How To Improve Quality Of Education In Primary Schools?
What are some tips for improving the quality of education in primary schools?
- 1. Use of technology In most schools today, smart boards, desktop computers, and video conferencing are used for imparting education. Technology has also been making a significant impact on the way we teach students.
- 2. Training Teachers Teachers are the most important people in the school.
- 3. Cultural activities
- 4. Counselling of students
- 5. Parent–Teacher meetings
- 1 What country has the best primary education?
- 2 How can we ensure quality education to every child?
- 3 What are the 5 practices in education?
What can you suggest to improve the quality of education in pup?
Improving quality of Philippine education Part 2 Agenda 2 has to do with improving the quality of instruction and teachers with the target that all learners meet basic skills based on international standards. Teachers should be trained for their empowerment as well as for the creation of context-based learning materials.
- Strengthen the implementation of the Instructional Supervision Framework and Middle Leadership Development for Teachers.
- As regard systems and structural improvement, the objective is to attain quality teacher education programs rather than focusing on quantity.
- There should be reforms in teacher certification, hiring, distribution and promotion of teachers.
Continuing professional development should be made available to teachers. Priority should be given to developing large pool of early childhood educators. Agenda 3 refers to the work place itself. This is where employers can play an important role in complementing the educational system in the improvement of the quality of education.
Employers should be incentivized to prioritize professional development and employment facilitation. Through various types of on-the-job training, there should be both abundant opportunities and scholarship for trainees. Especially at the Senior High School (SHS) level, the curriculum should be improved so that the link between schools on one hand the industries and communities on the other can be strengthened.
Beyond the job-related competencies and skills, there should be an equal stress on mentoring trainees on workplace attitudes and ethics well as relational competencies. With the increasing availability of Big Data, there should be improved information on the skills that will be needed in the future.
- Career guidance services should be institutionalized in the schools.
- Expand Alternative Learning Systems (ALS) for dropouts from basic education levels, giving more emphasis to functional literacy and job preparation.
- Agenda 4 involves fully leveraging private education so as to complement the delivery of services.
With the increasing disparity between the high salaries received by public school teachers and those in the private schools, the coverage of teacher salary subsidy should be expanded to other grade levels, aside from Junior High School (JHS). Subsidy support programs for private education should be expanded, especially the voucher program to cover Kindergarten and grade school, the JHS Education Service Contracting program (larger amount per student) and SHS voucher and Joint-Delivery Voucher Program for SHS Tech-Voc, which should receive larger amounts and wider coverage.
There should be a limit to the creation of new State Universities and Colleges, of LGU-sponsored new programs and campuses so as not to unnecessarily compete with private schools. It must be constantly emphasized that the Constitutional mandate is universal and quality education at the basic education level.
Until this is achieved, there should be fiscal prudence of the State in establishing tertiary educational institutions which should be mainly assigned to the private sector until universal education is attained at the elementary and high school levels.
Finally, Agenda 5 refers to the importance of the National Government devolving more functions to the local government units and school leaders in the local communities under the principle of subsidiarity and as a more practical alternative to federalization. This should also be facilitated with the implementation of the Mandanas-Garcia ruling which will increase the tax revenues being cascaded down to the LGUs from the national government.
Here, there should be a special effort to involve parents more and more in the education of their children, especially at the Kindergarten and elementary school levels. Parents should be encouraged to actively participate in Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs) in school decision making.
Role models like that of the Nanay-Teacher Program of Valenzuela City and the Parents for Education Foundation (PAREF) in the private sector should be held up for emulation. All school governing councils should be made functional by, among other measures, implementing the Philippine Professional Standards for school heads and supervisors.
The members and responsibilities of local school boards should be expanded. Allowed uses of the Special Education Fund (SEF) should be expanded, applying the needs-based approach to the use of the SEF. There should be seminar programs and workshops that will improve the capability of mayors for education governance.
- Student leaders should also be made part of school governance.
- In all of these moves to empower LGU heads, school administrators, parents and student leaders at the local level, there should be a closed monitoring of the increased share of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) under the Mandanas-Garcia ruling.
The devolved budgets of DepEd, DOH, and DSWD must go to the Local School Boards (LSBs), Local Health Boards, and day care centers. The improvement of the quality of basic education in the Philippines is a herculean task. All these recommendations of the Philippine Business For Education will take time to implement and even more time to yield results.
