Dr Kothari Commission Is Related To Which Education?

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Dr Kothari Commission Is Related To Which Education

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission, The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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What is the main aim of Kothari Commission?

Brief Details on Important Recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66) –

Provision of Free and Compulsory Education – Recommended providing free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14 years. Languages – The Commission recommended adopting a three-language formula at state levels. It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states. It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states. The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English. The Kothari Commission recommended providing favourable and adequate service conditions for teachers and providing them with the necessary freedom to conduct and publish those findings. To promote social justice, the Kothari Commission focused on girls education, education of backward classes, education of tribal people, physically and mentally handicapped children. As Science and Maths are an integral part of the growth of any nation, the Kothari Commission recommended making Maths and Science an integral part of education. The Commission recommended reforms to improve education at University level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories and funds.

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Which is known as Indian education Commission?

Indian Education Commission is also called as Kothari Commission which was set up by the Indian government to examine the education sector and present necessary changes. It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission.
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What is the title of the Kothari Commission?

The report of which of the following Education Commission ca Option 4 : Kothari Commission Free 10 Questions 10 Marks 10 Mins In the post-independence period, a major concern of the Government of India and the States has been to give increasing attention to education as a factor vital to national progress and security. The Kothari Commission (1964-66):

The Indian Education Commission is mostly popular as the Kothari Commission on Secondary Education was set up by the Government of India, on 14 th July 1964, to evaluate the educational system in India. Daulat Singh Kothari was made the Chairman of the committee who was then the Chairman of UGC. The aim was to survey all aspects of the educational system at all levels and give suggestions to help the education system to progress at all levels. The Kothari Commission (1964-66) submitted its report in 1966, under the sub-title of ‘Education for National Development ‘. The unique feature of the Commission was its conviction that education is the most powerful instrument of national development.

NOTE:

The Mudaliar (The Secondary Education) Commission: In 1952, Mudaliar Commission was appointed for reform of secondary education. Dr A. Lakshamanswami Mudaliar, Vice-Chancellor, Madras University was the Chairman of this Commission. The Commission submitted it’s report in 1953. Radhakrishnan Commission (1948-1949): University Education Commission (1948-49) was the first Commission on education after Independence. Its major emphasis was on higher education. The Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishan, The commission was appointed to report on Indian University Education and to suggest improvements to suit the present and future requirements of the country.

The Calcutta University Commission: In September 1917, the Government of India had appointed a special committee presided over by Michael Sadler, The object of the Calcutta University Commission better known as the Sadler Commission had been to ensure an investigation of the problems connected with the University and to formulate recommendations upon the requirements of University education.

Hence, it can be concluded that the report of the Kothari Commission carries the sub-title ‘Education for National Development’. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : The report of which of the following Education Commission ca
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What are four pillars of education?

2. THE FOUR PILLARS OF EDUCATION FOR THE 21 st CENTURY – The four pillars of Education for the 21 st century that Jacques Delors (2001) refers to UNESCO, in the form of a report, comprises: Learning to Know, Learning to do, Learning to Live and Learning to Be. We present below a brief discussion of each of these pillars.
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What is 3 language formula by Kothari Commission?

History – The first recommendation for a three-language policy was made by the in 1948/1949, which did not find the requirement to study three languages to be an extravagance, citing the precedents of other multilingual nations such as Belgium and Switzerland.

While accepting that Modern Standard was itself a minority language, and had no superiority over others such as,,,,,,, and all of which had a longer history and greater body of literature, the commission still foresaw Hindi as eventually replacing English as the means by which every Indian state may participate in the Federal functions.

The Education Commission of 1964–1966 recommended a modified or graduated three-language formula. Following some debate, the original three-language formula was adopted by the in 1968. The formula as enunciated in the 1968 National Policy Resolution which provided for the study of “Hindi, English and modern Indian language (preferably one of the southern languages) in the Hindi speaking states and Hindi, English and the Regional language in the non-Hindi speaking States”.

  1. The formula was formulated in response to demands from non-Hindi speaking states of the, such as and mainly,
  2. Currently, the three language system is not followed in Tamil Nadu due to efforts of former Chief Minister,
  3. The 1986 National Policy on Education reiterated the 1968 formula.
  4. In 1972 the government launched a committee for promotion of Urdu under the chairmanship of,

The committee’s 1975 report recommended safeguards for significant (i.e. greater than 10 percent) Urdu-speaking minorities which included the use of Urdu for official purposes and as a medium of instruction. Following consideration of the report by the Cabinet in 1979, and by the Taraqqui-e-Urdu Board from 1979 to 1983, modified proposals from the Gujral committee were passed on to the state governments in 1984.

