Why Did The U.S. Congress Appropriate Funds For Indian Education In 1877?

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Why Did The U.S. Congress Appropriate Funds For Indian Education In 1877
Chapter 17 – The Contested West Flashcards Imperialism. Recent historians argue that the United States in the nineteenth century practiced imperialism when it expanded its western borders through the conquest, displacement, and rule over native peoples.

This marks a significant change from the arguments made by earlier generations of historians who suggested that the history of American expansion into the West was dramatically different from that of European nations. Removal of the Indians to land west of the Mississippi River. From the early days of the Republic through the middle of the nineteenth century, the U.S.

government pursued a policy of Indian removal in which it forcibly removed Native American tribes from their land to areas beyond the immediate interests of white settlers. This policy persisted until western lands no longer seemed inexhaustible and the U.S.

  • Government began to create Indian reservations.
  • Chivington and his men were hailed as heroes by the city of Denver.
  • Chivington’s men ignored the Cheyenne leader’s signal of surrender and proceeded to scalp and mutilate the Indians, most of them women and children.
  • The city of Denver treated the soldiers as heroes, but a congressional inquiry denounced them for their “savage cruelty” and their “fiendish malignity.” Chivington avoided a court-martial by resigning his commission and leaving the army.

A complex Indian empire based on trade in horses, hides, guns, and captives. Comanchería was a great Indian empire, based on trade in horses, hides, guns, and captives, which had in the eighteenth century stretched from the Canadian plains to Mexico. By 1865 it was much reduced in size and population and, after the Indian Wars, consisted of fewer than 1,500 Indians confined on the reservation at Fort Sill.

  • The discovery of gold in the Black Hills.
  • The discovery of gold in the Black Hills of the Dakotas in 1874 prompted the U.S.
  • Government to break its promise to the Indians who signed the 1868 treaty.
  • Miners began flooding the area, and the Northern Pacific Railroad made plans to lay track.
  • After the Lakota Sioux refused the government’s initial offer to buy the Black Hills, the army issued an ultimatum ordering all Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne bands onto the Pine Ridge Reservation.

To remove Native American children from their families encourage their assimilation. The U.S. Congress appropriated funds for Indian education in order to remove students from the “contamination” of tribal values and encourage their assimilation to white culture and values.

Such schools confiscated children’s clothing and belongings, cut their hair, changed their names, and even sent students to live with white families during summer vacations. White easterners who sought to end tribal communalism and foster individualism. The Indian Rights Association was formed by white easterners who campaigned for the dismantling of reservations, which they saw as an impediment to Indians’ progress.

This group suggested that the U.S. government should “cease to treat the Indian as a red man and treat him as a man” by granting plots of land for individual Indians to own privately. Divide reservations and allot parcels of land to individual Indians.

The Dawes Act broke up reservations and gave each Indian an allotment of land. Philanthropists presented the measure as a way to foster individualism among Indians and give them the rights of citizenship. In reality, the act reduced the amount of Indian land and opened up large amounts of surplus land for white settlement, which destroyed Indian culture.

A gun misfired as the Indians were laying down their weapons. In December 1890, Indian police killed Sitting Bull. His people fled the scene but were apprehended by a cavalry regiment near Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota. The Indians were laying down their arms when a shot rang out, and the army responded by turning their Hotchkiss machine guns on the Indians, killing more than two hundred men, women, and children within a matter of minutes.

The easiest way to get rich on the Comstock was to form a mining company and sell shares of stock. The financial capital and expensive technology needed to exploit silver claims was beyond the means of the average prospector. As a result, an active stock market sprang up in San Francisco to finance mining operations.

Shrewd businessmen quickly realized that the easiest way to get rich was to sell their claims or to organize mining companies and sell stock to investors. What did powerful labor unions along the Comstock provide to their workers? Sick benefits and medical assistance.

  • Unions formed quickly on the Comstock Lode and gained significant bargaining power, helping their members command relatively high wages.
  • The unions provided good sick benefits and hired nurses to tend to sick or injured miners.
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, Virginia City had evolved to become a diverse urban community built to serve an industrial giant.