- We must remember, however, that we are dealing with the children and youth whom we are preparing to be the future workers ten to twenty years from now.
- In the meantime, we should also have to retool, upskill and reskill those who are already in the labor force today and are either unemployed (2.6 million) or underemployed (6.5 million).
These 9.1 million individuals are the ones who should be the targets for non-formal, informal and other means of transferring knowledge and skills outside the formal educational system. We should not waste any time in putting together employers, educational institutions and the government (especially TESDA under DOLE) to help these millions of workers become human resource assets today, not tomorrow.
- They are the very workers who will enable the Philippine economy to transition to an upper-middle income economy in 2023 and a high-income economy during the decade of 2040 to 2050.
- They are the very workers who are needed in today’s engines of growth such as the Build, Build, Build programs of both the public and private sectors, the hospitality industry, the health care industry and especially the whole value chain of the agribusiness sector from farming to post-harvest, logistics, food processing, and food retailing.
These sectors today obviously do need rocket scientists as workers. Even if existing unemployed and underemployed workers are weak in reading comprehension, mathematical literacy and science know how, they can still be upskilled and reskilled in these less intellectually demanding occupations.
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What country has the best primary education?
The Global Citizens for Human Rights’ annual study measures ten levels of education from early childhood enrolment rates to adult literacy. The body ranks the top five education systems as South Korea, Japan, Denmark, the Netherlands and Australia.
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How can we improve the education system in school?
10 ways to improve education in SA | You
Dr Mamphela Ramphele set out her ideas at African Education WeekDr Mamphela Ramphele, former vice chancellor of the University of Cape Town and leader of the new political party Agang, set out her ideas on how to improve education in South Africa on Wednesday as keynote speaker at African Education Week in Sandton, Johannesburg.”Of all the African’s countries, South African society is suffering from the impact of a public education system failing on a massive scale,” she said.”It’s tragic because what ignited the fervour for freedom in our country’s struggle against apartheid was young people who revolted against an inferior education system and being taught in a language that wasn’t their own and one not linked to economic opportunities.””It appears sometimes as though some governments have little appreciation of the strategic importance of education to their economies and its vital role in creating citizens who take their place in socially cohesive societies.
“South Africa, with the highest proportion of gross domestic product spent on education at R234 billion a year, has the worst performance of all African countries in the outcomes of the teaching of maths and science.143 out of 144 countries, only better than Yemen – a conflict-ridden, poor country.” Some of the suggestions she made in her speech and in a media conference afterwards, include:
Conducting subject-specific competency tests of all teachers and provide intensive teacher training. Link pay increases for teachers to competency/qualifications. Introduce minimum standards for new teacher hires with an eventual goal of all teachers having bachelor degrees. Fill teacher vacancies by hiring 15 000 more teachers with a focus on unemployed youth with bachelor degrees. Provide allowances for working in rural areas and scarce skills, such as maths. Upgrade infrastructure, eradicating mud schools, fixing basic infrastructure and building libraries to provide proper learning environments. Set minimum standards for all elements of the education system so parents know what they should expect from government and can hold it accountable. Top up social grants for educational results, providing additional social grant money to families for students who achieve a 70 per cent pass in any year and for matriculation. Set 50 per cent as the minimum pass mark for matric. “None of us will fly in an airplane if the pilot has only 30 per cent of the required skills.” Provide better technology in schools. “Why can countries such as Uganda, Nigeria and Ghana use tablets freely in their schools?”
Dr Ramphele refused to blame apartheid for SA’s poor education system. “It wasn’t apartheid that set the matric pass rate at 30 per cent.” According to her SA did allocate enough of its budget for education, but corruption eroded these funds. – Gerda Engelbrecht We live in a world where facts and fiction get blurred In times of uncertainty you need journalism you can trust.
For 14 free days, you can have access to a world of in-depth analyses, investigative journalism, top opinions and a range of features. Journalism strengthens democracy. Invest in the future today. Thereafter you will be billed R75 per month. You can cancel anytime and if you cancel within 14 days you won’t be billed.
: 10 ways to improve education in SA | You
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How can we ensure quality education to every child?