A new committee of experts was launched in 1990 under the chairmanship of to examine implementation of the Gujral committee recommendations. This committee recommended modifying the three-language formula to “In Hindi speaking States: (a) Hindi (with Sanskrit as part of the composite course); (b) Urdu or any other modern Indian language and (c) English or any other modern European language.

In non-Hindi speaking States: (a) the regional language; (b) Hindi; (c) Urdu or any other modern Indian language excluding (a) and (b); and (d) English or any other modern European language”. In 2020 the cabinet of approved and released the “New Education Policy 2020” under the,
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What is the conclusion of Kothari Commission?

KOTHARI COMMISSION COMPREHENSIVE NOTES KOTHARI COMMISSION Introduction Kothari commission was set-up in 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr.D.S Kothari. This was the sixth commission in the history of education commission and was most comprehensive in nature.

It reviewed almost all aspects of the education system without limiting itself to any one particular aspect, unlike the commissions that came before and after it. Another unique feature of the Kothari commission was its international composition. Apart from 11 Indian members, it had members from 5 other countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and Japan.

NEED for appointment of commission: 1) Need for a comprehensive policy of education in spite no. of education committees after independence, satisfactory progress would not be achieved.2) Need for detailed study even though a good deal of expansion of education facilities took place; it was at the expanse of quality.3) Need to emphasize role of people in national development.

  • GOALS / OBJECTIVES stated by the commission:
  • 1) Education for increasing productivity:
  • a) Make science a basic component of education and culture.

b) Introducing S.U.P.W. as an integral part of general education.

  1. c) Vocational education to meet the needs of the industry of agriculture.
  2. d) Improving scientific and technological research and education at university level.
  3. 2) Education for an accelerating process of modernization:
  4. a) Adopting new methods of teaching
  5. b) Proper development of instruct attitudes and values and building essential skills like independent study.
  6. c) Educating people of all straits of society.
  7. d) Emphasizing teaching of vocational subjects and science.
  8. e) Establishing universities of excellence in the country.
  9. 3) Educating for promoting social and national integration:
  10. a) Introducing common school system of public education.
  11. b) Developing all modern Indian language.
  12. c) Taking steps to enrich Hindi as quickly as possible.
  13. d) Encouraging and enabling students to participate in community living.
  14. 4) Education for inculcation of national values:
  15. a) Introducing moral, social and spiritual values.
  16. b) Presenting before students high ideas of social justice and social service.
  17. WORK EXPERIENCE AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Work experience, which may be defined as participation in productive work in school, in the home, in a workshop, on a farm, in a factory or in any other productive situation, should be made an integral part of all general education. It should be varied to suit the age and maturity of students and oriented to technology, industrialization and the application of science to the production process, including agriculture.

  • VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: Another programme which can bring education into closer relationship with productivity is vocational education.
  • It should be emphasized particularly at the secondary stage.
  • At lower secondary stage (age group 11-16) vocational education should ultimately be provided to about 20 percent of the enrolment; at the higher secondary stage (age group 17-18) such enrolment should be increased to 50 percent.

In higher education, about one-third of the total enrolment may be in vocational courses. It is to increase the emphasis on agricultural and technological education at the university level. – TEACHER TRAINING AND STATUS It was for the very first time that teacher training was recognised as being an important component of the overall education system in India.

  • There were institutes which existed even before these recommendations but there was no comprehensive programme on teacher education before this commission.
  • The Kothari Commission recognised the importance and significance of teacher education.
  • Based on the Education Commission’s recommendation, the non-statutory National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was formed in 1973.
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The main objective of the NCTE is to achieve planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country, the regulation and proper maintenance of Norms and Standards in the teacher education system and for matters connected therewith.

The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programmes including research and training of persons for equipping them to teach at pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and non-formal education, part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses.

TEACHER STATUS Kothari Commission recognised the importance of improving the social and economic standing of the teachers in the country and aimed at upgrading the pay scales of teachers substantially particularly at the school level. It also gave a detailed designation – revised pay scales for teachers at all levels.

  • PAY SCALE EQUALISATION Kothari Commission had, recommended that the scales of pay of school teachers working under different managements such as government, local bodies or private management should be the same.
  • Almost all the States in the country had agreed to implement the recommendations of the Kothari Commission.

ADULT LITERACY The aim was to improve the levels of literacy across all age groups may it be the school going or the adults. Hence the concept of Part Time and Own Time Education was also introduced to bring in maximum number of individuals under the umbrella of education.

