For What Special Education Technology Is Used?

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For What Special Education Technology Is Used
How Technology Helps – The central purpose of technology in special education is to enable students to learn in a way that accommodates their individual learning styles and limitations. Equally important is helping them experience:

Greater independenceLess anxietyImproved connection with their classmatesNatural, more comfortable and effective communicationIncreased academic performance

Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation, a Columbus, Indiana public school district with approximately 12,000 students, provides one example of how technology in the classroom can help students with special needs excel. According to a U.S. Department of Education report, students in that district who were hesitant to communicate face-to-face became engaged in class discussions in the online setting.
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What is the purpose of using technology in education?

The Benefits of Technology in Education – Teachers want to improve student performance, and technology can help them accomplish this aim. To mitigate the challenges, administrators should help teachers gain the competencies needed to enhance learning for students through technology.

  • Additionally, technology in the classroom should make teachers’ jobs easier without adding extra time to their day.
  • Technology provides students with easy-to-access information, accelerated learning, and fun opportunities to practice what they learn.
  • It enables students to explore new subjects and deepen their understanding of difficult concepts, particularly in STEM.

Through the use of technology inside and outside the classroom, students can gain 21st-century technical skills necessary for future occupations. Still, children learn more effectively with direction. The World Economic Forum reports that while technology can help young students learn and acquire knowledge through play, for example, evidence suggests that learning is more effective through guidance from an adult, such as a teacher.

Leaders and administrators should take stock of where their faculty are in terms of their understanding of online spaces. From lessons learned during this disruptive time, they can implement solutions now for the future. For example, administrators could give teachers a week or two to think carefully about how to teach courses not previously online.

In addition to an exploration of solutions, flexibility during these trying times is of paramount importance. Below are examples of how important technology is in education and the benefits it offers to students and teachers.
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What kinds of educational technology are used in education?

Types of Educational Technology – There are three types of educational technology: Synchronous and Asynchronous, Linear learning, and Collaborative Learning. Let’s discuss these educational technology types in detail to get a clear understanding.1. Synchronous and Asynchronous Synchronous and Asynchronous are the first of the educational technology types.

Due to new inventions being made every day, students can learn in or out of the classroom. Learning can be self-based with the help of various resources available on the internet), synchronous Learning and Asynchronous Learning. Now students can learn online through Distance Learning Programmes, Virtual Classrooms.

Synchronous Learning, as the name, means, ‘ existing or occurring simultaneously ‘, refers to discussing thoughts and information regarding certain topics with others simultaneously. Some examples are where people are online and working jointly, like face-to-face discussions, chats rooms or virtual classrooms, live teaching and feedback sessions, Skype conversations, etc.

Since the students are working in groups, they widen the range of their thinking by listening to others’ thoughts about the same topics. This will also help in learning and gathering more information which will further result in boosting their knowledge. Asynchronous means ‘not in real-time’. So, Asynchronous Learning is mainly done through blogs, emails, online textbooks, audio/video courses, hypertext documents, wikis, etc.

In this type of educational technology, students can learn at their tempo. If they don’t understand the lesson at once, they can read it again without falling behind in the class. Through online courses, students can complete their program while doing internships, work, or sports, or if failed, they can repeat their course without any embarrassment of being in the same class with younger students.2.

Linear Learning Liner Learning is the second number in educational technology types. Linear Learning is all about Computer-Based Training (CBT), where the information about the Programme is sent to students’ computers, tablets, or smartphones. It looks much like reading an online manual or book. It is frequently used in teaching static processes, like using software or completing mathematical equations.

The training is similar to Web-Based Training (sent over the Internet using a web browser). CBT is different from traditional learning as there is no classroom, textbooks, or manuals. Instead, videos and animation can be included in CBT which will help students understand the topics more precisely.

Furthermore, with the help of Computer-Based Training, assessments such as multiple-choice questions, drag-and-drop, and others can be stored easily and recorded using online software and providing feedback/results simultaneously to users. Lastly, users can get the result online in the form of a certificate.