Abstract: Quality education is the demand of 21st century.There is different aspects related to get the quality education. Quality means such specialties which can fulfill the demands of time and situation. Such as if a person who is getting trouble to adjust in the new society and he fails to solve the current problems create questions to the education what and how he got the education.
So, getting quality education is not like spoon feeding or easy meat. The role and responsibilities of different authorities are involved in this phenomenon. Introduction: The role of parents, community and schools are the main stakeholders related to a student’s quality education. I have focused to this because the education system has not shown the proper ability to complete the tasks and problems occurred with the education provided by Nepalese Educational institutions.
10 Ways To Improve Education in Schools
The study is focused how to ensure the capabilities in the children during the time of proving the education in our formal education system. Importance of study: Each and every study should have with great importance for its practicality. The study which is improper and impractical is meaningless.
- So, I have taken that this article will play an important role for those who are really establishing the formal foundation of learning among the responsible authorities to ensure children’s quality education.
- Objectives of study: The main objectives of my article are to: 1.
- Provide awareness for newly establishing educational institutions for ensuring quality education.2.
Provide guidelines for related stakeholders about their roles in education.3. Show the main limitation of getting the trouble in quality education. Role of Parents: A kid’s education starts from home. Parents are their first teachers and they have a key role in shaping up their character. A balance of education at home and school moulds a student’s actual learning. Be a helping hand in their educational journey and travel with them with true inspiration.
- Parental encouragement had played a crucial role in successful students.
- Their role is not limited to home but involvement in school activities too.
- A child’s learning scale is highly related to how they are treated at home.
- Here are a few ways which parents can adopt to help with their child’s education: Be a role model: Kids would be easily inspired by what their parents do.
So it would be good to be a role model in their learning phase. Parents are a kid’s first teachers and so learn the first things together at home. Show them how exciting and meaningful a school life can be if they give out their best. Inspire them to learn novel elements in and out of school with friendly reminders and guidance.
- Read together: Doing things together with parents give them a sense of support and confidence.
- Reading the lessons together is one of the best ways to be close with the child’s learning at school.
- This not only improves their vocabulary but invokes interest in them to read more.
- It is also a good idea to visit the library together and share quality books to help them get additional knowledge than classroom lessons.
Oversee child’s activity: It is important to have an eye on the child’s activity in school and home. Their general habits are closely linked to how they perform in their studies. So give timely advices and correct any abnormal behavior right from the childhood days and inspire them to be good citizens.
- Help them to be more organized with their daily routine and find enough time for the lessons.
- No over scheduling: It is not a good idea to over schedule them with learning activities at home.
- They are spending about half of their day at school.
- So help them schedule their extra learning and homework time at home without burdening them.
Balancing the time between lessons, play time and rest is important to have a quality student life. Provide pleasant atmosphere: Parents should make sure that the kids are provided with a peaceful and pleasant atmosphere at home. It is good to avoid discussing family problems in kid’s presence and don’t create a mess at home with unnecessary quarrels.
Both father and mother should consider the importance of their study life and give them adequate moral support. Give constructive criticism: If you notice that your kid is not performing well or giving less importance to studies, correct them at the beginning itself. However, it is not good to spoil their peace of mind with ill words.
Have some patience and give only constructive criticism if you notice any downsides. Make them understand what is right and wrong rather than simply blaming them. Help with home assignments: Giving good support to kids in their studies would really lift their spirit for learning.
- Show it with small gestures such as helping them with home assignments or projects.
- However, it is not advised to do every lesson for them and let them play.
- Do it together and help them with some tips and guidance in doing the assignments better.
- Prepare them for tests: When it is their exam time, don’t leave them alone with their lessons.
Help them to prepare for the tests with good guidance and support. You may even conduct mini tests at home before the actual test to lessen their exam worries and tensions. You may also give additional help with the lesson areas in which they are weak.
Reward them for results: Giving good motivation is important for a kid to perform better with studies. So don’t hesitate to reward them if they come up with some good results in the tests. This also gives them the spirit to perform better every next time. However, keep a limit and it is not good to over shower them with gifts for an average performance which fades away their killer instinct.
Go for educational trips: It is a good idea to go for educational trips during the holidays. Include destinations that have some relevance with what they are studying to help them have a better understanding of the lessons. Occasional trips to museums and zoos would also help them to interact with the nature and learn new things.
- Maintain parent teacher relationships: Don’t skip the parent teacher meetings and interaction sessions.
