustained building block of human society and a creative canvas of nation on the whole. To quote Tagore: “A day will come when the unvanquished man will retrace his path of conquest, despite all barriers, to win back his lost heritage”.
Let us hope that the same quote applies to our Indian education system. Tagore’s foresight on natural environment as background to child’s education is much needed at present because of the lack of breathing space in the current school curriculum. A child is bogged down to amass grades and marks throughout its schooling, which also builds pressure on the parents.
Not to even mention school fees that are shooting through the roof, the present schooling gives lesser importance to the well-being of a child. We have reached the point where most schools are run without even playgrounds. If we keep tripping without trying to learn from failures, we might end up with a dislike for the very process of walking, and thereby miss all the pleasures of the gift of evolution.
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What was Gandhi’s concept of education?
Gandhi’s concept of education and its ethical perspectives for the development of peace By Dr. Akham Hemabati Devi Gandhi was a utopian; he tried to bring ‘the Kingdom of God on the earth (Ram Rajya) where truth and non-violence would be guiding principles.
- His utopianism arose out of his love for humanity.
- Gandhi was humanist, shall we say from the first moment of his self consciousness.” 1 He firmly believed that the goodness of the individual formed the constituent part of the goodness of the society.
- Like John Ruskin, he considered ‘man’ is the most important to bring a peaceful and harmonious society.
He says, “The individual is the one supreme consideration.” 2 “Man is neither mere intellect, nor the gross animal body, nor the heart or soul alone. A proper and harmonious combination of all the three is required for making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.” 3 His concept of political system is closely connected with education.
In a good political system, there must be the element of goodness necessarily present in every man. There is the need of a proper education system to the individuals in order to bring out such element of goodness. He talks about education is more comprehensive than that of the literal meaning. He says, “By education I mean an all round drawing out of the best in child and man-body mind and spirit.
Literacy is not the end of education not even the beginning. It is one of the means whereby man and women can be educated. Literacy in itself is no education.” 4 He thought that education is closely associated with the socio-economic development of the society.
- He took up scheme for basic education in which vocational training or work experience is the utmost important.
- It is due to the fact that it stimulates the human mind for creative thinking or dignity of manual labour.
- He thought that such creative thinking should be taken up from primary to higher level education.
His view on basic education is greatly influenced by his philosophy of satya (truth), ahimsa (non-violence), firm belief in God, dignity of labour. The Kothari Commission also followed Gandhi’s ideal of vocational training in education. This commission says, “We recommend that work experience should be introduced as an integral part of all India education-general or vocational.
- We define work experience as participation in productive work in school, in the home, in a workshop, on a farm, in a factory or in any other productive situation.” 5 This commission re-emphasizes the Gandhian principle of learning by doing in the modern education.
- The main aim of education is the development of human personality.
He expanded fourfold personality in the individual that is body, mind, heart and spirit. True education stimulates the spiritual, intellectual and physical strength of the individual. His view on education of heart which brings the idea of sympathy, fellowship and deep feelings of love.
The aim of education is not only to produce good individual but also one must understand one’s own responsibilities in which one lives. It is closely related to Hindu concept of varnashram dharma. One who understood his or her responsibilities would lead to the spirit of social consciousness and social mindedness.
Then, all the activities of such persons will have a social content as well as co-operation to others. He talks about education in terms of discipline. It is regarded as one of the most important parts and parcels of education. Without discipline, the sound education system is impossible.
- It is a quality that one’s self can lead to the regulation of one’s intellectual, moral, spiritual and social behaviour.
- It is stated that the goal of education consists of character-building.
- Such character-building requires the moral, intellectual and social behaviour under all circumstances i.e., strength of personality, the virtue of compassion, kindness, fair-mindedness and the spirit of dedication.
Gandhi strongly holds that education is not end in itself but it is the most powerful weapon which creates all persons of genuine characters. There is degeneration of education when the qualities of truthfulness, firmness, tolerance are absence from it.
- True education is life process which helps in cultivating the spirit of co-operation, tolerance, public spirit and a sense of responsibility.
- All these qualities are considered as disciplines for the development of human personality.
- Such disciplines can create the harmonious balance between the individuals and social aim of education.
