How Physical Education Teacher Help Cwsn?
Role Of Various Professionals For Children With Special Needs – Role of Various Professionals ? Role of counselor A school counselor helps children in all ways, be it academic, social, behavioral,al or emotional. They work in collaboration with the parents, teachers, and special educators to create a healthy learning environment that makes them feel comfortable.
- Role of Occupational Therapist The Occupational Therapist will provide education and resources to teachers and parents about how children typically develop motor skills and how to promote this development in the classroom and at home.
- They help teachers learn to recognize and help children who may have motor skill problems which are making some daily activities a challenge to learn.
? Role of Physiotherapist Physiotherapy is an allied health care profession that promotes the health and well-being of all. It aims to help maximize movement and functions when someone is affected by injury, illness, developmental delay or other disability.
- Role of Physical Education Teacher Physical Education Teachers are responsible for the education of primary and secondary school students in physical activity and psychomotor learning.
- He is responsible for the overall wellness and development of students.
- PET evaluates the student’s performance, attitude, and level of Physical Fitness.
Students are evaluated in periodic tests that give teachers a better picture of students’ overall health and level of athletic skill. ? Role of Speech Therapist Speech and language therapy is concerned with the identification, assessment, and support of speech, language, and communication of children.
- They work closely with parents, teachers, nurses, occupational therapists, and doctors.
- Speech and language therapists have an important role in supporting schools to meet the needs of children.
- Concept of Inclusion Inclusion is an educational practice where every person can participate equally in all social processes.
It is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. In this inclusion approach, students with special needs are fully integrated into the general education classrooms at a school. The ideology of Inclusion philosophy is, that every individual, regardless of his/her disabilities, has the right to be incorporated fully into society.
- Fully inclusive schools don’t separate general and special education, where all students learn together.
- Need for Inclusive Education The need for Inclusion is very much there to improve the motor skills of students with disabilities.
- Institutions need to provide equal chances to every disabled student to participate as per their abilities to boost their confidence level.
Normal students get a chance to increase friendships with disabled children. Diversified teaching strategies benefit all students. Children with disabilities learn more from other students, which develops their social and communication skills. Implementation of Inclusive education
Teaching must be planned with all students in mind as per their abilitiesTeaching lessons must encourage the participation of all students Ensure that every student is actively involved Students are encouraged to support each other in learningProper support is provided in case students experience difficulties Students should feel that they have somebody to speak to when they are worriedAll students are equally valued Teachers and students treat each other with respectThe school must be accessible to all students Teachers should make sure that all students participate and learn The school should monitor the participation, and achievement of all students
MCQ & Syllabus Notes Physical Education
Click Below To Learn Other Chapter Notes Q1. What is Adaptive Physical Education? Answer: Adaptive Physical Education is an individualized program of instruction created for students with disabilities that enable success in Physical Education. Q2. What is the concept of Inclusion? Answer: Inclusion is an educational practice where every person can participate equally in all social processes.
- It is an approach to educate students with special educational needs. Q3.
- What is special Olympic Bharat? Answer: It is the organisation approved by National Sports Federation and Special Olympic International for the development of persons with intellectual disabilities.
- Physical Education & Sports for CWSN chapter 4 CBSE, class 11 Physical Education notes.
This cbse Physical Education class 11 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 11 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 11 previous year paper. Final Words From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 11 Physical Education notes of chapter 4 Physical Education & Sports for CWSN.
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- 1 What is the role of physical education teachers?
- 2 What is the role of physical education teacher for educating children with special needs Brainly?
- 3 What is the role of a physical education teacher for children with special needs 5 marks?
- 4 How does physical education helps to improve child education?
- 5 How physical activities are helpful for CWSN?
- 6 How physical activities are helpful for CWSN class 12?
- 7 What is the role of physical education in our life?
- 8 What is the role of physical education teacher for educating children with special needs class 11?
What is the role of physical education teachers?
What is the role of a PE teacher? – The role of a PE teacher is to be responsible for planning, teaching and guiding children in a school setting. They teach a range of different sports, and provide young people with an opportunity to develop and improve their social and physical skills.
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What is the role of physical education teacher for educating children with special needs Brainly?
Answer: The teachers must be sensitive towards the needs of children with special needs. They must encourage such children to indulge in physical activities to strengthen themselves and become a role model for others.
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How can teachers help physical development?