- It is good to keep a good relation with your kid’s teachers.
- Learn from them about the child’s activities in school and make sure to correct the child if something is wrong.
- Maintaining parent teacher relationships also shows your interest in your kid’s matters which gives them a good feeling.
Set aside time for kids: It is a fact that working parents would be busy with their tight schedules. However, set aside some time for your kids and don’t leave them lonely at home. Make a comfortable space for them at home by maintaining a good parent child relationship.
Eat together and play with them in the free time and go for occasional trips to free up their mind. Monitor their learning: Some kids will take up initiatives themselves to spend time for learning at home. However, it is not the case for all and parents should make deliberate interventions for many kids.
Don’t force them to do anything but do a proper monitoring about their learning at home and give friendly advices. Have a check on their leisure time if they are lacking in performance. Prioritize child’s learning: Study life is an important phase of a kid and parents should give enough importance to it when deciding on other matters.
Make it a priority and avoid unnecessary trips or functions that can affect their study schedule. Role of Community: A professional community organizer works with leaders within communities to promote social and economic changes. In this regard the organizer plays diverse roles that are intended to build the capacity of people to gain collective awareness and confidence to confront public issues that impact on their lives.
The organizer encourages organization and remedial actions by people. This enabling role involves acting as convener, combiner, mediator, adviser, catalyst and facilitator while engaging in flexible and continuous learning and exercise of judgment and commonsense.
Conversations and participatory action research are used to enhance people’s awareness and assertiveness as well as empower their direct social action to enhance their chances to access power, positions and resource. Community Responsibility All communities value education for their children. Families either have power to take command and use it for the wellbeing of their children’s education or outsiders exploit and dominate those who are powerless and leave them worse off.
Education as one of the public goods, therefore, must not only be valued by the community and the people, but must be advanced and protected or preserved. This is the responsibility of all community role players, stakeholders as well as educational institutions.
A community that values education jealously claims ownership of the process as well as educational institutions. It is important for the community to raise its concerns regarding the quality of service and products in education. The community needs to make sure that its interests as customers, consumers, clients and voters are not compromised.
It is people that make organizations and systems. Community has a responsibility to ensure that education is reformed or transformed in order to meet emerging societal change. In addition communities must ensure that education is aligned or challenges beliefs about people and the values of society.
Communities have a right and an obligation to expect from government, effective and efficient provision and administration of education. For our inputs we expect good outputs and outcomes. The communities’ role is to act as a watchdog and ensure that education serves people, industrial organizations, and the planet.
People engage in its development, and education develops them as they involve themselves. Role of School Environment: Classroom environments are extremely important for students and for teachers. Everything from the colour of the walls to arrangement of the desks sends impressions to students and affect the way of a students learn.
The emotional environment also will affect the learning environment and how well a student receives instructions. School environment is subdivided as: Emotional Environment: Crating a positive learning environment is essential for success in the classroom. Teachers should create a welcoming atmosphere where student feel safe and willing to share.
Classroom should represent the students equally and everyone should know each other’s name. Teachers who use humor is the classroom also create more positive environments. Physical Environment: Structuring the physical environment of a classroom means of strategically placing desks, students, decorations and playing music.
- Desks arranged in a circle give the impression of sharing, while coupled desks work as well as and decorations on the walls also send impressions.
- Light colours open up spaces and warm colours are welcoming.
- Respectful Environment: Classroom should be a place where students feel respected and feel their contributions matters.
No student should be singled out or secluded in the classroom. Every student should feel accepted,wanted and respected. Role of Teacher Teacher as a role model: Teachers are founts of experience. They have been where their students are going, under what will go through and are in a position to pass along the lessons not only regarding subject matter but lessons on life. “One book, one pen, one child, one teacher can change the world.
TEACHER Refers: T- is for Tolerant towards other’s limitations E- is for Enthusiastic, your approach in life A- is for Awesome, you do what you enjoy C – is for Colourful, your vibrant stride H- is for Honesty, your uprightness E- is for Energetic, the zeal that you show R- is for Reputable, that’s to your good/deeds • Learning mediator.
• Interpreter and designer of learning programmes and materials. • Leader, administrator and manager. • Scholar, researcher and lifelong learner. • Community, citizenship and pastoral role. • Assessor. • Learning area/subject discipline/phase specialists • Be a role model for learning.