His principle of ‘learning by doing’ tries to stimulate the individual’s mind to think creatively, independently and critically. His great emphasis on work-culture to the students from the primary stage to higher stage is to enable the students to start producing from the time he started his training.
So, his primary information of basic education is Head, Heart and Hand rather than Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. Gandhi also maintains that education is essential for the attainment of the goal of peace. It can be attained only through morality and ethics. According to Gandhi, education is the realization of the best in man – body, soul and spirit.
He maintained that education must be based on ethics and morality. Ethics and morality are integral to Gandhi’s life. All his thoughts, actions and speeches are based on these two concepts. From the ethical perspective, education may be considered as a means of attainment of salvation.
It helps to the path of the complete peace. Peace is the absence of violence and hostile thought. As a daily practitioner of non-violence, Gandhi right from his earlier stage considered that non-violence is an indivisible, important and essential part of education. We cannot be separated education from ethics, morality and spiritualism.
For this purpose Gandhi has given some rules for all students so as to ensure that morality and righteousness always be considered as an essential part of their education. Regarding this, such rules can make to right thinking, self-control, service to the society, respect to others and constant awareness for their duties and responsibilities.
Today, the world is suffering from immense crisis from many sides. Crimes, conflict, hatred and distrust between one community and another, hunger, unemployment, poverty and literacy, paucity of resources and pollution of environment, deforestation and desertification, swelling number of migrants and refugees, ethnic and sub-national violence, terrorism, drug trafficking, AIDS etc., all these altogether make a grave danger to peace.
The present day crisis is greater than the crisis that occurred during the time of Gandhi. The world is now full of violence. With the advancement of science and technology human being has invented many new technologies which are very helpful in our life.
- In some other ways, some selfish people who used it as a weapon for gaining his desire wish and pleasures.
- An action done under the motives of selfishness is a kind of violence.
- Purity of means is an essential condition of realizing good ends.
- If a good end is to be attained, it is also essential that the means adopted for the realization of the end is also good.
He says, “if one takes care of the means, the end will take care of itself.” 6 End and means are the two important concepts in Gandhian philosophy which play very important implication for his doctrine of truth and non-violence. His principle of aparigraha is one of the most important to bring simple and peaceful living, co-operation with one another.
- However, in our present day society we are facing so many conflicts.
- One of them is based on our knowledge which has been separated from work-ethics.
- Nowledge is separated in thought, in life as well as in market values by faulty psychology, faulty sociology and faulty economics respectively.
- Education plays an important role which helps to equip individuals with the skills and attitudes that are necessary in order to adapt in changing situations and to add the creative spirit in the task of social change.
‘Work and knowledge should go together’ is the Gandhian principle of education. The educational systems try to develop the individual soul and mind, courage and self-reliance, cultivate the highest intellectual, scientific, moral and ethical accomplishments.
- Gandhi’s concept of education is of quite significance in the contemporary situation.
- His philosophical concept of education is entirely based on the development of human personality, to maintain the discipline, to create the manual work with learning and to develop the culture of the peace.
- He was a great educationist and an individualist par excellence.
He knew that education is the most important means in the society which can be used as an instrument of socio-economic progress, material advancement, political evolution and moral development of an individual. Gandhi’s whole philosophy and work was based on ethics and morality.
His concept of education is also founded on ethics and morality. It may be said that his concept of education has full of religious ideas. His idea of religion is different from common concept. His concept of religion is ‘service of humanity’. For the spirit of religions he propounded ‘Nai Talim’ or ‘basic education’.
This new education system, Archarya Kriplani says, ‘.is the coping stone of Gandhi’s social and political edifice’. His philosophical thought on education is highly pedestal that creates the socio-economic development of the society. We can draw a conclusion that his concept of education is not only the eradication of illiteracy but learning by doing.
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What is the similarity between Gandhi and Dewey educational philosophy?
7. Gandhi and Dewey both had same opinion in terms of performance of sensory organs in the process of education. They both gave an institution where individual could learn the basic learning. For this purpose Gandhi gave the craft-centered Basic School & Dewey gave a Laboratory School.
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What are the main contribution of Gandhian thought on education?
Gandhi’s Contribution to Education 8 Pages Posted: 11 Jun 2020 Date Written: May 13, 2020 Mahatma Gandhiji was an extremely open-minded seeker of truth. This quality gives Gandhiji a unique dimension which can attract the new generation. Education is for life, life in its entire and then education through life.