Scroll Young children learn through movement, so it is critical for them to have daily physical activity. Early childhood professionals can support young children’s learning and healthy physical development by:
Providing children with opportunities for free movement Engaging children in both open-ended and teacher-directed indoor and outdoor motor play Challenging children with developmentally appropriate fine and gross motor tasks
The videos and resources below illustrate strategies and ideas for supporting young children’s physical development. The Effects of Outdoor Play on On-Task Behavior in Preschool (7:02) It is generally understood that giving preschool children time to play outside every day supports their gross motor development and gives them opportunities to manage their emotions and engage in unstructured social play with their peers. Encouraging Physical Activity in Preschoolers (8:27) In this video from the e-clips series, Dr. Darren Robert explains the importance of physical activity for children’s development, and offers several ways to incorporate physical activity into the preschool daily routine. Relay Day (4:45) “Relay Day” at Eastern’s Child and Family Development Resource Center (CFDRC) gives children an opportunity to design different activities and try a variety of physical challenges. In this video, preschool teachers Emily Grogan and Kaitlin Thibodeau describe how each of the stations at the 2018 event helped children practice cooperation, self-regulation, turn-taking, and task persistence – all while having fun outside. Incorporating Motor Play in the Preschool Classroom (3:40) Active play promotes children’s learning. Research has shown that children are much more attentive right after they have engaged in active motor play – and that children learn through movement. Fun Mud Day (series) “Fun Mud Day” is an annual event at Eastern’s Child and Family Development Resource Center (CFDRC) that challenges preschoolers and toddlers to get outside and try a variety of wet and muddy obstacles. These videos show the different elements of the event. Nurturing Preschool Children’s Emotional Health Through Active Play (3:55) Research shows that active play serves an important role in children’s social and emotional development. This video describes how adults can support children’s confidence, “mastery motivation,” relationships, and ability to express feelings providing fun physical challenges that are appropriate for children’s abilities, by giving children choices over how they move and play, and by providing opportunities for children to practice self-regulation through physical games. Supporting Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers (3:20) The first three years of life are characterized by dramatic changes in children’s physical abilities. This video describes how adults can support young children’s physical development by moving with infants, allowing infants plenty of time to freely move on their own, providing toddlers with opportunities to practice walking and running on different surfaces, and challenging toddlers to move in a variety of ways. Supporting thinking in Infants and Toddlers Through Active Music and Play Experiences (2:36) Research shows that movement supports children’s cognitive development. Part of the “Supporting Children Through Physical and Outdoor Play” series, this video explores ways to use music and active play experiences to help infants and toddlers learn cause and effect. See video and printable tip sheet Using an Obstacle Course to Promote Active Outdoor Play (3:07) Many children don’t use their outdoor time to engage in sustained, active behavior – but teachers and caregivers can do much to encourage children to be more active on the playground for at least part of the time that they’re outside. Ready to Climb (7:42) This video, produced by Eastern students, documents the installation of new climbing walls in the Child and Family Development Resource Center (CFDRC). Dr. Darren Robert, CFDRC director Niloufar Rezai, and teacher Claudia Ahern explain how the walls support children’s physical, social-emotional, cognitive, and creative development. See video
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What is the role of a physical education teacher for children with special needs 5 marks?
Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each) Q.1 What is adaptive physical education? Ans. Through adaptive physical education students are encouraged to participate in safe, satisfactory physical activities.Q.2 What is integrated physical education? Ans.
- Integrated physical education is a comprehensive concept, it is not only limited to physical activities, games, and sports but has become a complete discipline.Q.3 What is inclusion? Ans.
- Inclusion is not a favor we do for students with disabilities.
- Inclusion is a gift we give ourselves; the gift of understanding, the gift of knowing that we are all members of the human race and that joy comes in building genuine relationships with a with a range of other people.Q.4 What do you mean by inclusion in physical education? Ans.
Inclusion in physical education means that students with disabilities participate in all activities equally with other students Students with disabilities learn the same curriculum content, with the same lesson objective, in the same space, with the same assessment as all other students. Question for 3 Marks (60 Words) Q.1 Write a short note on the origin of Para Olympic Games. Ans. In the second world war, the majority of people suffered. They lost their willpower and kept remembering the horrors of wars all the time. In1960 Rome Olympic, Sir Ludwig Collected 400 disabled Athletes and organized games and it was named Para- Olympics.
The shooting was the first game to be introduced in Para Olympic games, the international Para Olympic committee is responsible for organizing summer and winter Olympic game. The headquarter IPC is situated in Bonn (Germany). The symbol of Para Olympic Games is three colors red, Blue and green flag and the motto of Para Olympic is ‘Spirit in Motion’ 2014 winter para Olympic games was successfully hosted by Russia.Q.2 Describe the principles of integrated and comprehensive physical education.