By the 1870s Virginia City was an established urban community serving the Comstock’s industrial mines that boasted churches, schools, theaters, an opera house, and hundreds of families. The city’s population of 25,000 was quite diverse, consisting of native born white Americans, a variety of immigrants, African Americans, Mexicans, Chinese men, and American Indians.

Women made up about thirty percent of the population. The nature of settlement in the late-nineteenth-century West created a society notable for its racism and prejudice. The late-nineteenth-century West was as heterogeneous as eastern cities, bringing together immigrants from Europe, Asia, Canada, and the East as well as Mormons, African Americans, Mexicans, Latinos, and Indian tribes.

The result was not tolerance but instead a complex blend of racism and prejudice, which resulted in brutal treatment of, and discrimination against, nonwhite migrants. Which criterion typically formed the basis for the president’s appointment of territorial governors? Party loyalty.

Territorial appointments were the result of patronage and the spoils system. Individuals who had demonstrated loyalty to the president’s political party were often rewarded with political posts. Most appointees had no prior knowledge of the territory they served or of the responsibilities they were expected to carry out.

Homesteaders who received 160 acres of free land from the federal government reached the West only to find they needed up to $1,000 for other expenses. Farmers who settled on western land under the terms of the Homestead Act of 1862 received 160 acres for free.

However, they still had to have money to construct shelter, purchase a team of farm animals, dig a well, build fencing, and obtain seed, which in total could cost as much as $1,000. How did the move west affect women’s household duties? Simple daily chores required more physical labor. For women, obtaining the daily necessities of life such as water and fuel involved incredibly hard work.

Water was scarce, and women had to collect it from creeks or springs that could be as much as half a mile away from their houses. The most common source of fuel was dried cattle and buffalo dung, which had to be gathered from the plains and grasslands.

  • Which factor led to the development of migratory agricultural labor in California in the late nineteenth century? Land monopoly and large-scale farming.
  • In the 1870s, less than 1 percent of Californians owned over half the state’s agricultural land.
  • The rigid economies of large-scale commercial farming and the seasonal nature of the crops generated a large contingent of migratory agricultural laborers who worked in the fields during the growing season and wintered the flophouses of San Francisco.

What was the result of American farmers’ increasing dependence on world markets for their livelihood in the late nineteenth century? Farmers became vulnerable to fluctuations in global market prices. American farmers all over the nation became more tied into world markets in the late nineteenth century.

  • More and more grain and livestock farmers were dependent on overseas trade.
  • A fall in world prices could mean that a farmer’s entire crop went toward debts, and in periods of depression, many farmers lost their heavily mortgaged land to creditors.
  • Mechanization revolutionized farming by increasing the amount of land one farmer could cultivate.

Mechanized farm machinery—including steel plows, reapers, mowers, combines and threshers—replaced human muscle on farms, and steam-powered machines took the place of horse-drawn implements. By 1880, a single combine could do the work that had required twenty men in 1850.
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What was the passage of the Dawes Act in 1887 primarily an attempt by the United States government to do?

Dawes Act (1887) Approved on February 8, 1887, “An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations,” known as the Dawes Act, emphasized severalty – the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes.

Federal Indian policy during the period from 1870 to 1900 marked a departure from earlier policies that were dominated by removal, treaties, reservations, and war. The new policy focused specifically on breaking up reservations and tribal lands by granting land allotments to individual Native Americans and encouraging them to take up agriculture.

It was reasoned that if a person adopted “White” clothing and ways, and was responsible for their own farm, they would gradually drop their “Indian-ness” and be assimilated into White American culture. Then it would no longer be necessary for the government to oversee Indian welfare in the paternalistic ways it had previously done, including providing meager annuities, with American Indians treated as dependents.

On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. Also known as the General Allotment Act, the law authorized the President to break up reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals.

Thus, Native Americans registering on a tribal “roll” were granted allotments of reservation land. “To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one-sixteenth of a section.” Section 8 of the act specified groups that were to be exempt from the law.