However, there are some challenges, as creating the required CBTs requires significant resources. Sometimes, the CBT may be complex to use. Also, there is no interaction between students or teachers, resulting in no exchange of thoughts and knowledge. Some examples of CBT are – training people in how to operate heavy equipment (e.g., cranes) and vehicles (e.g., aircraft) or how to work safely in hazardous environments (e.g., oil rigs).3.

  1. Collaborative Learning Collaborative means ‘ to work with another person or group to achieve or do something, so Collaborative Learning is how learning is done in groups by working together.
  2. Problem-solving, learning new concepts or completing tasks are, provided in groups of two or more to work together.

In this way, individuals can learn through collecting data, listening to others’ thoughts rather than simply learning the provided resources. This way, they are dependent on teachers (the primary source of skills and knowledge). In the End So the gist of the above data is that these different types of educational technology are the new era for learning, where individuals need not attend classes, they can learn from anywhere regardless of age.
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What is the main purpose of technology?

The purpose of technology is to drive, enable and influence : Growth and innovation. Collaboration and engagement across stakeholders.
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What are the three main goals of technology?

Keeping things moving – Over and above all of the detailed company activity, the vast majority of organizations have three big goals in common: to save time, save money and keep their systems secure. Success in achieving these begins with the IT team and its ability to keep the company’s tech moving – avoiding extended downtime and its impacts.

  1. Businesses across the world have been using our remote-control solution,, to do just this – and plenty of them have relied on it for many, many years.
  2. Why? Because it’s a full-featured, mature solution that has been tried and tested in all sorts of environments – and it delivers! Let’s take a look at how can help your organization’s big goals Goal 1: Save time With Manager, your IT team members can quickly respond to all sorts of IT issues across multiple sites in any location (without the need for firewall configuration) – all from their workstations.

The unique PIN Connect feature makes connections effortless, as the technician and user simply enter the same unique PIN to create a quick and easy connection.

  • Complementary tools also allow remote hands-on access, including the ability to remotely power on and off a computer and remotely log in to a PC, as well as a powerful scripting and scheduling suite to enable routine tasks to be automated and run at pre-defined intervals.
  • In addition to supporting simple tasks such as sending files from machine A to B, Manager goes one step further by offering one-to-many file distribution; the ability to transfer a file from one PC to any number of selected computers in a single action – for example, ensuring staff across the company can receive important documents simultaneously.
  • With its one-to-many capabilities, such as monitoring multiple systems in real time and showing your screen to multiple recipients, you can multi-task more effectively by running multiple support sessions at once and switching between them when needed.
  • Goal 2: Save money
  • With its multi-platform support and flexible network options (LAN, WAN or the internet), Manager provides a single solution for remote control access across any organization, of any size – all without the need for a third-party service, ongoing subscription costs or manual visits.
  • The single solution approach also helps protect against unnecessary costs associated with using and maintaining multiple tools for remote access, which can be time-consuming and a potential security risk.

Manager’s unique range of supporting tools also ensures maximum efficiency and, most importantly, the minimum level of system downtime and lost productivity as support issues are being addressed. For example, you can quickly view and remotely edit the registry of a remote computer without any interaction with – or interruption to – the desktop user, ensuring productivity levels aren’t affected.

  1. Goal 3: Stay secure
  2. Manager is the choice of military and financial institutions across the globe, simply because it goes above and beyond industry standards.
  3. A free, unique Gateway allows systems across the internet to connect securely and communicate without the need to use a third party-hosted solution, so you retain full control of your data.
  4. Manager also uses four levels of encryption : from activity logs and user acknowledgements to 256-bit encryption, smartcard support, AD integration and more – allowing you to control exactly who has access to what and when.
  5. Learn more about the other ways Manager can help with your company’s goals,
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: 3 Big Tech Goals & How Clever Technology Gets Delivered
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What is the best reason that technology is important?