Ans, (i) It should be based on the interrelated sub-topics of physical education. (ii) It should cater to the requirements of different people. (iii) It should be capable of facing the challenges of the present and the future. (iv) It should be capable of providing comprehensive and deep knowledge of physical education.
- V) It should motivate an individual to engage in a lifelong healthy and active lifestyle.
- Vi) It should be able to develop social and emotional skill among people Q.3 Write a note on special Olympic Bharat? Ans.
- This organization was established in 2001, its aims are to increase the participation of differently abled person’s in games and sports.
Its other objectives were to develop leadership quality and healthy. This organization organizes sports competition at the state level. It also serves talented players and trains them for international games. After 2002, about 23,750 participants have participated in national games.
Between 1987 and 2013, a total of 671 Indian athletes participated in Olympic. They won 246 Gold medals, 265 Silver medals, 27 bronze medals and they raised the glory of the country in the world. Today around 1 million athletes are the members of this organization and 84905 coaches train these athletes.
This organization does the all round development of the players through games and sports.Q.4 How can we implement inclusive education in physical education? Ans. PEER TO PEER: EVERYONE’S A PLAYER, EVERYONE’S A LEADER Special Olympics believes in the power of sport and in the power of young people to build a more inclusive world.
In a high-quality Inclusive Physical Education classroom, students recognize their abilities to create inclusive communities as they learn to value difference and appreciate each individual’s unique gifts and talents. Peer to peer teaching is a fundamental strategy for implementing successful Inclusive Physical Education programs, but it is important that it be implemented in a truly inclusive manner and grounded in equality.
An inclusive peer to peer teaching model provides opportunities for students of all abilities to participate as leaders in some way, reinforcing and confirming the potential of every student to lead and contribute meaningfully. Question for 5 Mark (150 Words) Q.1 Which principles are required to be followed to make the adapted physical education effective? Explain.
Medical Examination: – It is very important for the success of the programme related to a dated physical education. Otherwise, it will be difficult to find out what kind of disability, the student is suffering from. Therefore it is imperative to conduct a medical examination of the students. Programmes according to the interest of the students: – programmes should be made keeping in mind the interest, capacity and previous experience of the students. The teachers should also have deep knowledge about it, then only they can make any successful programme. Equipment should be appropriate:- Students should be provided with equipment asper disability concerned, for example, students suffering from visual impairment should be given a ball with a bell so that they may catch the ball as it rolls because of the sound. Thus such students can make out. The direction and distance of the ball. Proper Environment:- The play area also should be limited because of the limited speed capacity of the children, for example, speech impaired children are given rest in between the games. The play area should be limited to top smaller area. Modification of rules:- Rules and regulation of the game and sports should be modified depending on the specific needs of students. In order to learn a new skill, they may be given extra time, extra effort, extra rest and 2 marks in place of 1 mark.
Thus, they might be given the opportunity for all-round development.Q.2 Explain the concept of Inclusion. Ans. A defining characteristic of an excellent physical education program is that it includes students with a diverse range of abilities, needs, interests and learning styles in meaningful learning experiences.
- The term “Inclusive Physical Education” reflects a program where respect and acceptance of all students, specifical students with disabilities, is an essential component of the classroom environment and teaching strategies.
- Inclusion is about creating a classroom in which every student is welcomed, valued, respected and enabled to reach his her full potential.
In a successful Inclusive Physical Education program, all students are fully engaged in instructional activities, sharing equally and learning together. Although the activities may be modified or adapted, students with disabilities learn the same concepts, skills, and content as all other students in the class.
The result is educational equity and access for all students! Inclusive Physical Education requires educators to believe in the concept that success for each student can be different The educator must be willing to modify and adapt lessons and activities to ensure that every student learns and achieves success at his own pace and according to his own abilities.
Educators see the abilities of all students as contributing to the whole class. Effective teaching for students with disabilities is basically the same as effective teaching for all students.Q.3 What is the role of the school counselor in special education? Ans.
The role of a school counselor is to help all students, including those with special needs, to achieve their full potential. Introducing an appropriate individualized education programme (IEP) an early age can make all the difference, not only in these children’s academic learning but in their emotional health and social adjustment and ultimately in their ability to become productive, contributing member of society. Counseling sessions with special education students. Encouraging family involvement in IEP. Consulting with and working with other school staff to better understand the child’s special needs. Collaborating with other school and community professionals like, teachers, school, psychologist, physical therapist and occupational therapist etc. Identifying other students who should be assessed to determine the eligibility for special education.