As per the Part Time education scheme, 10% enrolment at Higher Primary and lower secondary, 25% enrolment at higher secondary and 1/3 rd enrolment at University levels were to be in Part time or Own time education or of self study pattern. It, thus, lent flexibility and aimed at encouraging the adult literacy which was also proposed to be taken up in a big way in the form of Mass Campaigns across the country so as to increase the educated lot from 60% in the 4 th Plan to 80% in the 5 th Plan.

INCREASE IN OUTLAY FOR EDUCATION These recommendations required an increase on outlay from 2.9% of total budgetary allocation in 1965 to 6% in 1985-86. – COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEM Kothari Commission recommended the Common School System which would include all government schools, all local authority schools and all aided private schools.

  • The prime objective of the Common School System was equalisation of educational opportunities by bridging the yawning gap between the few expensive private schools and the multitude of government and local body schools.
  • It proposed steps to be taken such as:
  • 1. Remove existing discrimination between teachers working in different environment

2. All schools should provide with minimum conditions necessary for good education.3. Tuition fees should be abolished in a phased manner-at the primary level by the 4 th Plan and lower secondary by the end of the 5 th Plan. It was essentially talking about the concept of a Neighbourhood School –a school which any child irrespective of his caste, economic status or any other bias could enrol to in the locality or neighbourhood.

  1. The aim was to achieve this within a time span of 20 years – in a selective phased development mode.
  2. These schools were expected to provide a good level of education to all children in the society and maintain adequate standards.
  3. During the first 10 years, due to shortage of resources, at least first 10% of the schools would be upgraded and the rest in the subsequent years.

It was to be applied at the primary stage first and at least one school at the secondary level. It also proposed scholarships for students in such schools run by the government and the local authorities. PROBLEMS The Common School System was endorsed by the NPE 1986 and 1992.

However, the recommendations never got translated into action. In 1990, the apex Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE), which appraises the extent to which the NPE is implemented by the Central and State governments and other agencies appointed a committee to review NEP 1986. The CABE outlined the following reasons for CSS not making a headway as- · Economic and Social disparities – The well to do communities send their children to schools with better facilities, teachers and infrastructure.

Ordinary schools are not sought after hence this results in low investments in them too.

  1. · Minorities groups are given protection by the Constitution to establish and administer their own educational institutions which is not in consonance with the concept of CSS.
  2. · In Government run schools, the quality of education has not been very satisfactory.
  3. · Lack of any political will.
  4. · Public schools and private schools which charge capitation fees and those offering expensive coaching facilities have proliferated.
  5. · Proliferation of exclusive sainik schools, Kendriya Vidyalayas run by the Government itself.
  6. The general consensus among intellectuals monitoring the nation’s socio economic development efforts is that the consistent failure to evolve an egalitarian CSS endorsed in the NPE 1986 and 1992 was due to lack of any political will.

Some perceive that it is a threat to the opportunities of their own children. In their view, the role of schooling system is to act as a filtering process which picks the best and the brightest and helps to realise their potential. “If too many children get on board the prospects of those who currently enjoy the privilege of good schooling facilities will be threatened.”- PROBE

  • LANGUAGE POLICY
  • Recommendations

Ø At lower primary stage only one language should be studied compulsorily.i.e. mother tongue or the regional language

  1. Ø Some children belong to linguistic minority may also opt for instruction in regional language because of its greater advantage but they cannot be forced on them, and they have the right under the constitution to have facilities provided for their primary education through the mother tongue
  2. Ø Higher primary stage only two language should be studied on a compulsory basis
  3. (1) mother tongue or regional language
  4. (2) official or associated language of union (English or Hindi)
  5. Ø Secondary classes will have to study three languages (3 language formula)on the compulsory basis,
  6. For Hindi area Hindi area
  7. 1) Hindi (Mother tongue)
  8. 2) English
  9. 3) Modern Indian language For Non Hindi area
  10. 1) Mother tongue
  11. 2) English
  12. 3) Hindi
  13. Ø Senior secondary classes will have to opt for only one language and for degree courses no compulsion on study of any language

Three language formula was proposed by union ministry of education of government of India in constitution with the states, this formula was proposed due to the non acceptance of Hindi by some southern states of India, Before Kothari commission the proposal was to promote Hindi as the national language and chosen for formal education purpose as it was spoken by majority of the people, but some of the states were in oppose of that and so this three language formula was proposed in commission report,

That is why Hindi wasn’t promoted as a national language rather it became a language as a subject and due to westernization nowadays universally speaking language becomes English which is also promoted in our school education system as well. – DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL CURRICULUM, SPECIAL CHILDREN TEACHING METHODS AND EVALUATION: In recent years, the explosion of knowledge and the reformulation of many concepts have highlighted the inadequacy of the existing school programmes and brought about a mounting pressure for a radical reform in school curriculum.

