How Formal Education Is Different From Informal Education?

0 Comments

How Formal Education Is Different From Informal Education
The Role of Formal and Informal Education The role of formal and informal education (urbancow, iStockphoto) The role of formal and informal education (urbancow, iStockphoto) Formal education refers to systematic, curriculum-based, teacher-directed learning that happens within an institution such as a school, college, or university.
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal and formal curriculum?

✅ Paper Type: Free Essay ✅ Subject: Education
✅ Wordcount: 1732 words ✅ Published: 10th Aug 2021

Reference this The world is ever changing, and what is taught in schools must also change. The concept of curriculum planning must be viewed critically at the purposes, content and processes in a holistic manner. “How we perceive of curriculum making is important because our conceptions and ways of reasoning about curriculum reflect and shape how we see, think and talk about, study and act on the education made available to students.

Our curriculum conceptions, ways of reasoning and practice cannot be value neutral. They necessarily reflect our assumption about the world, even if those assumptions remain implicit and unexamined. Furthermore, concern with conceptions is not “merely theoretical”. Conceptions emerge from and enter into practice” (Cornbleth, 1990).

In essence, one’s approach to curriculum is shaped by one’s views of the world and their values (philosophy), of how children develop and behave (psychology) and on social issues (sociology) (Harris, 2010). This paper will seek to define the concept of curriculum, the formal, informal and hidden curriculum and provide arguments explaining the extent to which the hidden curriculum has a greater impact than the formal curriculum on the development of learners.

Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Essay Writing Service Depending on one’s conception of curriculum, the definition may vary. But an important point to note is that the definition is not static, it is dynamic in that it changes over time.

According to Todd writing in 1965, “A curriculum is defined as the planned educational experiences offered by a school which can take place anywhere at any time in the multiple context of the school (pg 2). Another definition as posited by Wilson writing in 1990, defines the curriculum as “Anything and everything that teaches a lesson, planned or otherwise.

He argues that humans are born learning, and therefore the curriculum must encompass a combination of the hidden, informal, formal, political and societal curricula as students learn continuously through experiences and modeled behaviours from their teachers and other members of staff whether administrative, ancillary or otherwise.

Dimensions of curriculum planning will encompass the elements or approaches, the types (formal, informal and hidden) and the conceptions or orientations. Whichever type of curriculum is adopted by a department, emphasis must be on the needs of the students, the school context and statutory and syllabus requirements.

Wilson (2005) argues that the types of curriculum that exists are open to interpretation as the curriculum reflects the models of instructional delivery and the psychological classifications of learning theories. While he contends that many curricula exist, the formal/overt, informal and hidden curricula are widely used within educational institutions.

The formal curriculum “is simply that which is written as part of formal instruction of schooling experiences. It may refer to a curriculum document, texts, films, and supportive teaching materials that are overtly chosen to support the intentional instructional agenda of a school.

  • Thus, the overt curriculum is usually confined to those written understandings and directions formally designated and reviewed by administrators, curriculum directors and teachers, often collectively” (Wilson, 2005).
  • The formal curriculum therefore embodies the learning activities that are planned, organized and implemented within regular school hours.

The informal curriculum on the other hand refers to the learning experiences adopted from other agencies outside the formal setting such as parents, peers, media and community. The informal curriculum is sometimes referred to as co-curricular activities.

Longstreet and Shane (1993) view the hidden curriculum as “the kinds of learning children derive from the very nature and organizational design of the public school, as well as from the behaviors and attitudes of teachers and administrators” (pg 46). Whichever type of curriculum is chosen to meet the needs of the students within the defined school context and in lieu with the statutory and syllabus requirements must encompass a holistic approach to curriculum planning.

You might be interested:  How To Get Apple Education Discount In India?

Sociologist Philip Jackson coined the term ‘hidden curriculum’ in 1968, although the concept has been around much longer. Jackson argues that what is taught in schools is more than the essence of the curriculum. He thought that schools should be understood as a socialization process where messages are communicated to students through their experience of being in school, not just from things that are unequivocally taught.

From another perspective, “the hidden curriculum is… something coming across to the pupils which may never be spoken in the English lesson or prayed about in assembly. They are picking-up an approach to living and an attitude to learning” (Meighan, 1981). The hidden curriculum, then, provides a leeway for educators to impress upon students their values, beliefs and most importantly, the ‘dominant’ cultural capital.

The concept of cultural capital, developed by Pierre Bourdieu, is “a set of tools and skills acquired through experience that includes knowledge about how to present oneself vis-à-vis relations of power” (Dalmage & Isserles, 2000, p.160). Bourdieu attempts to expand the understanding of capital to something more than just economic by identifying culture as a form of capital.

His concern in relation to cultural capital was with its continual transmission in ways that perpetuate social inequalities. Bourdieu explains school success by the amount and type of cultural capital inherited from the family milieu rather than by measures of individual talent or achievement. For him, ability is socially constructed and is the result of individuals having access to large amounts of the dominant cultural capital.