Q.4 What is the need for inclusion in physical education? Ans. Inclusion is needed for the following reasons—
Inclusion in physical education increases social skills of students with disabilities. Inclusion is needed to increase motor skills of students with disabilities. A disabled student gets an equal chance to participate in age-appropriate activities so, it increases the confidence level. Typical students get a chance to increase friendships with disable children. Inclusive education provides an opportunity for typical students to go beyond tolerance to acceptance and advocacy. Inclusive education enables a student to increase their knowledge and acceptance based on the “contact theory”. Through frequency, meaningful and pleasant interactions, changes in attitude can occur.
What is the role of the occupational therapist for special need children? — Self-care – An occupational therapist will help a child perform and be independent in self-care skills like eating, dressing, toileting, bathing, and grooming. — Play – An occupational therapist helps children participate and interact with others in play.
They may suggest modifying cations in the position, mobility aids or modified toys to help a child to play. — School – Occupational therapists help children participate and accept to regular school. They may suggest aids for writing and other classroom activities help them participate equally with other children.
Children with special needs may also require special furniture to help them sit and write better. — Environmental modifications: Occupational therapists can suggest modifications in the house, school or playground that will help the child participate more easily.
Helping the child became independent early in life, will encourage them to live independently as an adult. — Fine motor skills and Handwriting occupational therapists also play a role in helping a child improve their fine motor skills handwriting. They will be able to identify the specific deficits int he child and suggest activities that will help improve these skills.
— Splinting – Occupational & learapists can also make simple splints to help the child perform activities in a better way. Pediatric treatment – Physiotherapy can be used to treat children affected by ‘Muscular Dystrophy’. These and other conditions may require the child to have help to improve balance, strength, and coordination. Techniques of physiotherapy 1. Massage and manipulation 2. Exercise and movement 3. Electrotherapy 4. Hydrotherapy Q.5. What is the contribution fo special education teacher in developing educational plans for special need children? Ans.1. Assess student’s skills to determine their needs and to develop teaching plans.2. Adapt lessons to meet the needs of students.3. Q.6. What is the role of a physical education teacher for children with special needs? Ans: — Physical Educations teacher: Physical Education forms an important part of the K-12 curriculum. It helps to develop physical abilities and healthy habits in students.
- Regular physical exercises prove effective for the overall development of children.
- Such Programmes positively impact the lives of children with special needs by enhancing their motor skills, improving self-steam, controlling obesity and encouraging an active lifestyle.
- Physical education teacher must find out the abilities of the children with special needs and adopt necessary measures to support their participation in Physical activities and improve their overall fitness levels.1.
Conducting physical activity programs help children to cope with anxiety, depression, and stress. These help in their interaction with other students which increases their self-steam and confidence levels. Such interactions also enhance their communication skills and decision-making skills.2.
- The session is conducted with parents and teachers to implement ways to encourage children with special needs to participate in sports activities.3.
- Physical education teacher needs to determine the abilities of students with special needs so that to design special sports activities according to their need.
Speech Fluency/Stuttering Sluttering is a communication disorder that affects speech fluency. A therapist can teach the child strategies on how to control behavior like tension in the neck, shades, face, jaw, chest, eye blink, etc. and thus increasing lies speech fluency and intelligibility.
Voice and Resonance Voice disorders refer to disorders that affect the vocal folds that allow us to have a voice. These can include vocal cord paralysis, nodules or polyps on vocal folds. Therapists can work with children to decrease these behaviors (vocal classes) and repair the strain/damage of the folds.Q.7.
What is the role of the speech-language pathologist for special need children? Ans. Speech therapist/pathologist works with children with a variety of delay and disorder such as autism. Down syndrome, hearing impairment, motor speech disorders, and other developmental delays.
They help a child with : 1. Articulation skills/speech integrity articulation is the physical ability to move the tongue, lips, jaw, and palate (known as the articulators) to produce individual speech sounds which we phonemes.2. Expressive Language Skills While speech involves the physical motor disability to talk, language is a symbolic system used to convey a message.
Proper use of these is developed by a speech therapist.3. Receptive Language/Listening Skills Receptive language refers to a child’s ability to listen and understand language. A therapist can help teach the child new vocabulary and how to use that knowledge to follow direction, answer the question and participate in single conversations with others.
- Physiotherapist – Physiotherapist is trained to evaluate and improve the function of the body, with particular attention to physical mobility, balance, posture, fatigue, and pain.
- The physical therapy programme involves educating the child about the physical problems caused by their disability, designing and individualized wise programme to address the problems, and enhancing mobility and energy conservation through the use of a variety of mobility aids and adaptive equipment.