A unified approach should be taken into consideration for building up the entire school curriculum, a new definition of the concepts of general education and a new approach to the place of specialization.

  • ESSENTIALS OF CURRICULUM IPROVEMENT :
  • · School curricula should be developed through research in university education departments and training colleges.
  • · It should be upgraded in regular basis.
  • · The preparation of text books and teaching aids for new learning materials
  • · The orientation of teachers should take place for the curriculum change through in-service education.
  • · School should be given the freedom to devise and experiment with new curriculum suited to their needs
  • · Ordinary and advanced curriculum has to be prepared for each subject
  • · The formation of subject teachers’ association for the growth of the teachers and providing the stimulus for growth.
  • DIFFERENTIATION OF SCHOOL CURRICULA FOR BOYS AND GIRLS:

The recommendation of the Hansa Mehta committee that there should be no differentiation of curricula on the basis of the sex was endorsed. Home science should be made an optional subject and should not be made compulsory for the girls. Larger provisions should be provided for music and fine arts; and the study of science and mathematics should be encouraged among girls.

  • The need for the continual development of the curricula is intimately related to the equally with the continual development of the teaching methods and evaluation.
  • The main factors responsible for dull and uninspiring school teaching are because of the rigidity of the educational system and the failure of the administration to diffuse new educational system in schools.

These weaknesses should be overcome.

  1. A good educational system should be dynamic, flexible and discriminating enough to help institutions and teachers to proceed along different levels of development – the good schools should be allowed to go ahead and be free and creative on experimental lines while the weaker schools should be supported along the growth process.
  2. TEXTBOOKS, TEACHERS’ GUIDES AND MATERIALS:
  3. · Provision for the quality textbooks and other teacher-learning material.

· A comprehensive programme of textbook production should be taken up and this will help in facilitating the definition and practical indication of expected standards. These will also helping national integration,

  • SEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE TALENTED:
  • · The search for and the development of the talented must be a continuous process, pursued at all stages, but the secondary stage is most crucial
  • · In addition to following and advanced curricula, a variety of extra curricula proggrammes should be organized for the talented.
  • · Teachers should be oriented to use special techniques to provide atmosphere for free expression and creative development.
  • THE BACKWARD CHILD:
  • “With the rapid expansion of the educational facilities, the numbers of backward children are also increasing.” Backwardness has been defined along two overlapping lines:
  • · Mental handicap or low intelligence, arising from the hereditary and congenital factors or diseases
  • · Under-achievement and inability to perform due to emotional conflict, lack of motivation, cultural deprivation and economic handicaps.
  • The mentally handicapped is classified into four groups major
  • · The idiots
  • · The imbeciles
  • · The educable mentally handicapped morons
  • · The dull or slow learners.

For the first three groups, special provisions have to be provided for their education. Remedial classes have to taken for these students so that they can be helped along and their growth takes place in the entire subject concerned. This should be taken up within the school system and duty should be assigned to one or two special teacher-educators.

Guidance and education counseling services has to play important role in the improvement of these students, especially with the identification and the diagnosis of the defects and an effective planning programme for their future. EVALUATION: It should be a continuous process, forming an integral part of the total educational system and should be related to the educational objectives.

It exercises a great influence on the pupil’s studying habits and the teacher’s methodologies.

  1. · At the lower primary level, it would be desirable that the students develop at their own pace
  2. · At the higher primary level, written test should be taken along with oral tests as part of the internal assessment. They should simple teacher-made diagnostic tests
  3. · At the end of the primary stage an examination should be held in the national level so as to place the development of the child.
  4. · At the secondary level the students have to take up regular tests as well as internal assessment as part of their cumulative growth.
  5. CRITICAL OVERVIEW :

Kothari commission is the fore-runner for the modern education reforms that would take place in the next 40 years and is still continuing. Thus, the recommendation that we see are seeing the light of the day at the present moment. This, in its own, speaks volumes about the recommendation their implementation.

The development of the curriculum takes place in the guidelines stated by the commission. The national curriculum framework undergoes change every five years and the objective of this change is to check on the progress that we have made in the field of education and provide the schools and teachers with new and revised goals.