Pay attention what your child loves. • Tune into how your child learns. • Practice what your child learns at school. • Set a side time to read together. • Connect what your child learns to everyday life. • Connect your child learns to everyday life. • Help your child take change of his learning. • Don’t over schedule your child.
• Keep TV to a minimum. • Learn something new yourself. Limitations of our education system Party Politics and Teacher Politics: The political movement of 1990 forced the king to abandon the Panchayat system and a new constitution was announced by the king and provided West-minister type parliamentary democracy.
The Interim government formed a coalition government under the premiership of Nepali Congress leader with substantial presence of United Marxist Leninist. As a show of gratitude to the teachers who made critical participation in the political agitation all the teachers working on temporary basis given permanent appointment.
By doing so, people who would have never passed the open competition examination got into the school system heralding the beginning of the deterioration of the quality of education in the public schools. Teachers started grouping under Democratic Party banner or communist/ socialist party banner.
- Teacher wings of Nepali Congress Party and U.M.L.
- Communist Party surfaced as groups for these parties and they played all politics to strengthen their wings of teacher unions.
- After the general election, Nepali Congress came to power.
- The Nepali Congress Education Minister Committed blunder in the national teacher selection examination.
Normally, if there were 100 vacancies, only about 125 persons would have been selected for interview. That was the practice. But, the Education Minister directed that everyone who secured pass marks were declared fit for interview. The UML Teacher Unions smelt rat in this action and declared it was policy of the Nepali Congress government to appoint their people.
- So, the UML affiliated Teacher Unions blocked the task of providing permanence on the basis of the said examination.
- From that time, permanent appointment of teacher has remained a never-ending problem.
- Some settlements were sought with negotiations with teacher unions.
- As there was no atmosphere to conduct fresh competitive examination for the selection of teachers, there has been accumulation of the temporary teachers who were employed to run the 14 schools.
As the government could not conduct competitive examination for years the number of teachers appointed on temporary basis grew and they worked for many years on temporary basis. Now, they demanded that they cannot sit in the general competitive examination.
They demand privilege to get permanent position without sitting in the general competitive examination. As measure to put pressure (political), they lock-up the school gates, organize demonstration like the laborers of factories. Government sits down with them for negotiation and agrees to take actions, which they do not.
Because, it would be a decisive step to purposely destroy the quality of education. And, temporary teachers start the agitation. This is going on for years and has been continued even today. Community Schools in the municipal areas Community schools in an urban or suburban area are a misnomer now.
- The (government) community schools have gradually lost their students during the past two decades.
- They have students of these parents who are either migrant workers or unskilled workers.
- The present SMC memberships have heavy representation from the parents and guardians.
- The urban/ suburban schools do not have qualified interested guardians to be the members of the SMC.
How can one think of support of SMC in the urban or suburban schools where parents are neither qualified nor interested to support the schools? In general, the head teachers and teachers do not see the use of SMC. In urban schools, one does not find guardians who could provide support to the school.
- In rural area, one has people who have their eye on the soft money scholarship, tiffin, stationery money provided by the government.
- Summary: the status of community schools has reached at a very pathetic state.
- Inspite of the efforts of the government to help community schools which is loosing students.
The SEE result of community schools has always been frustrating. However, there are still some community schools, which are no inferior to good institutional schools. This indicates that there is silver lining in the dark cloud. If proper actions are taken, there is genuine help that community schools with improve their academic performance.
- Suggestions: I would like to recommend the following points to achieve the quality educations depending upon the roles of related authorities.1.
- The existing regulation for the selection of head teacher should be revised.
- There should be a system in which a head teacher of a secondary school should be appointed through district-wide open competition.
The selection committee should be chaired by the District Education Officer.2. Head teacher should get attractive allowance, not less than ten per cent of the basic salary.3. All schools within the municipal area should have an Advisory Committee of about 10-15 people.
The committee will have people who are willing to help the school.4. Supervisors will have to be changed to Assistant District Education Officer. Their main goal would be to activate the Resource Persons.5. Resource Person should be appointed on the basis of open competition among teachers, of the district.
The tenure should be of four years on the condition of termination at any time mainly for reasons of incompetency. RP can be transferred from one cluster to another or even district if needed.6. Resource Persons should be provided all privileges enjoyed by the supervisors for travelling.7.