Physiotherapy can be used to help children who have a neurological condition that affects the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, and cerebral palsy. Physiotherapy can be used to treat injuries that affect the bone, joints, and muscles such as sports injuries and arthritis.
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What are the teachers roles in children’s physical development?
They teach a range of different sports, and provide young people with an opportunity to develop and improve their social and physical skills. They help children work on their fitness, and give them to tools to lead a healthy and physically active lifestyle.
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What is the role of a physical education teacher for children with special needs class 11?
4. Physical Education Teacher: –
Physical Education Teachers generally determine the abilities of students with special needs that may need implementing to support their participation in sports and fitness. The children need the support and encouragement from physical education teachers to participate regulator in physical activities.
How does physical education helps to improve child education?
Why Is Physical Education So Important? – OWIS Singapore It is no secret that appropriate physical activity is necessary to a student’s overall well-being. The benefits of physical education in schools are far-reaching, including both increased student physical health and better academic performance. OWIS students practising football drills In recent years, many schools have cut back on their physical education programmes, placing greater emphasis on academics as they strive to prepare students for college and the workforce. Yet research shows that adults who had regular PE classes in school are more than twice as likely to be physically active as their non-PE counterparts.
In fact, children who have regular Physical Education lessons at school will be likely to experience the following benefits: Physical and Mental Health Well-versed in child development, PE teachers ensure that the curriculum consists of age-appropriate activities that support growing minds and bodies.
They will adapt lessons to make them appropriate for their groups and ensure that they do not overwhelm children with skills or requirements that may be too advanced. At the same time, they know when students are ready to be pushed. PE improves motor skills and increases muscle strength and bone density, which in turn makes students more likely to engage in healthy activity outside of school.
Furthermore it educates children on the positive benefits of exercise and allows them to understand how good it can make them feel. Participating in PE puts children on track to make regular exercise a habit- one that can combat obesity and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes.
It also helps to maintain their brain and mental health. By making exercise ‘normal’ from an early age this becomes ingrained in them throughout their lives. Physical education motivates children to expand their skills, as grasping the fundamentals of one sport makes it easier to master the rules of another.
- Since students spend a considerable amount of time in school, it is an ideal setting to empower them to take responsibility for their health.
- Often a secondary benefit of physical education is that children become more aware of what they are putting in their bodies.
- They realise the importance of a healthy, balanced diet and that sugary snacks are not the best way to gain energy for their sport.
They will often want to find out more about their bodies and this again teaches them to care for themselves and others. Studies also suggest that students who are less active are more likely to experience sleep disorders. Regular exercise reduces stress and anxiety, contributing to healthy sleep patterns, which in turn lead to better mental health, immune system functioning, and overall well-being.
Social Skills Physical education that begins in demonstrates the value of cooperation, while being part of a team gives them a sense of identity. When PE teachers model prosocial behaviours, children gain skills that pave the way for healthy interactions and relationships throughout life. This teaches them essential communication skills and social skills.
It helps them become team players, work alongside a diverse range of team mates and be able to support others. Learning the fundamentals of popular sports also provides a constructive way for students to fit in with their peers, especially as they approach adolescence.
Being able to understand a range of sports or hobbies allows them to be part of something bigger than their classroom. They may find a real passion for a particular sport, start attending sporting fixtures and they may even go on to have a career within the sporting industry. Having the opportunities to ignite this type of passion whilst developing a range of skills is hugely important.
Self-Esteem and Character Development Playing team sports in a structured setting reinforces leadership and good sportsmanship. Playing various roles on a team and gaining new skills encourage students to respect themselves and their peers. It also teaches them to be understanding to others and support them through their difficulties.
- Gestures such as a hand shake, a pat on the back or a high-five from a team-mate helps to build confidence and camaraderie, and earning praise from coaches or other players also helps to improve self-esteem.
- This then leads to increasing children’s confidence to trust their abilities and to progress their skills within their sport.
It is important for children to understand that self-esteem should not rely on winning or losing, but in the taking part and learning from every opportunity. Children who receive constructive criticism well are shown to be better at making changes to improve themselves, whether it be at school, in work or in sport. OWIS Sports Day 2019 As they hone their abilities through individual and team sports, children learn self-discipline and goal-setting. They learn that there will always be winners and losers but that it is important to accept this and to get back up when needed, or in turn to encourage those around us to carry on.
- Discipline is essential for sport and this can be both mental and physical.
- In sport, children need to follow rules and take orders from their coaches.
- Sometimes they must accept decisions that they may not agree with.
- This teaches them an important life skill that will help them throughout their life and careers.