The creation of the special schools for the talented is happening with the Rajikiya Pratibha Vikas Vidyalayas. However, the plight of the “backward children” in the same school has not improvement. In-service teacher refresher courses do take place but most teachers do not make use of innovative teaching methods for the motivation of the children.
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Who is called the father of basic education?

who was the founder of basic education? Hey student, Mahatma Gandhi was the founder of BASIC EDUCATION. Basic Education is a principle which states that knowledge and work are not separate. He promoted an educational curriculum with the same name based on this pedagogical principle.

  • It can be translated with the phrase ‘Basic Education for all’.
  • The term ‘Basic’ is significant in Basic Education.
  • Basic comes from the term “Base”.
  • Which means bottom or foundation.
  • So in the literary sense, Basic Education is the foundation of education or education at the primary level on which the edifice of the Superstructure of Higher Education can be built.

Basic Education Scheme pattern:

Pre-basic (up to 6 years ) Basic (from 7 to 14 years) Post-Basic (from 15 to 18) University education Social and Adult education

Hope it helps. : who was the founder of basic education?
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Which commission is known as secondary education?

Secondary Education Commission The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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Which commission is related to higher education?

Types of universities – The types of universities regulated by the UGC include:

  • Central universities, or Union universities, are established by an act of parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education, As of 18 October 2022, The list of central universities published by the UGC includes 55 central universities.
  • State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. As of 23 August 2022, the UGC lists 456 state universities. The oldest establishment date listed by the UGC is 1857, shared by the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta, Most State Universities are affiliating universities in that they administer many affiliated colleges (many located in very small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges may even offer PhD programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
  • Deemed university, or “Deemed to be University”, is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act. As of 24 August 2022, the UGC lists 50 Institutions as Deemed to be Universities included under Section 12(B) of the UGC Act, 1956. According to this list, the first institute to be granted deemed university status was Indian Institute of Science, which was granted this status on 12 May 1958. In many cases, the same listing by the UGC covers several institutes. For example, the listing for Homi Bhabha National Institute covers the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and other institutes.
  • Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. As of 23 August 2022, the UGC list of private universities lists 421 universities.

As of 25 August 2022, The University Grants Commission (UGC) has also released the list of 21 fake universities operating in India. UGC has said that these 21 self-styled, unrecognized institutions functioning in contravention of the UGC Act have been declared as fake and are not entitled to confer any degrees.
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Who is ranked 1st in education?

Education Rankings

Rank State Pre-K-12
1 New Jersey New Jersey 1
2 Massachusetts Massachusetts 2
3 Florida Florida 16
4 Washington Washington 11

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Which commission has started four pillars of education?

How do we design meaningful learning experiences that develop the skills and competencies most needed in the present, for the futures we want to create? From the mid-1990s perspective of a world seen as awash in change and complexity, a UNESCO commission under the leadership of Jacques Delors proposed four pillars that education could rest upon.

To “simultaneously provide maps of a world in constant turmoil and a compass that will enable people to find their way in it”, the Delors commission proposed learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be as four fundamental types of learning. Each deserved equal attention.

And together they were to form a whole that would guide education across the human lifespan. Change, complexity – also fragility, precarity and uncertainty – are very much with us 25 years later. The COVID pandemic has held up a mirror and shown us that we remain far from making our societies more just, equitable and inclusive.

  1. It is also clear that we still have much work to do to avert ecological catastrophe.
  2. But, COVID has also reinforced the conviction of many that mutual support, the cooperative sharing of resources, and collective action provide the right moral coordinates and give good reason for hope.
  3. The commons movement is one suggested strategy for leveraging mutuality, cooperation and collective action for a better world.

Presented by David Bollier of The Next System Project as “at once a paradigm, a discourse, an ethic, and a set of social practices,” the commons has been held up as holding great promise for transforming societies. Important here is the common as what is shared, commoning as what is done together, and the common good as what is built and cared for by individuals together.

No commons simply exists on its own. A commons needs to be nurtured, at times protected. And if we accept that “commoning” skills and competencies are high among those needed in the present for the futures we want to create, we might consider reorienting the Delors “four pillars” around the commons. Reworking each of these pillars in relation to building capacity for commoning actions and strengthening the common good offers a compass and map well suited for the collective challenges of our present historical juncture.

Learning to study, inquire and co-construct together Within a commons framing, acquiring knowledge needs to be recast as not simply enabling individuals, but rather as connecting individuals to one another and interegenerationally to the common knowledge resources of humanity.

  • A commoning paradigm requires attention to the collective ways knowledge is accessed, used, and created.
  • The knowledge pillar supporting education would then need to be oriented towards learning to study, inquire and co-construct together,
  • This revision would highlight the social dimensions of learning, as well as the diverse and networked dimensions of knowledge.