Gandhiji philosophy of non-violence has great relevance in current scenario.Such philosophy of life helped him in developing his philosophy of Education which can be the true source of inspiration for the present system of education. Gandhiji’s Basic Principles of Education includes: i)From 7 to 14 years of age, education of each child should be free, compulsory and universal.
ii)The medium of instruction should be mother-tongue. iii) Mere literacy cannot be equated with education. Education should employ some craft as a medium of education so that the child gains economic self – reliance for his life. iv) Education should develop human values in the child.
- V)Education should create useful, responsible and dynamic citizens.
- By education all the hidden powers of child should develop according to the community of which he is an integral part.
- Vi)Education should achieve the harmonious development of child’s body, mind, heart and soul.
- The inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi, we have adopted Basic Education as the pattern of national education.
The distinctive feature of education that it makes productive work is the main basis of the whole educative process. Gandhiji thought that education should be provided to mothers, and they could provide education to children effectively. He stressed upon the education of women, for the development of nation depends upon women.
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What is the difference between Gandhi and Mahatma Gandhi?
What’s in a Name? Mohandas Gandhi – Both Mohandas and Mahatma Gandhi refer to the very same person. Mohandas is a name. Mahatma is a title. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) was the man who led India to independence from Britain. In the process, the land was divided in two: Muslim Pakistan, with the remainder becoming the new Hindu-dominated India.
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What are the similarities between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore?
- Tagore and Gandhi both prophesied the humanism and the love of nature based on non-violence and tolerance to each other.
- Both of them were in favour of self sustenance to alleviate the problems of poor India.
- Both of them had love and sympathy for villages and people who live in poverty and destitution. And worked actively for the cause.
- Both of them were in agreement on the pride for ancient culture of India and its spiritual history in which tolerance to every ethnicity and thoughts was the key principle.
- Whatever, it was god or truth, both of them have same source of inspiration.
- Gandhiji believed that the god is in ‘ Truth ‘ but Tagore found his godhead in ‘ Love ‘. but their paths were different. Gandhi tried to achieve the ‘Truth’ through the path of Non-violence but Tagore tried to achieve his God/love through co-operation, mutual respect and tolerance.
Why did Rabindranath Tagore called Gandhiji Mahatma?
Who had given the title of “Mahatma” to Gandhi Ji?(A) Bal Gangadhar Tilak(B) Gopal Krishna Gokhle(C) Motilal Nehru(D) Rabindra Nath Tagore Answer Verified
Hint: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also recognized as Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial pro-independence, and political ethician, who engaged nonviolent battle to precedent the positive movement for India’s independence from British statute and in turn stimulated crusades for civil rights and freedom athwart the world. Complete step-by-step answer: Thus, option (D) is correct.
Rabindranath Tagore, born Rabindranath Thakur, was a Bengali poet, author, creator, truth-seeker and painter. He reformed Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the “intensely penetrating, immaculate and beautiful section” of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European as well as the first versifier to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Rendering to some authors, Rabindranath Tagore is said to have used this designation for Gandhi on March 6, 1915. Several argue that he was named Mahatma by the inhabitants of Gurukul Kangri in April 1915, and he, in turn, named the organizer Munshiram a Mahatma. Nevertheless, a paper revering him with the title “Mahatma” on January 21, 1915, in Jetpur, Gujarat, by Nautamlal Bhagvanji Mehta is conserved at the National Gandhi Museum in New Delhi, India.
This paper persists the initial notation of the title “Mahatma” being bequeathed upon Gandhi. Note: The word, used in a practical sense, was propagated in theosophical literature in the late 19th century, when Helena Blavatsky, one of the initiators of the Theosophical Society, declared that her educators were mavens (or Mahatmas) who exist in Asia.
Rendering to the Theosophical education, the Mahatmas are not incorporeal beings, but extremely advanced people engaged in supervision of the psychic development of people and the advance of societies. Blavatsky was the first person in modern times to declare contact with these Mavens, particularly the “Masters” Koot Hoomi and Morya.
: Who had given the title of “Mahatma” to Gandhi Ji?(A) Bal Gangadhar Tilak(B) Gopal Krishna Gokhle(C) Motilal Nehru(D) Rabindra Nath Tagore
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Why was Tagore against Gandhi?