The Radio Education Programme of NCED should provide frequent projection of the works of good head teachers.8. Action Research programme should be launched widely to identify areas which need special attention of the government to raise the quality of community schools.9. NCED should conduct very high level training for the head teachers and Resource Persons.10.
The NCED should conduct high level training for DEO’s and RP’s 11. Good Head Teacher Awards should be instituted and Awards should be handed over an Education Day by the President of Prime Minister.12. Foreign visit programmes should be implemented for potential good head teachers.13.
Formation of School Management Committee of secondary schools should be regarded as a major function and DEO should personally be engaged in this activity. Assistant DEO’s should handle this activity for lower secondary and primary schools. Conclusion: I think the most fundamental thing is food, shelter and clothes.
Then it is education, then health and security. Education is a matter of concern over all. People can pay taxes but the local government should have a planned approach. The decision should be taken by municipal or rural municipal councils. There should be open discussion with the public.
Now, we have a great opportunity. Some rural municipality have already taken decisions and started formulating laws. If we move forward in the right track, we can make tangible gains in education. Use of ICT and teachers should be fulfilled for proper utilization of the tools. Parents, community and teachers should play vital role for the utilization adequate time and involve the children in some household works to make them practical with the use of soft and hard skills.
Education must fulfill the requirement digital era. Then, so called quality education. The integrative support certainly would be milestone for obtaining quality education. (Khatri is Vice- Chairperson of Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA), Banke)
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Which EU has the best school system?
Quality of education in the EU and Switzerland – The European education system is based on the general standards of the Bologna Process, with some differences in each country. The education system in Switzerland and the European Union is highly valued in the world: the curricula of these countries are among the best in the world.
- From a very young age, children are taught and encouraged to think independently and creatively, as well as being taught leadership skills.
- Most European countries teach in their official language, but many kindergartens, schools and universities also offer programs in English.
- They are more expensive.
Preschool education in the EU and Switzerland is optional. Most kindergartens are private and accept children who are 5-6 years old. Each European country regulates preschool education in its own way. Schools are divided into primary and secondary schools.
- Secondary education up to 16 years of age is compulsory.
- After the tenth grade, students choose whether to continue their studies to prepare for university or get a professional education in order to start their career faster.
- The International Baccalaureate (IB) is the most popular university preparation program in the EU and Switzerland.
The IB certificate gives the holder the opportunity to enroll in any university in the world. Students study six subjects for the IB certificate. There are four compulsory subjects: the language spoken in the country, a foreign language, mathematics and natural science.
- The remaining two subjects are chosen by the student, taking into account their future specialization at the university or interest in the subject.
- The higher education system in the EU, Switzerland and Britain differs from the system adopted in the USA and Australia in terms of the length of study at each stage.
For example, in Europe, the standard bachelor’s degree takes three to four years to complete, and the master’s program takes one year. In the USA and Australia, these programs last longer: the bachelor’s degree normally takes four years and the master’s degree takes two years.
The educational programs of universities in the European Union and Switzerland are similar; and therefore, when moving from one European country to another, European degrees are mutually recognized generally and by employers. In some countries, residents and citizens can receive education free of charge.
For example, in Portugal, the child of a holder of a residence permit by investment can enroll in a public university free of charge, Higher education in Europe increases the chances of students being offered internships in leading global companies, gaining valuable contacts and building an international career.
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Which EU has the best education systems?
The full ranking: All 30 countries –
|Score (out of 100)
Fore more information and material, please also refer to the press release,17247 Programmes in Europe
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What are the 5 practices in education?
The five practices are the follow- ing: (1) Anticipating, (2) Monitoring, (3) Selecting, (4) Sequencing, and (5) Connecting. Smith and Stein contend that Planning/Goal Setting could be called ‘Practice 0,’ as this is some- thing teachers need to do before orchestrating a productive discussion.
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What makes a successful lesson in primary school?
1. Lesson objectives – Each lesson plan should start by considering what students will learn or be able to do by the end of class. The best objectives are action-oriented and focus on the most important and essential learning needs of the class. They should be measurable, so teachers can track student progress and ensure that new concepts are understood before moving on, and achievable considering the time available.
Describe the weather outside using their target language Identify the parts of a fraction Explain the different states of matter using water