Cultural capital includes one’s language, etiquette, preferences, and taste, which Bourdieu (1977, p.82) terms “subtle modalities in the relationship to culture and language.” The hidden curriculum therefore has a greater impact than the formal curriculum in the transmission of cultural capital.

  1. This is apparent as the formal curriculum is limited to the school context (academic) and within prescribed hours while the hidden curriculum factors in the social construct of individuals and the society in which they live.
  2. These subtle modalities are impressed upon them unintentionally within the delivery of the curriculum and usually have a big influence on them.

Take for example teaching a Social Studies lesson on democracy at the secondary level. If the students are not given a voice in the classroom and are treated irrationally, they may have a negative perspective about the nature of society. Jackson writing in 1968 contends that the hidden curriculum “emphasized skills such as learning to wait quietly, patiently, exercising restraint, completing work, cooperating with others, being punctual and respecting peer differences” (Margolis, n.d.

pg 5). These features clearly had nothing to do with educational goals. These educational goals were always covered in the formal curriculum and neglect the inculcation of life skills that would promote social change and conformity, preventing any state of anomie (normlessness) in schools and mainstream society.

Robert Dreeben as cited in Margolis article “The Hidden Curriculum in Higher Education” contends that these skills taught students to form “transient social relationships” and accept responsibility for their actions. He further argued that the hidden curriculum taught students values such as independence and achievement which will be essential for their transition from childhood to adulthood.

  1. Within the secondary schools, work is usually assigned by teachers with no indication that it must be done.
  2. The hidden curriculum encompasses such an enquiry approach where students must create their own learning experiences rather than relying on the teacher for strict guidance.
  3. Such guidance is usually systematic and deliberate and falls within the formal curriculum and subsequently does not teach the value of independence or any other life skill.

What usually happens is where student’s thoughts are merely those of the teacher. Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You! Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

  • View our services An argument put forward by Palermo 1990, stated that “These days we talk a lot about objectives, subjects, timetables, syllabuses, standards and technologies.
  • These are all important issues, but they seem to me like the tip of the iceberg, what we can see and hear and talk about: the “overt” part of a curriculum.

But what we do not see is just as important, and perhaps more: it is the hidden or “covert” curriculum, and this is made up of what people – teachers, students, parents, administrators – bring to it, in terms of their beliefs, attitudes, expectations, motivations.

It seems to me that this “submerged” curriculum is largely unknown, rarely spoken about, and very often underestimated. Quite frankly, she is right. Her argument is that while the formal curriculum is necessary, the hidden curriculum provides a more holistic approach in ensuring that students’ cognitive, psychological and behavioural traits are taken into consideration when devising a curriculum.

You might be interested:  Which State Is Spending More Budget On Education?

The hidden curriculum although unintended usually facilitates the transmission of beliefs with affect how students make decisions regarding their life. This curriculum provides students with a voice in the classroom and does not follow a systematic and deliberate approach to teaching and learning.

  • The hidden curriculum cannot be used in isolation from the formal curriculum.
  • Both complement each other and are essential for the academic, vocational and social development of learners.
  • The formal approach stresses academics within prescribed hours while the hidden curriculum emphasize students forming social transient relationships and the acquisition of societal norms, values and beliefs which in turn affects one desire to participate in deviant acts.

This is largely due to the unintended social modalities impressed upon them during the teaching and learning process. While researchers argue that the hidden curriculum elevates and perpetuates the culture of the dominant class – a process termed cultural reproduction, they will agree that this curriculum proves more beneficial to oneself and the society in which they live.
View complete answer

How is formal education different?

Conclusion – In brief, we can broadly categorize learning into two main types; formal and informal learning. The main difference between formal and informal education is that formal education is planned and structured and takes place in a traditional learning environment, whereas informal education is unplanned and does not take place in a traditional learning setting.
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal education and nonformal education?

Summary – Non-Formal Education vs Informal Education – The key difference between non-formal and informal education is that non-formal education denotes the structured and planned educational programs that take place outside of the traditional learning classroom setting, whereas informal education refers to the unstructured and formless education received by learners in any place of society.
View complete answer

What is the difference between formal and informal for kids?

What is the difference between formal and informal language? – Formal and informal language serve different purposes. The tone, the choice of words and the way the words are put together vary between the two styles. Formal language is less personal than informal language.

It is used when writing for professional or academic purposes like university assignments. Formal language does not use colloquialisms, contractions or first person pronouns such as ‘I’ or ‘We’. Informal language is more casual and spontaneous. It is used when communicating with friends or family either in writing or in conversation.

It is used when writing personal emails, text messages and in some business correspondence. The tone of informal language is more personal than formal language. Examples of formal and informal language are shown below:
View complete answer

What is the main difference between the formal and informal?

Touro University Writing Center

Go to Homepage Departments Writing Center Tutorials Formal vs. Informal Language

What is the difference between formal and informal language? Formal and informal language serve different purposes in written communications depending on the reader (Audience) and reason for writing (Purpose). The tone, the choice of words and the way the words are put together vary between the two different styles.