The great Indian Debate on Nationalism: Gandhi v Tagore The difference of idea of a nation and nationalism between Tagore and Gandhi. While Gandhi wanted Purna Swarajya, Tagore wanted the country to be free from the yoke of British imperialism yet Tagore developed his own ideology of ultimate freedom and degree of nationalism.
- Gandhi and Tagore: nationalism
- Nationalism in 1920
- Compulsory nationalism
- Works Cited:
Both Gandhi and Tagore, had distinct and futuristic perspectives about the evaluation of nationalism. While Tagore considered imperialism as an external expression of nationalism; Gandhi, on the other hand, gave the idea of nationalism as to be based on self-sufficiency at all levels of society.
- The Great Indian debate: Gandhi v Tagore shows the different forms of nationalism and nation.
- Where two great nationalists debated indirectly and gave us the idea of being diverse and united in and as a nation, at the same time warned us about the Oppressive Nationalism.
- Mahatma Gandhi advocated that the role of a lingua franca would play a crucial role in fostering nationalism in a country that has different languages and dialect groups.
In his book Hind Swaraj, Gandhi talked about the problem a nation could face in relevance to religion and language. At that time many people believed India will no longer be “one” nation after the end of British rule. This was mostly because of multi-religious groups that live in India.
That didn’t stop Gandhi from believing that this will be a window for India to be an example to the world. According to Tagore, we are taught from our childhood that our nation is our god and it is more important than humanity. Tagore was against British rule but was also against hardcore nationalism.
According to him, the very idea of nationalism is the promotion of unity among the brothers. It means the complete absence of hate between different communities. Nationalism in his words didn’t mean to invade the weaker ones and annihilation of minorities.
The identity of the nation is our diversity. In 1920, during the non-cooperation movement, Gandhi asked Indians not to buy British goods and products and only consume Indian products. Then Tagore became the voice of labourers and peasants. He argued that many Indians couldn’t afford this curb. Indian cloth was expensive while the foreign cloth was comparatively cheaper.
In his essay, Shodupaye he mentioned the struggle traders were facing. How they were getting noticed to shun foreign commodities and many even encountered violence afterward. According to Tagore, the greatest curse upon India was not foreign cloth but the fight within it.
According to him, we are only free when our minds are completely free. Until you are not free to think for yourself, you are not absolutely free. In a letter addressed to his friend A.M. Bose in 1908, Tagore wrote that he will never let patriotism to come before humanity. In his book Nationalism, he even said that “Nationalism is a cruel epidemic of evil that is sweeping over the human world of the present age.” He warned us about Repressive Nationalism and Compulsory Nationalism which ends in war, conflict, and retraction of citizen’s rights.
Tagore also argued that when love for one’s country becomes a “sacred obligation” then disaster is the only remaining outcome that is inevitable. According to him, we are taught from our childhood that our nation is our god and it is more important than humanity.
- The above discussion indicates the horrors of the aggressive and compulsory turn nationalism has taken in India.
- Gandhi and Tagore had foreseen this in the twentieth century itself.
- In fact, there is a very thin line that creates the difference between love for the nation and jingoism.
- Nationalism generates compassion whereas jingoism can lead to hatred towards other nations or even for specific communities residing within the same nation.
This hostility can be specific sections within the same country or other national groups. Where love for the nation will be a law people will be forced to follow and not a feeling.
- Correspondent, S. (2016, December 02). ‘Tagore’s and Gandhi’s idea of nationalism was inclusive’. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/%E2%80%98Tagore%E2%80%99s-and-Gandhi%E2%80%99s-idea-of-nationalism-was-inclusive%E2%80%99/article16643306.ece
- Admin. (2020, September 09). Differences Between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore on Nationalism: Gandhi vs Tagore on Nationalism. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/difference-between-gandhi-and-tagore-on-nationalism/
- 2, N. (2018, October 02). Greatest Indian Debate: Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore on Nationalism. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://www.news18.com/amp/news/india/greatest-indian-debate-mahatma-gandhi-and-rabindranath-tagore-on-nationalism-1533331.html
- Nation and Nationalism: Revisiting Gandhi and Tagore. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/nation-and-nationalism-revisiting-Gandhi-Tagore.html Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Indrajeet K Singh
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