It stated that “the provisions of this act shall not extend to the territory occupied by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, and Osage, Miamies and Peorias, and Sacs and Foxes, in the Indian Territory, nor to any of the reservations of the Seneca Nation of New York Indians in the State of New York, nor to that strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south.” Subsequent events, however, extended the act’s provisions to these groups as well.

In 1893, President Grover Cleveland appointed the Dawes Commission to negotiate with the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles, who were known as the Five Civilized Tribes. As a result of these negotiations, several acts were passed that allotted a share of common property to members of the Five Civilized Tribes in exchange for abolishing their tribal governments and recognizing state and federal laws.

In order to receive the allotted land, members were to enroll with the Office of Indian Affairs (later renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs ). Once enrolled, the individual’s name went on the “Dawes Rolls.” This process assisted the BIA and the Secretary of the Interior in determining the eligibility of individual members for land distribution.

The purpose of the Dawes Act, and the subsequent acts that extended its initial provisions, was purportedly to protect American Indian property rights, particularly during the land rushes of the 1890s. But in many instances the results were vastly different.

The land allotted to individuals included desert or near-desert lands unsuitable for farming. In addition, the techniques of self-sufficient farming were much different from their tribal way of life. Many did not want to take up agriculture, and those who did want to farm could not afford the tools, animals, seed, and other supplies necessary to get started.

There were also problems with inheritance. Often young children inherited allotments that they could not farm because they had been sent away to boarding schools. Multiple heirs also caused a problem; when several people inherited an allotment, the size of the holdings became too small for effective farming.

Forty-Ninth Congress of the United States of America; At the Second Session, Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the sixth day of December, one thousand eight hundred and eight-six. An Act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows:

To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one-sixteenth of a section: Provided, That in case there is not sufficient land in any of said reservations to allot lands to each individual of the classes above named in quantities as above provided, the lands embraced in such reservation or reservations shall be allotted to each individual of each of said classes pro rata in accordance with the provisions of this act: And provided further, That where the treaty or act of Congress setting apart such reservation provides the allotment of lands in severalty in quantities in excess of those herein provided, the President, in making allotments upon such reservation, shall allot the lands to each individual Indian belonging thereon in quantity as specified in such treaty or act: And provided further, That when the lands allotted are only valuable for grazing purposes, an additional allotment of such grazing lands, in quantities as above provided, shall be made to each individual.

  1. Sec.2. That all allotments set apart under the provisions of this act shall be selected by the Indians, heads of families selecting for their minor children, and the agents shall select for each orphan child, and in such manner as to embrace the improvements of the Indians making the selection.
  2. Where the improvements of two or more Indians have been made on the same legal subdivision of land, unless they shall otherwise agree, a provisional line may be run dividing said lands between them, and the amount to which each is entitled shall be equalized in the assignment of the remainder of the land to which they are entitled under his act: Provided, That if any one entitled to an allotment shall fail to make a selection within four years after the President shall direct that allotments may be made on a particular reservation, the Secretary of the Interior may direct the agent of such tribe or band, if such there be, and if there be no agent, then a special agent appointed for that purpose, to make a selection for such Indian, which selection shall be allotted as in cases where selections are made by the Indians, and patents shall issue in like manner.
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Sec.3. That the allotments provided for in this act shall be made by special agents appointed by the President for such purpose, and the agents in charge of the respective reservations on which the allotments are directed to be made, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may from time to time prescribe, and shall be certified by such agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in duplicate, one copy to be retained in the Indian Office and the other to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior for his action, and to be deposited in the General Land Office.

Sec.4. That where any Indian not residing upon a reservation, or for whose tribe no reservation has been provided by treaty, act of Congress, or executive order, shall make settlement upon any surveyed or unsurveyed lands of the United States not otherwise appropriated, he or she shall be entitled, upon application to the local land-office for the district in which the lands arc located, to have the same allotted to him or her, and to his or her children, in quantities and manner as provided in this act for Indians residing upon reservations; and when such settlement is made upon unsurveyed lands, the grant to such Indians shall be adjusted upon the survey of the lands so as to conform thereto; and patents shall be issued to them for such lands in the manner and with the restrictions as herein provided.