Reworking the “learning to know” pillar in this way would point educators towards constructivist pedagogical approaches and towards viewing their students as learning communities. It would highlight the knowledge commons as an intergenerational resource and conversation that has been built and nurtured across millennia.

  1. Learning to collectively mobilize The Delors Commission’s discussion of “learning to do” almost exclusively narrowed to the issue of putting learning into practice in the workplace.
  2. A commons framing would recast this in terms of skills and competencies that enable collective action.
  3. The collaboration capability thus foregrounded would be valuable in the world of work and far beyond.

The doing pillar that supports education would need to be oriented to learning to collectively mobilize, Focusing educational efforts on empowering learners to take action together surfaces the importance of deliberation, cross-cultural communication and coalition building.

  • Learning to live in a common world Setting “learning to live together” as a key pillar puts education on the right track.
  • As the COVID disruptions have unfolded, humanity has been reminded just how closely we are linked to one another biologically, politically, and socially.
  • Though at times this last has painfully manifested through its absence and deferral.) While “together” is a robust concept, we cannot let it only mean peaceful “living with others” co-existence.

Tolerating and respecting the rights of others and the ways of being of others is a first step. But, the challenge for humans living on planet earth in 2021 is to make healthy, sustainable ways of co-living: with one another and with the planet. Orienting this pillar towards learning to live in a common world elevates the importance of education that engages with our common humanity and with the natural world of which we are a part.

  • This change enables us to reshape common living as intertwined and a fundamentally shared experience.
  • Learning to attend and care When the Delors Commission presented “learning to be”, it placed great emphasis on the development of one’s personality and being able to act with independence, judgment and personal responsibility.

The role of education in supporting people in freedom of thought, critical thinking, and the realization of their own self-chosen purposes is not to be overlooked. At the same time, we have seen the insidious dangers of acquisitive individualism and diminished empathy that appear when autonomy comes entirely at the expense of an understanding of relationality.

Applying a commons framing to the pillar of education that emphasizes the development of the complete person, we would do well to think in terms of learning to attend and care, This would entail understanding ourselves as persons who are simultaneously capable and vulnerable. It would force us to reflect on how we affect and are affected by others and the world.

It would require that educators focus their work on the rights and responsibilities that come into play in our relationships and interdependencies. A commoning paradigm would take problems of caring-about, caring-for, care-giving and care-receiving as inextricably social and moral questions that call for individuals to take action together and share responsibility.

  • Considering this one of the fundamental pillars of education would put our relationships with one another and with a more-than-human world at the center of educational practice.
  • This piece has suggested that core educational foundations can be usefully reworked to value and empower individuals as they also leverage mutuality, cooperation and collective action for a better world.

The Delors four pillars can be updated to better support educators who are working to design meaningful learning experiences. Using a commons framework to foreground what we share together, what we do together, and what we build together helps us reimagine the skills and competencies most needed in the present for the futures we want to create.
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Who is the founder of Integral Education?

Free Teaching Aptitude Mock Test 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins Integral Education was given by Sri Aurobindo, It was based on the belief that the education of a human being should begin at birth and continue throughout his life. Also, he strongly believed that education to be complete must have five principal aspects, the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic, and the spiritua l.

An Integral Approach to education means that we include multiple perspectives. It seeks to understand the subjective experience of others and to find value in them. It gives an effective tool to transform ourselves, serve others, and create a multidimensional curriculum. Integral education attempts to discover how the many partial truths of educational philosophies and methods inform and complement each other in a coherent way. His concept of true education is integral education, which concerns five principal ‘activities of the human being: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic, and the spiritual. Such a scheme of education not only helps the evolution of an individual but also helps the evolution of the nation and finally humanity. Based on his philosophy of education, he advocated three cardinal principles of education, which govern the process of education. There are:

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Nothing can be taught or improved from outside. According to the Mother, “Fundamentally the only thing you must do assiduously is to teach them to know themselves, and to choose their own destiny, the way they want to follow”. The mind has to be consulted in its growth. The aim of education is to help the growing soul draw out its best. The educational process must emphasize “from near to the far, from that is to that which shall be”.