Formal language is less personal than informal language. It is used when writing for professional or academic purposes like graduate school assignments. Formal language does not use colloquialisms, contractions or first-person pronouns such as “I” or “We.” Informal language is more casual and spontaneous.

It is used when communicating with friends or family either in writing or in conversation. It is used when writing personal emails, text messages and in some business correspondence. The tone of informal language is more personal than formal language. Examples of formal and informal language are shown below:
View complete answer

What is the difference between formal and informal education class 11?

Difference between Formal and Informal Education – The main difference between formal and informal education is that formal learning is mainly “classroom-based education”, provided by trained teachers and informal learning is mainly “practical based education” acquired by real-life experiences.

  1. The formal type also helps the child to acquire and adapt their learning skills more flexibly and in a systematic manner within the classroom, providing the technical skills and knowledge for improving their professional growth quickly.
  2. However, the informal type satisfies the main curiosity of the child by incorporating certain practical examples to gather more informative data and knowledge about the appropriate situation.

It surely encourages the student to enhance their critical thinking level with the help of conversation, exploration, associations and enlargement,
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal and formal learning brainly?

Answer: A formal education is what students learn in a traditional classroom. This type of education usually begins around age 4 and can stretch all the way through college. Informal education is anything learned more independently outside of the traditional classroom.
View complete answer

You might be interested:  How To Promote Quality Education As A Student?

Why is formal education better than informal education?

Informal learning vs formal learning – To succeed in life, a formal education has always been important – educational institutions and employers use qualifications to gauge a person’s intellect and commitment to a subject. What a student has studied in secondary school impacts on what they can study at college and university.

The same can be said for employment and career choices – an employer that wants to hire a journalist isn’t looking for someone who has a background in mathematics. Formal qualifications provide definite proof of someone’s knowledge and skills. Informal learning can be harder to prove, but even within the jobs market it often forms an important part of the interview process.

Interviewers may ask questions about a person’s personal interests, the greatest challenges they have overcome and even who has been the most influential person in an interviewee’s life. These experiences can easily come from an informal learning process as opposed to a formal one and they ask these questions deliberately to gain an understanding of a person’s character.
View complete answer

What is formal education in your own words?

Formal education – Formal education refers to the structured education system that runs from primary (and in some countries from nursery) school to university, and includes specialised programmes for vocational, technical and professional training. Formal education often comprises an assessment of the learners’ acquired learning or competences and is based on a programme or curriculum which can be more or less closed to adaptation to individual needs and preferences.
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal and formal learning quizlet?

What is the difference, if any, between ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ education? Formal education occurs in schools, whereas informal education may occur almost anywhere.
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal and formal paragraph?

Formal and Informal Style – Whether you use formal or informal style in writing will depend on the assignment itself, its subject, purpose, and audience. Formal language is characterized by the use of standard English, more complex sentence structures, infrequent use of personal pronouns, and lack of colloquial or slang terms.

standard or nonstandard English choice of vocabulary use of contractions use of pronouns

View complete answer

What is the difference and similarity between formal and informal learning?

The background: Formal, informal and other types of learning – Formal learning is usually an organized activity in a classroom setting, Informal learning, on the other hand, is usually unstructured, spontaneous, and, very often, unintentional, If informal learning comes consciously with a defined purpose, it becomes non-formal.

That’s really where online training should sit: a formal transfer of knowledge, with elements that feel unstructured and more like a game. There’s a reason this approach works so well. It’s the benefit of using technology to create an immersive learning experience. Formal eLearning tools include infographics, assessments, video, and audio content; interactive in some ways, but still traditional approaches.

includes gamification, experiential learning, and, Instructional Designers need to use all the design tools available to them to ensure the right balance of formal and non-formal learning elements.
View complete answer

What are some of the biggest differences between formal and informal writing?

Formal language is less personal than informal language. It is used when writing for professional or academic purposes like university assignments. Formal language does not use colloquialisms, contractions or first person pronouns such as ‘I’ or ‘We’. Informal language is more casual and spontaneous.
View complete answer

What is the difference between formal and informal Organisation?

The structure of jobs and positions, which is created by management is known as Formal Organisation. The network of social relationships arising out of interaction among employees is known as Informal Organisation. It is formed deliberately as a part of the organisation’s rules and policies.
View complete answer

What is formal curriculum?

The formal curriculum is designed as a framework for instructional planning that outlines broad goals and strategies to reach them. The foundations of the formal curriculum are based on publicly valued intellectual, social, cultural, political, and economic funds of knowledge.

Nowledge, skills, and understandings that have educational value to the individual and society are included. Often a school district’s formal curriculum is based on the state’s curriculum frameworks. Learner-centered goals rather than teaching-centered goals are the hallmark of 21st-century curriculum.

Typically, this curriculum comprises high expectations to challenge the students and be competitive with the international educational community. The formal curriculum is readily available in written documents and/or displayed on Web sites. It may also be referred to as the planned curriculum, written curriculum, or,
View complete answer

What is the difference between informal and formal learning quizlet?

What is the difference, if any, between ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ education? Formal education occurs in schools, whereas informal education may occur almost anywhere.
View complete answer