1. Technology Improves Communication – Twenty years ago, before the digital revolution, businesses had to rely on physical mails and face-to-face meetings to effectively communicate their thoughts. With the widespread use of technology, people can communicate from thousands of miles away from each other.
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What are the 3 advantages of technology?

Technological influence on business activity – The speed at which technology advances is getting faster. Businesses need to be aware of the technology that is available to them, and how it might influence their sales, costs and marketing.

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New technology has a range of advantages and disadvantages for businesses and business stakeholders. It is important for businesses to assess the risk and make informed decisions about whether to use the latest technology. Advantages of new technology include:

  • easier, faster and more effective communication
  • better, more efficient manufacturing techniques
  • less wastage
  • more efficient stock management and ordering systems
  • the ability to develop new, innovative approaches
  • more effective marketing and promotion
  • new sales avenues

Disadvantages of new technology include:

  • increased dependency on technology
  • often large costs involved with using the latest technology (especially for small businesses)
  • increased risk of job cuts
  • closure of high street stores in favour of online business
  • security risk in relation to data and fraud
  • required regular updates
  • can go down or have faults, which can stop all business operations instantly
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What are 3 positive impacts of technology?

Technology seen as positive, especially for quickly and easily sharing information – Overall, 52% of U.S. adults say the effect of technology has been largely positive. Within this group, 57% cite the vast network of information and communication that is available, easily accessed and shared across the world as a benefit for society.

  1. Another 21% see improvements to health, medicine and medical research as benefits of technology.
  2. Other ways technology is seen to have a positive effect on society include increased knowledge and understanding, improvements in industry and jobs and an interconnectedness of the world as a result of globalization.

Just 8% of Americans say technology has mostly had negative effects on society. The leading reason for this perspective is the feeling that technology has led to a breakdown of communication and human interaction (41% of this group). Another 28% say technology has degraded society’s morals and values, leading to a reliance on instant gratification and promoting negativity.
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What are the 3 concepts of educational technology?

Unit-I Educational Technology Meaning of Technology The word ‘Technology’ is derived from the two Greek words namely Technic and Logia.‘Technic’ -means ‘art or skill.’ ‘ Logia’ – means ‘Science or Study’,So simplest meaning of ‘Technology’ is “Science of study of an art or skill.” Definitions of Technology “Technology is Knowledge organized for Production” – Sachs, I.

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to a practical purpose” – Page, T. “Technology is the set of instruments and skills which are used to satisfy the needs of the community” Hierra, A. Meaning of Education The word ‘Education’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Educatum’, which means ‘To bring out’,

In the sense, the meaning of Education is to bring out the better qualities of the individual. Acc. to Ross, the word ‘ Education’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Educare’ which means ‘to bring up’ or ‘to raise’. It means that education is that process which brings up or rears the individual in the right way.

  • Meaning of Educational Technology There are three views regarding the meaning of educational technology.
  • Educational Technology 1 (ET 1) The first view which may call Educational Technology 1 (ET 1) refers to the application of physical sciences and engineering technologyto provide mechanical instruments or “hardware” which can be used for instructional purposes.

This is the view of James O. Finn and others (1960).E.g. Tape-recorders (including language laboratory), television, teaching machines and computer- based teaching. Educational Technology 2 (ET 2) The second view which we may call Educational Technology 2 (ET 2) refers to the application of scientific principles or ‘ software approach’ to instruction.

This is the view of Skinner, Gagne and others. Educational Technology 3 (ET 3) The third and the modern view of Educational Technology 3 (ET 3) as described by Davis and Hartley (1972), incorporates both ET 1 and ET 2 through the application of a ‘system approach’ to education and training. Definitions of Educational Technology “Educational technology may be defined as the application of the laws as well as recent discoveries of science and technology to the process of education” – S.S.