According to the International Platform on Sport and Development, “Sport has been used as a practical tool to engage young people in their communities through volunteering, resulting in higher levels of leadership, community engagement and altruism among young people.” Better Academic Performance The many benefits of PE carry over from the playing field or gymnasium into the classroom, leading to better academic performance.
Research reveals that children who take part in physical education are better able to regulate their behaviour and stay focused in class. Often sport gives children the opportunity to take their minds off their academic studies. It offers the chance for them to relax, release pent up emotions and to spend time having fun with their friends.
At OWIS, PE is a critical component of a well-rounded curriculum. To learn more, visit our page. : Why Is Physical Education So Important? – OWIS Singapore
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How can a teacher help in the growth and development of a child?
Skip to content School, teachers and parents play vital role in holistic development of the child. Parents are the first mentor of the child and the teacher is the second. Both have an immense contribution and responsibility in shaping child’s personality.
Role of parents : Parents are the child’s first role model. Children behave, react and imitate same as their parents. Parents play important role in encouraging and motivating their kids to learn. Good parental support helps child to be positive, healthy and good life long learner. Children acquire skills at the very early stage of their life if the parents are responsive and understanding.
Role of Teachers : Major challenges for teachers are to nurture children’s learning and give him various experiences to face this challenging world. She molds the child to be a responsible and independent learner. Teacher is the first person from whom child learns his social skills in school.
- Teachers make him comfortable and guide him the early concepts and developmental skills of life.
- Open minded, well balanced and a planned teacher has a great power to bring a positive change in the child’s development.
- As the child grows and develops mastery in different skills, teacher becomes a real guide in nurturing his interest and learning to make him more independent.
Teacher-Parent Relationship – Trust and mutual understanding between parent and teacher is a real secret of child’s happy learning. Support and Cooperativeness from parents towards teacher helps a lot to connect, understand and work towards child. Remarkable positive change is seen in a child if the parents and teacher understand and work hand in hand.
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How physical activities are helpful for CWSN?
Adding physical exercise to the schedules of children with special needs can result in strength improvements, increased stability, improved bone health, and improved stamina and cardiovascular fitness, contrary to popular belief.
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How physical activities are helpful for CWSN class 12?
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs – 4.1 Concept of Disability and Disorder Disability and disorder are two separate terms that stand for different types of physical and mental conditions.
Concept of Disability The term disability means any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in physical or mental capacity. The reduction can be related to any kind of physical loss, mental illness, intellectual impairment or reduction in the use of sense organs. This may be present from birth or occur during a person’s lifetime.
This affects a person’s participation in different areas of life and reduces the full use of body structures and functions. Definition – “A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group,” Concept of Disorder Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of a person, hinders a person’s performance and diminishes his/her efficiency.
- Disorder grows inside a person, they are small in the beginning but may become serious and grow into a disability.
- There are many kinds of disorders like mental disorder, neurological disorder, hyper activity disorder, eating disorder, addiction disorder, attention disorder etc.
- Definition – “Disorder can be defined as a blip in the usual functioning of a person.” 4.2 Types of Disability, Its Causes and Nature Disability is conceptualised as being a multidimensional experience as it may affect the organs and body parts which hampers a person’s life in many ways.
Types of Disability There are three types of disabilities which are as follows Cognitive Disability The nature of this disability is mental since cognitive domain is related to using mental abilities and achieving results from it. It is related to impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour.
- Intellectual functioning means person’s ability to plan, comprehend and reason while adaptive behaviour refers to applying social and practical skills in everyday life.
- Children suffering from dyslexia, learning difficulties, speech disorders, problem in solving math calculations, short span of attention and short of memory are said to have cognitive disability.
Causes of cognitive disability are as follows
- Cognitive impairment may be present at birth and may be genetic or chromosomal or result from complications of pregnancy.
- Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome.
- Genetic abnormalities such as phenylketonuria, Hunter syndrome etc.
- Prenatal drug and infections and exposure to alcohol.
- Lack of oxygen during labour pain or birth.
Intellectual Disability The nature of this disability is also mental since the intellectual domain is related to using the capacity of the mind. It is a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour.
- Genetic Conditions These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
- Problems during Pregnancy This can interfere with fetal brain development.
- Alcohol or Drug Use may also cause intellectual disability.
- Problems during Childbirth Like if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
- Illness or Injury Infection like meningitis, whooping cough or measles can lead to intellectual disability. Extreme malnutrition, infections in the brain, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.
Physical Disability The nature of this disability is physical since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organs. This refers to the limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. This includes upper or lower limb loss, poor manual dexterity, visual impairment, hearing loss or disability in coordination with different organs of the body.
- Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
- Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
- Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
- Musculoskeletal disorders also cause disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.
- Genetic causes like gene inheritance can cause this disability.
4.3 Types of Disorder, Its Causes and Nature A disorder is referred to as a disturbance in physical or mental health or functions that causes dysfunction. Some types of disorder are discussed below ADHD The nature of this disorder is related to, behavioural changes or disorders.
- About 10% of school going kids suffer from ADHD, Boys are more suspectible to this disorder than girls.
- The common symptoms of this disorder are hyperactivity, trouble focusing on a task, very short span of attention and missing details.
- Children with ADHD may understand what’s expected of them but have trouble following the instructions required to complete the task.
‘ Young children mostly act in this way when they are excited or anxious but the difference with ADHD is that these symptoms are present over a longer period of time and take place in different settings. The ADHD disorder affects a child’s academic performance as well as social behaviour.
- Genes and Heredity Genetic inheritance and abnormalities in genes may cause this disorder.
- Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD-like symptoms.
- Environmental Causes Prenatal exposure to smoke, exposure to high levels of lead as a toddler and preschooler is possible contributor.
SPD This is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. The SPD is related to mental nature. There the sensory inputs are not organised by the brain in an appropriate manner. The common symptoms are showing heightened reactivity to sound, touch or movement.
- Under-reactive in certain situations example not noticing when name is called, lethargic, disinterested, poor motor skills, lack of attention, impulsive behaviours etc.
- The SPD interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.
- They also have delayed communication and social skills.
- SPD also impacts on a person’s ability to interact with different environments.
Causes of SPD are as follows
- Genetic or hereditary factors such as having a family history of autism, SPD.
- Have been understimulated during critical periods of neurological development.
- Have been exposed to variety of environmental toxins.
- Have food allergies.
- Having developmental delays and other, neurological disorders.
ASD The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness which then changes the behaviour. It is a complex,developmental disorder that affects normal brain development. The symptoms of ASD are difficulty in communication and interaction with people.
- They also have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, smelling everything, flipping objects etc.
- Children with ASD also have sensory sensitivities such as not using eye contact, confused by language, repeating a word etc.
- Here the brain does not function in the typical’way due to which they face developmental challenges.
Children and adults with ASD do not acquire good social skills and face many behavioural problems. They often stare at a particular person or object, like a few foods, get over excited by certain sounds etc. Causes of ASD are as follows
- ASD can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
- It can also cause through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.
- Environmental factors related to exposure to drugs, toxins like lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons and dietary factors may cause ASD.
ODD The nature of this disorder is related to social behaviours. This behaviour disorder usually takes place in early teens. Apart from teens, ODD also affects young children especially boys. In children it begins from the age of 8 years. About 2-16% of children are affected by ODD.
- The main symptoms of ODD are similar patterns of anger, irritable mood, saying hateful things, flaring up at trivial matters, seeking revenge etc.
- Here children in their early teens try to defy authority every now and then, they express their defiance by arguing, disobeying, talking back to parents, teachers and other adults.
Though this type of behaviour is normally seen among all the teenagers but the difference in ODD is that the behaviour lasts more than 6 months and is excessive in comparison to other children of the same age. This kind of behaviour often disrupts the child’s normal daily activities and hampers academic performance.
- Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.
- Environment Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also cause ODD.
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder] The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness. This usually takes place in people of middle ages. Males and females both are equally affected by OCD. About 15-20% of the people experience OCD in mild forms.
- The symptoms of this disorder are people doing repetative behaviours, performing routine tasks over an over again or having certain thoughts repeatedly.
- Some examples of this type of disorder are frequent or excessive hand washing, counting to things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked again and again.
These activities occur to such a degree that it affects a person’s life negatively. The OCD can become serious and may cause other problems related to mental illness. Causes of OCD are as follows
- Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
- Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.
- Cognitive Causes This happens when people misinterpret their thoughts like the feeling of dirty hands even when they are cleaned many times.
- Environmental Causes This means stressful situation present in the environment such as within the family or society that triggers OCD in people.
4.4 Disability Etiquettes Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with the people facing physical or mental disabilities. It was started as a clinical play on existing rule sheets, written for non-disabled audiences that were seen as demeaning by civil rights activists in 1970s.
- Always respect the dignity of a disabled person, individuality and desire for independence.
- Treat a person with disability in the same manner and with the same respect and courtesy as with others.
- Speak directly to the person rather than through the friend, attendant or sign-language interpreter who may also be present.
- Never speak about the person as if they are invisible, can’t understand what is being said.,
- Don’t put people with a disability on a pedestal or talk to them in demeaning terms.