​ Additional Information Gijubhai Badhera:

Gijubhai, a great thinker from Gujarat, was a great pioneer in the field of pre-school education in India and advocated child-centered education. According to Gijubhai, a child is a complete person who has intellect, emotions, mind, and understanding, strengths and weaknesses, likes, and dislikes.’ It is very important to understand the emotions of the child and create an atmosphere where children learn from each other through play, stories, and songs without the fear of formal examinations and gradations. He preferred the word ‘Mandir’ to ‘school’ (like Bal Mandir, Kishore Mandir, Vinay Mandir instead of the primary, middle, and high school) just to indicate that it is a place where the child would not be beaten, insulted, or jeered at. Gijubhai was emphatic in saying that instead of imposing adult ideas on children they must be given an opportunity to learn something by doing playing according to their age and interest. He rejected the artificial, harsh, unsympathetic methods of education, which repressed all-natural inclinations. Education, according to him, should be a process of development into a rational, harmoniously balanced, useful, natural life.

Swami Vivekananda:

Vivekananda considers education as part of human life. The main aim of education according to him is the development of a strong moral character and not merely the feeding of information to the brain. Education should enable one to realize one’s self. Before that, it should create self-confidence.

Mahatma Gandhi:

According to Gandhiji, education means ‘an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit’. Hence, he believed in the total development of the human personality through education. Education does not mean literacy alone, it is a quest for truth and non-violence; training of body and mind and leading to an awakening of one’s soul. By introducing craft, he tried to remove the gap between manual and intellectual labor, the educated and uneducated mass, and promote the dignity of labor, social solidarity, and national integration. He also desired that ideals of democratic citizenship be inculcated in the children and regarded the school as a democratic society where they would learn citizenship, knowledge, skills, and values like co-operation, love, sympathy, fellow-feeling, equality. Gandhiji’s vision of the democratic society is “Sarvodaya Samaj” characteristics of which are social justice, peace, non-violence, and modem humanism.

Last updated on Nov 25, 2022 University Grants Commission (Minimum Standards and Procedures for Award of Ph.D. Degree) Regulations, 2022 notified. As, per the new regulations, candidates with a 4 years Undergraduate degree with a minimum CGPA of 7.5 can enroll for PhD admissions.

  • The UGC NET Final Result for merged cycles of December 2021 and June 2022 was released on 5th November 2022.
  • Along with the results UGC has also released the UGC NET Cut-Off.
  • With tis, the exam for the merged cycles of Dec 2021 and June 2022 have conclude.
  • The notification for December 2022 is expected to be out soon.

The UGC NET CBT exam consists of two papers – Paper I and Paper II. Paper I consists of 50 questions and Paper II consists of 100 questions. By qualifying this exam, candidates will be deemed eligible for JRF and Assistant Professor posts in Universities and Institutes across the country.
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What was the first education commission after independence?

University Education Commission (1948-49) was the first Commission on education after Independence. Its major emphasis was on higher education but it also touched upon the issues related to school education.
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What are the pillars of pedagogy?

The five pillars include being able to: (a) Build Relationships and Community, (b) Incorporate Active Learning, (c) Leverage Learner Agency, (d) Embrace Mastery Learning, and (e) Personalize the Learning Process.
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What is recommendation of Kothari Commission?

Some of the recommendations of Kothari Commission 1964-66 include free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14 years, three language formula, encouragement of regional languages, distance education, etc.
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What is the 8 4 4 system of education?

The 8-4-4 System – The 8-4-4 system that consists of 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education, and 4 years of university education is attended by students who have completed two years of pre-school education (aged 3–6 years old). The system’s main purpose was to improve the development of self-expression, self-discipline and independence.

Comparisons of Education Systems in Kenya

7-4-2-3 System 8-4-4 System
Once shared by the 3 East African Countries (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania) Implemented in Kenya Only
7 years of primary school education 8 years of primary school education
4+ and additional 2 years of upper secondary education Only 4 years of secondary school education
3 years of university education 4 years of university education
CPE (Certificate of Education) KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education)
KCE (Kenya Certificate of Education) KCSE (Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education)

The 8-4-4 curriculum offers Science, Social Studies, Kiswahili, English, Math, Religious education, Creative arts, Physical Education (PE), and life skills studies at the Primary level. The system offers an estimate of thirty subjects grouped in 6 categories (Languages, Science, Applied Sciences, Humanities, Creative Arts, and Technical Subjects).

Subjects groups offered in Secondary Schools

Learning Areas Subjects
Languages English, Kiswahili, Arabic, German, French
Science Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology
Applied Sciences Home Science, Agriculture, Computer Studies
Humanities History, Geography, Religious Education, Life Skills, Business Studies
Creative Arts Music, Art and Design
Technical Subjects Drawing and design, Building/Construction, Power and Mechanics, Metal work, Aviation, Woodwork, Electronics

In 2027 the last class of the 8-4-4 curriculum is to do their national examination (K.C.S.E) making them the last class to do the 8-4-4 system.
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What are the main aims of education?