Kulkarni. “Educational technology is the application of scientific process to man’s learning conditions” – Robert A. Cox. “Educational technology is an application of scientific knowledge about learning to practical learning situation” – Bloomer. Characteristics of Educational Technology

  1. ET has contributed in developing various methods e.g. Micro teaching method, Interaction analysis, Audio Visual Aids and Programmed learning method.
  2. In the field of ET, Psychology, Science and technology, system, art, AV aids and machines are used.
  3. It is based on the application of the scientific knowledge.
  4. It is helpful in making the teaching process objective, easy, clear, interesting and scientific.
  5. It is a continuous dynamic technology.
  6. It is an important medium of communication.
  7. A desired change is possible in the behaviour of teachers and students.

Revolution and Development of Educational Technology Erich Ashley (1967) has identified four revolutions in education. They are,

  • First Revolution: Revolution of shifting the task of educating the young ones from parents to teacher and from home to schools.
  • Second Revolution: Revolution of adoption of the written word as a tool of education.
  • Third Revolution: Revolution as a result of invention of printing and availability of books and other teaching-learning material.
  • Fourth Revolution: Revolution on account of development in electronic, chiefly involving radio, television, cassette recorder and computer, and development of systems concept.

Origin of Educational Technology

  • Sidney Pressey of a University in Ohio, America who used a teaching machine in the field of teaching in 1926.
  • 1930-40 Lumsdain and Glaser- Mechanized education (Models of teaching).
  • 1950- B.F Skinner’s Programmed Learning.
  • 1950- Bryn more in England the term ‘Educational Technology’,
  • S Bloom (1956) was introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives,
  • In 1960 Flanders introduced the concept of interaction analysis model of teaching,
  • Micro-teaching technique first adopted at StanfordUniversity in USA (1961) by W.Allen et.al.
  • Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) was first introduced by Keller in 1965.
  • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) was developed by O.K Moore in 1966.

TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION Introduction The term technology in education is a service concept like technology in the service of agriculture of farmers or science in the service of mankind. It refers to the use of equipment and machines for educational purposes.

It involves the use of a wide range of audio- visual equipments, hardware and sophisticated electronic devices like films, projectors, radio, television, tape recorder, teaching machines and computers etc. Educational technology as explained earlier is a wider term than technology in education. It includes hardware approach, software approach and systems approach.

Educational Technology is broadly classified into the following two heads:

  1. Technology of Education.
  2. Technology in Education.

1. Technology of Education It is inherent in education itself. It refers to the application of behavioural sciences like psychology of educational theories and practical teaching –learning problems, instruction and motivation etc. It is concerned with the study of educational problems and the techniques to be used in solving the teaching-learning problems so that best results should be achieved.

Broadly speaking, technologies of planning, financing and administration are also covered under the concept of technology of education. Techniques of curriculum planning, transacting and evaluating also come under technology of education. In technology of education, we use derived from psychology of learning.

In general, following techniques are included in technology of education:

  1. Analysis of instructional problems.
  2. Selection of instruments for evaluation
  3. Selection of strategies to obtain desired result from the teaching-learning process.
  4. Teacher behaviour.
  5. Programmed learning.
  6. System analysis.

2.Technology in Education Broadly speaking, technology in education implies the use of implements, tools and machines in education in the same manner as we use these for the development of agriculture and gardening and industry and in fact our everyday life to reap the fruit of scientific and technological developments.

Under technology in education we include electronic media projector, film, radio, T.V, teaching machine, computer and internet etc. Technology in education refers to the application of engineering principles and technology in the process of education. Basically it is called hardware technology. Silverman (1968) called this type of educational technology as ‘Relative Technology’ and technology of education as ‘Constructive Educational Technology’.