Disability Etiquette Guidelines ill Persons with Speech Difficulties
- Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
- Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
- Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
- If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.
Person with Hearing Loss
- Get the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder. Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
- Many persons with hearing loss read lips. Place yourself facing the light source and keep hands, cigarettes and food away from your mouth when talking in order to provide a clear view of your face.
- When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
- Look directly at the person and speak expressively.
- Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
Persons with Vision Loss
- When enter the room, indicate who is there. Let the person know when leaving the room.
- When talking to a person with a visual impairment, begin to identifying yourself by name and that you are speaking to them.
- When offering your assistance, do not grab the person’s cane or arm.
- If you are walking with a person who is blind, offer your arm for him/her to hold.
- Walk at the norma! pace. It is helpful to speak casually and naturally about the environment, objects and buildings you are passing as you walk.
- Not all visually impaired people read Braille. Ask the person what alternative format they prefer.
(iv) Persons with Cognitive / Language Impairments
- Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
- Do not argue with the person.
- Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.
- Give extra time for the person to process what: you are saying and to respond. Look for signs of stress and/Or confusion:
The rules of etiquettes and good manners to deal with people with disabilities are generally the same as the rules for good etiquettes in society. These guidelines address.specific issues which frequently arise for people with disabilities; Since everyone is different, these guidelines only hold true for most individuals most of the time.4.5 Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Physical Activity According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, physical activity generally refers to movement that enhances health.
- It means the movement of the body that uses energy.
- Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga and gardening are a few examples of physical activity.
- For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous intensity.
- Exercise is a type of physical activity that’s planned and structured.
- Lifting weights, taking an aerobics class and playing on a sports team are examples of exercise.
Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Regular physical activity is good for everyone but it’s particularly important for children with special needs. These are most important for their growth and development. There are numbers of advantages of physical activities.
- It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetative behaviours among disabled children.
- Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers.
- This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
- It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
- It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
- It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight and regular exercises help in regulating weight.
- Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.
- This also improves motor skills, brings better balance and body awareness which is lacking in these children.
- Physical exercise finds an outlet to channelise the physical energy which helps these children to cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
- Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
- Physical activity decreases anxiety, reduces depression, and improves mood and outlook in children. In addition, their
- quality of sleep is also improved.
4.6 Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible for Children with Special Need The various strategies or ways by which physical activities can be made accessible for children with special needs are as follows
- Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
- Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipments that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
- Adaptive Physical Education Depending on student’s disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
- Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children, so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
- Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
- Focus on Creative Games Instead of competitive games and physical activities, the strategy is to develop creative games. This helps in team building and cooperation and prevents unnecessary competition and boosts the confidence of these children.
- Accomodations and Modification Since the individual needs of the children with special needs ard different^ it is essential for, the teachers to modify the teaching strategies in order to accommodate the children with disabilities. Therefore constant modification and accommodation is required.
- Professional Courses Developing more professional courses and teacher certification programs for teaching physical education to children with special needs is essential to popularise the adaptive physical education programme.
We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.
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What is the role of the teacher in supporting children’s learning?
Educ a tors teach your child in a holistic way – Learning is not just about the academic. Great educators know how to inspire children and ignite their curiosity about the world around them. It’s about developing the skills children will need to be successful both inside and outside a classroom in a rapidly-changing world,
Sparking a child’s natural curiosity Inspiring them to ask questions Building their confidence and Showing them that knowledge can be gained in all sorts of wonderful ways.
By nurtur ing every part of a child, great educators help to build a strong foundation for emotional, mental, and physical development, which are the building blocks for life.
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What is the role of physical education in our life?
1. Physical activity enhances an individual’s ability to think, concentrate, & focus. – Several research studies show that performing physical activities helps in enlarging the basal ganglia of the brain. The Basal Ganglia is a part of the brain which is responsible to maintain an individual’s capability to focus.
In this current era, students have several diversions in the form of technology (television, tablets, PCs, mobile phones), therefore, it is difficult for them to maintain focus. By promoting physical education, school teachers can help them improve their concentration. Scientific research also reveals that physical education in school helps improve the connections between neurons in the brain.
Healthy and well-connected neurons help improve the over-all thinking ability of students, thus, making them more efficient in the classroom. Related Article: Exercise Ideas to Support Children with Autism and ADHD
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What is the role of physical education teacher for educating children with special needs class 11?
4. Physical Education Teacher: –
Physical Education Teachers generally determine the abilities of students with special needs that may need implementing to support their participation in sports and fitness. The children need the support and encouragement from physical education teachers to participate regulator in physical activities.