Different aims of Education – Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex life simple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, or objective life becomes incomplete and haphazard. Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs.

  1. Every individual wants to achieve certain goals in life.
  2. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy.
  3. Educational aims are varied.
  4. They have their different role in different fields.
  5. Some specific aims are listed below: (i) Knowledge Aim The aim of Education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

It helps to adjust properly in one’s own environment. Knowledge helps the man to overcome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher and taught with social situation. It helps with certain skills to live in a society as human being and civilized one.

Philosophers and Educationists of the world believe in knowledge. It is the valuable asset of life, which helps the individual to overcome misery and problems of life. (ii) Vocational Aim Knowledge aim of Education is narrow by nature. The theoretical knowledge will never meet our basic needs of life. We need bread and butter to fill up our belly.

We can get it if education is vocationalised. Gandhiji realized it in 1937 when he introduced Basic Education. Vocational aim develops the social efficiency of the individual. It reduces mental tension after completion of Education. Those who are lower, intelligence in vocational Education or training are a blessing for them.

  1. Realizing this aspect.
  2. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) introduces work-experience in the curriculum.
  3. Iii) Character Building Aim The Indian concept of Education believes in self-realization.
  4. Self-realization is possible through moral Education.
  5. So the individual should cultivate moral virtues or values which constitute character.

Swami Vivekananda said, “We want that Education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one’s own feet.” (iv) Complete-Living Aim The individual has various aspects to be developed.

  1. Every aspect of the personality is reflected in various activities to be performed.
  2. Education should help the individual to fulfill the various needs and necessities of life like self-preservation, fulfilling necessities of life, rearing and bearing of children, performing civic responsibilities and utilizing his leisure time properly.

Firstly, the individual must know the art of self-preservation. Secondly, Education should enable to him to earn his living. Thirdly, he should know how to take care of his own children. Lastly, he must have the idea how to utilize the leisure hours properly in a profiting manner.

V) Harmonious Development of the personality aim- Gandhiji said, “By Education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.” The meaning itself indicates to develop all-round aspects of individual-physical, intellectual, social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed.

True Education is development of 3H’s instead of 3R’s. The development of Head, Heart and hand of an individual makes him happy. (vi) Democratic Aim of Education One of the important aims and objective of Education suggested by Secondary Education Commission (1952-54) is to develop the democratic citizenship.

India is a democratic country. Even citizen must have to realize the duties and responsibilities carefully. So the aim of Education is to train carefully the future citizens. Training should be provided to develop the following qualities of the individual. (i) Capacity for clear thinking. (ii) Receptivity of new idea.

(iii) Clarity in speech and writing. (iv) True patriotism. Further the democratic aim of Education develops vocational efficiency, personality and leadership quality. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) suggests the following as the aims of Education in a democratic set-up.
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What is the conclusion of Kothari Commission?

Conclusion – According to the Kothari commission, education should be linked with the idea of National reconstruction. The Kothari Commission has a very important contribution to the field of education, through this the Indian education system has been made more strong and more effective.
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Which of the following is the main objective of the education commission?

What does the commission aim to achieve? – The Education Commission’s remit was to examine ways to reverse the lack of financing for education around the world. For a year, it explored exploring how – over the next 15 to 20 years – education could lead to greater economic growth, better health outcomes and improved global security.

It did this by bringing together the best research and policy analysis about the actions necessary to increase investment in education that have a positive impact on economic and social development. The commission aims to secure increased, more effective investments and contribute to the mobilisation of new partnerships to achieve these aims.

The commission’s stated objectives were:

To bring together the best evidence from around the globe about what works to expand and improve learning opportunities To agree on an investment case and agenda for action To inspire and persuade leaders – at all levels and sectors – to action

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What are the main aims and objectives of secondary education?

Objectives of Secondary Education Objectives Secondary education should provide the learner with opportunities to :

acquire necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for the development of the self and the nation promote love for and loyalty to the nation promoter harmonious co-existence among the peoples of Kenya develop mentally, socially, morally, physically and spiritually enhance understanding and respect for own and other people’s cultures and their place in contemporary society enhance understanding and appreciation of interrelationships among nations promote positive environmental and health practices build a firm foundation for further education and training develop ability for enquiry, critical thinking and rational judgment develop into a responsible and socially well adjusted person promote acceptance and respect for all persons enhance enjoyment in learning identify individual talents and develop them build a foundation for technological and industrial development develop into a self-disciplined individual who appreciates work and manages time properly

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