Differences between Technology of Education and Technology in Education

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Areas Technology of education Technology in education
1. Basis It is based on child psychology (age, ability and mental level). In is based on the principles of physical sciences or engineering sciences.
2. Approach Its approach is identified as software approach. Its approach is identified as hardware approach.
3. Origin Its origin lies in the application of behavioural sciences to the problems. Its origin lies in the application of physical sciences or engineering to education.
4. Examples Text books, work books, news paper etc. TV, Radio, Slide Projector, Computer, OHP etc.
5. Relation It is related to learning aids. It is related to teaching aids.
6. Requirement The use of this approach does not require skilled personnel as in hardware technology. Skilled personnel in hardware technology are needed.
7. Flexibility This approach is very flexible This approach is relatively rigid.
8. Type It is called constructive educational technology It is called relative technology
9. contribution to educational system This approach is very helpful in understanding the need of the learners and educating them accordingly. It is useful in mass education programmes.
10. Cost It is less costly. It is expensive.

NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Use of ET is needed in the process of education because of following reasons.1.Population Explosion

  • Populations of Asian countries are increasing at a very fast speed and we cannot educate all these people just by using teachers in the class.
  • Modern media of communication like TV, Internet and CDs etc. can impart education to millions of people together in one setting.

Fast Generation of New knowledge

  • New knowledge is expanding at a very fast speed.
  • It is almost doubling in just 3 years.
  • A teacher is not supposed to impart this huge amount of knowledge by tutorial or classroom teaching.
  • ET can perform this function very easily.

Development of new strategies

It is the ET that has helped to develops new strategies in the field of education like,

  1. Microteaching (inculcation of teaching skills among teachers),
  2. Programmed instruction (Preparation of instructional materials in written or CAI forms for individualized learning).
  3. Instructional analysis (analysis of teaching materials into convenient parts to be presented to students one by one) and use of hardware technology in education etc.

Controlled Atmosphere

  • Education cannot be treated as plaything by some teachers after the introduction of ET.
  • It has made the whole process of teaching objective, clear, scientific and interesting.
  • The teacher controls the classroom environment in his own favour but his performance is evaluated simultaneously by applying tests.

Importance of Teacher’s role

  • It emphasizes theories & Principles of teaching more than those of learning.
  • Thus, it has removed many of the defects of ET and has raised the significance & relevance of a teacher in the class.

Mass extension of Model teaching

  • The facilities of radio television and interest are new available of a large scale.
  • By demonstrating the effective teaching of renowned teachers on these media we can benefit millions of students together.
  • Even the less effective and less skilled teachers can take the benefit of these demonstrations & improve their teaching.

Advantages to private students

  • Many universities have given permission to students for private examinations, even in higher education.
  • These students do not attend classes
  • In order to maintain standard of education in higher education, the use of ET becomes a necessity.

Beneficial for teacher training colleges

  • Even teacher training colleges cannot produce good teachers without the use of ET.
  • It is because; this branch of education puts emphasis on the modification of teacher’s behaviour.

(E.g.) we can develop teaching skills in student with the help of micro-teaching techniques.

Improvement of school Administration

  • ET helps us to analyze the problems of school administration scientifically leading to improvement in the system.
  • This is done by applying various combinations of inputs or adopting the procedure followed by the other school systems.

Preservation of knowledge

By using hardware technology, we can preserve knowledge in audio and video cassettes, CDs & floppy disks (Pen drive)

Development of teaching models

  • When a definite combination of inputs and strategies gives good result repeatedly in a number of class room situations.
  • It can be translated into teaching models to be used universally.
  • It can be also lead to the development of teaching theories.

Creation of Interesting learning situations

ET can transform the teaching-learning process from burden to enjoy which, psychologically very sound for students.

(e.g.) use of material aids in teaching increases the interest of students. UTILITY / USE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR TEACHERS

  1. It has provided scientific and systematic approach to teachers to conduct action research in the classroom situations to overcome the classroom problems related to classroom environment, content, curriculum etc.
  2. It helps the teacher to modernize and mechanize the teaching-learning process. It also helps the learners to study at their own speed/rate with the help of programmed instruction on video or computers.
  3. ET supplements the teacher, with AV-aids to make the teaching-learning process more effective.
  4. It helps in teacher’s professional growth.
  5. Add to their teaching competence, modify their teaching behaviour and style, inculcate a scientific outlook, approach & attitude and help them transfer these to their learners.
  6. ET supplements teacher in their instructional programmes through the structured lessons for remedial, enrichment or drill purposes.
  7. The learners get the training of self instruction and teachers are relieved of the burden of routine repetition for exercise & revision purposes.

FORMS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY The various forms of ET are as follows, I. Teaching Technology II. Instructional Technology III. Behavioural Technology I. TEACHING TECHNOLOGY

  1. Introduction
  2. Content of Teaching Technology
  3. Assumptions of Teaching Technology
  4. Characteristics of Teaching Technology

1. Introduction

  • Teaching is the social and professional activity.
  • Teaching is purposeful activity. The ultimate goal of teaching is to bring all round development of a child.
  • Teaching is an art as well as science because teaching can be studied objectively and scientifically.
  • The Chief exponents of Teaching Technology: I.K. Davies, N.L. Gagne, Herbert, Hunt, Burner and Robert Glaser.
  • Teaching is such a classroom activity which is completed by the interaction between teachers and students.
  • This activity leads to complete development of students.
  • Today teaching is considered ‘Student-Centered’ and not ‘Teacher-Centered’.
  • In other words, instead of teaching by the teacher, the learning by the student is emphasized.

Content of Teaching Technology

K. Davies and Robert Glaser (1962) have developed the content of teaching technology and classified into 4 elements.

  1. Planning of Teaching
  2. Organization of teaching
  3. Leading of teaching
  4. Controlling of teaching

i. Planning of Teaching

A teacher makes proper plan to what he is to teach in the class. In planning he does 3 things/activities.

  1. Task analysis (He analyses the content and arranges such sub contents into systematic manner).
  2. Identification of Objectives (i.e. what changes he has to bring in the behaviour of his students).
  3. Writing learning Objectives (they can be evaluated at the end of the task).

ii. Organization of Teaching

  • This is the second stage of teaching.
  • This stage is particularly related to the presentation of the subject-matter.
  • In organizing, a teacher does the following things,
  1. He selects suitable teaching strategies and techniques.
  2. He selects or prepares suitable material aids for making the presentation of the subject –matter effective.
  3. He matches the strategies and material aids with the nature of the sub content to give such an experience to his students which is conducive to the realization of teaching objectives.

iii. Leading of teaching

  • This stage is related to communication strategies and reinforcement devices.
  • The techniques of motivation are employed for leading the behaviours of the students.
  • The knowledge regarding reports between teacher and students is considered under this step.

iv. Controlling of Teaching

  • The last step concerns with evaluation of teaching.
  • The main focus of this step is to assess the learning objectives in terms of student’s performance.
  • The learner’s performance provides the basis for the feedback to teacher and learners.

Assumptions of Teaching Technology

The content of teaching technology is based on the following assumptions.

  • Teaching is a scientific process and it has two major components: Content and Communication
  • A close relationship may be established between teaching and learning.
  • Teaching skills can be developed with the help of feedback devices.
  • Teaching and learning are mutually inter-related (i.e.) they are affected with each other. In otherwise means that better teaching leads to better learning and better learning environment leads to better teaching.
  • Modification and improvement can be made in teaching activities according to the situations (i.e.) there is no general formula applicable to all circumstances.
  • Appropriate conditions can be created by teaching for effective learning.

Characteristics of Teaching Technology

The following are the main features of Teaching Technology.

  1. All the 3 domains of objectives: cognitive, affective and psychomotor can be achieved by this technology.
  2. It can make the teaching more effective.
  3. Teaching technology is based on philosophical, sociological and scientific knowledge of education.
  4. Teaching can be organized at 3 levels namely: memory, understanding and reflective level of teaching.
  5. As a system it consists of the inputs, process and outputs with the focus on teachers.
  6. The teaching-learning process can be made effective with the help of teaching technology.

II. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction

  • The instruction has an important role in human learning. The systematic actions which induce learning is known as instruction. (or)
  • Instruction means communication of information by means other than a teacher. For example various types of audio-visual aids can guide the students. The Correspondence Course and Open University students accomplish the task of instructions through press and television.
  • Actually instructional technology is based upon Hardware approach.
  • The instruction stands for development knowledge of and beliefs.
  • Instructional technology means a network of techniques or devices employed to accomplish a set of learning objectives.
  • It is based on psychological and scientific principles to instruction.
  • The origin of IT is from psychological laboratory experiments.
  • The most important example of IT is ‘Programmed Instruction’.
  • The Chief exponents of IT: B.F Skinner, Bruner, Glaser, Gilbert and Mager.
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Content of Instructional Technology

  • The instructional technology involves the strategies and tactics which can be used outside and inside the class room teaching.
  • Teaching is an instruction but the instruction is not the teaching.
  • The instructional technology consists of the following content:
  1. Meaning of I.T
  2. Definition of Programmed instruction and its Origin
  3. Structure of Linear programming and its Principles
  4. Structure of Branching programming and its Principles.
  5. Development of Programmed instruction material i. Planning, ii. Writing frames, iii. Evaluation.
  6. Learner Controlled instruction and CAI.

Assumptions of Instructional Technology

The instructional technology involves the following assumptions:

  • A pupil can learn according to his needs and capacities. (It means that an instruction cannot benefit the entire student equally, howsoever it is good).
  • A pupil can learn even in the absence of the teacher.
  • Reinforcement can be provided continuously by the use of instruction.
  • The subject matter can be divided into its various elements and each element can be taught / presented independently through this technology.
  • Students can be given feed back by instructional activities also, (i.e.) effective communication can provide feedback to learners.

Characteristics of Instructional Technology

The following are the main features of instructional technology

  • Objectives of Cognitive domain can be achieved by the use of this technology.
  • Right responses of students can be reinforced regularly which will lead to further right responses to occur.
  • By the use of this technology, students can learn according to their need and speed (rate).
  • It provides the deep insight into the content structure and sequence of its elements.
  • The instructional theory may be developed by using this technology in learning process.
  • It helps in development of ‘Learner-Centered’ education.

III. BEHAVIOURAL TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

  • This technology is closely related to psychology.
  • Psychology is the Science of behaviour and learning is the modification of behaviour through activities and experiences.
  • It is an application of scientific knowledge or modifying teacher’s behaviour.
  • It is also called as ‘Training Technology’
  • The chief exponents of B.T: Flanders, B.F. Skinner, Anderson, and Amidon.

Content of Behavioural Technology

A teacher learns the following subject-matter (topics) under this technology:

  1. Meaning & definition of teacher behaviour.
  2. Methods of observing teacher’s behaviour and its rating (speed).
  3. The interpretation and evaluation of teacher behaviour.
  4. Assumptions & theory of teacher behaviour.
  5. Models of classroom interaction.
  6. Various techniques of developing teacher behaviour such as,
  7. Micro teaching
  8. Team teaching
  9. Interaction analysis techniques
  10. Programmed instruction

Assumptions of Behavioural Technology

This technology is based on the following assumptions:

  • The behaviour of the teacher is social as well as psychological. It means that psychological and social conditions directly affect teachers’ behaviour.
  • Teachers’ behaviour can be observable and measurable.
  • Teachers’ behaviour is relative. It means that some teachers are good and some are not good.
  • Teachers’ behaviour can be modified by training and by using reinforcement devices.

Characteristics of Behavioural Technology

The following are the main features of Behavioural Technology:

  • It has the focus to achieve the psychomotor objectives.
  • The specific teaching skills can be developed in teacher with the help of this technology.
  • The basic foundation is psychology.
  • It is based upon software approach.
  • Reinforcement and feedback are emphasized.
  • It aims at producing effective teachers by modifying the behaviour.
  • It is more useful for teacher training institutions.

Comparison among Different Forms of Educational Technology

Aspect Teaching Technology Instructional Technology Behavioural Technology
1. Exponents D. K Davies, N.L Gagne Herbert, Hunt, Bruner and Robert Glaser. B. F Skinner, Glaser, Gilbert, Mager Flanders, B.F Skinner, Anderson and Amidon
2. Objectives Development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Development of Cognitive domain. Development of psychomotor (skills).
3. Components / approach Content and communication Physical (Hardware) approach Behavioural (Software) approach
4. Basis / Foundation of teaching Philosophical, sociological psychological and scientific Psychological and scientific basis Psychological and cybernetics.
5. content – Planning of teaching – Organization of teaching – Leading of teaching – Controlling of teaching – Task analysis – Formulating objectives in behavioural terms – Reinforcement strategies – Teacher behaviour theories – Teaching models – Observation techniques – Analysis and modifications of Teacher behaviour.
6. Level / Types of teaching and learning – memory – understanding – Reflective – Programmed learning (self) – CAI – Learner Controlled Instruction – Interaction analysis – Micro Teaching – Team Teaching
7. Principles – Art of teaching and science of learning Input, Process, Output Principles of learning feedback and reinforcement
8. Role of teacher As Manager As helper As an observer or supervisor
9. Application Improving classroom teaching and making it effective and purposive Self – instruction, Correspondence education & remedial teaching Teacher education and teacher training

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What are the benefits of using technology in education essay?

Have you ever tried to imagine your life without high-tech technology? How people have found their sources for their need for learning before the invention of the Internet? How long they should have to be commuted to provide their need for education? Technology brought many different things to our life and it affected our current lifestyle so much.

Improvement in technology provides many opportunities for the human to do everything even beyond their imagination. It made our life easier and better in many different aspects of our life such as work, education, healthcare, entertainment, etc. One of the most beneficial changes appeared in our education system.

Technology changed our education system tremendously and this was very beneficial for students, teachers, organizations and the education system. The first advantage of this transition, the learning method changed totally and it is going more accessible for student and decreased the wasting time of teacher which them should put to write the notes on the board or carrying heavy resources to teach the students.

The next good point is to give a chance for students to learn the course practical and theoretical at the same time with a virtual laboratory. Another benefit of technology in the education system is supplying a chance of distance learning. At the rest of the writing, we discuss more detail about the benefits of technology in education.

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Place Order For What Special Education Technology Is Used The first positive aspect of this transition gives a chance for students to communicate with their teachers whenever they got stuck with problems. The teacher can answer questions and solve their problems faster than before and even can give them feedback on their every assignment before seeing them in the class.

  • Furthermore, students have lots of online material to review their courses anywhere and every time they want.
  • The second benefit of this advancement is providing a virtual lab for students.
  • Students can learn better with virtual labs.
  • Because it provides a chance for them to learn the theory and interact with the reality of theory at the same time.

As a result, they can understand that topic better. Another good point for the organization is saving money. They do not need to allocate budget to provide equipment for lab and moreover, they don’t need to put the space for the lab. It is accessible for student anywhere when they want to study.

  1. It’s really a good thing for students regarding they don’t need to commute and waste the money for commuting.
  2. Instead, they can put more time to focus on their courses.
  3. The other merit is providing the chance to distance learning for students.
  4. It admits more flexibility and lots of different opportunities even in foreign countries.

All materials are available anytime you want to study. The speed of learning depends on you. You don’t need to match with the other classmate for learning. You can learn faster and whenever you need to review it, you can review it. Most of the people are satisfied with this kind of learning methods because they can work and educate at the same time.

  • All in all, technology changed our life tremendously in a good way.
  • Life is going to be easier and even better day by day.
  • One of these improvements affected positively on our education system.
  • It gives us a chance to saving our time to rewrite the notes in the classroom because we can access them anytime anywhere.

It also more effective for teachers, in order to do not waste their time to prepare the notes and jot down the notes on the board. Instead, gives them more time to explain the course better. They can teach students with virtual reality and other good aspects that technology brings to our life, providing a chance of distance learning for all people in our world.
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