And the fees to which the officers of such local land-office would have been entitled had such lands been entered under the general laws for the disposition of the public lands shall be paid to them, from any moneys in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, upon a statement of an account in their behalf for such fees by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and a certification of such account to the Secretary of the Treasury by the Secretary of the Interior.

Sec.5. That upon the approval of the allotments provided for in this act by the Secretary of the Interior, he shall cause patents to issue therefor in the name of the allottees, which patents shall be of the legal effect, and declare that the United States does and will hold the land thus allotted, for the period of twenty-five years, in trust for the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom such allotment shall have been made, or, in case of his decease, of his heirs according to the laws of the State or Territory where such land is located, and that at the expiration of said period the United States will convey the same by patent to said Indian, or his heirs as aforesaid, in fee, discharged of said trust and free of all charge or incumbrance whatsoever: Provided, That the President of the United States may in any case in his discretion extend the period.

And if any conveyance shall be made of the lands set apart and allotted as herein provided, or any contract made touching the same, before the expiration of the time above mentioned, such conveyance or contract shall be absolutely null and void: Provided, That the law of descent and partition in force in the State or Territory where such lands are situate shall apply thereto after patents therefor have been executed and delivered, except as herein otherwise provided; and the laws of the State of Kansas regulating the descent and partition of real estate shall, so far as practicable, apply to all lands in the Indian Territory which may be allotted in severalty under the provisions of this act: And provided further, That at any time after lands have been allotted to all the Indians of any tribe as herein provided, or sooner if in the opinion of the President it shall be for the best interests of said tribe, it shall be lawful for the Secretary of the Interior to negotiate with such Indian tribe for the purchase and release by said tribe, in conformity with the treaty or statute under which such reservation is held, of such portions of its reservation not allotted as such tribe shall, from time to time, consent to sell, on such terms and conditions as shall be considered just and equitable between the United States and said tribe of Indians, which purchase shall not be complete until ratified by Congress, and the form and manner of executing such release prescribed by Congress: Provided however, That all lands adapted to agriculture, with or without irrigation so sold or released to the United States by any Indian tribe shall be held by the United States for the sale purpose of securing homes to actual settlers and shall be disposed of by the United States to actual and bona fide settlers only tracts not exceding one hundred and sixty acres to any one person, on such terms as Congress shall prescribe, subject to grants which Congress may make in aid of education: And provided further, That no patents shall issue therefor except to the person so taking the same as and homestead, or his heirs, and after the expiration of five years occupancy thereof as such homestead; and any conveyance of said lands taken as a homestead, or any contract touching the same, or lieu thereon, created prior to the date of such patent, shall be null and void.

And the sums agreed to be paid by the United States as purchase money for any portion of any such reservation shall be held in the Treasury of the United States for the sole use of the tribe or tribes Indians; to whom such reservations belonged; and the same, with interest thereon at three per cent per annum, shall be at all times subject to appropriation by Congress for the education and civilization of such tribe or tribes of Indians or the members thereof.

The patents aforesaid shall be recorded in the General Land Office, and afterward delivered, free of charge, to the allottee entitled thereto. And if any religious society or other organization is now occupying any of the public lands to which this act is applicable, for religious or educational work among the Indians, the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to confirm such occupation to such society or organization, in quantity not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in any one tract, so long as the same shall be so occupied, on such terms as he shall deem just; but nothing herein contained shall change or alter any claim of such society for religious or educational purposes heretofore granted by law.

And hereafter in the employment of Indian police, or any other employees in the public service among any of the Indian tribes or bands affected by this act, and where Indians can perform the duties required, those Indians who have availed themselves of the provisions of this act and become citizens of the United States shall be preferred.

Sec.6. That upon the completion of said allotments and the patenting of the lands to said allottees, each and every member of the respective bands or tribes of Indians to whom allotments have been made shall have the benefit of and be subject to the laws, both civil and criminal, of the State or Territory in which they may reside; and no Territory shall pass or enforce any law denying any such Indian within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.

And every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made under the provisions of this act, or under any law or treaty, and every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits, his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted the habits of civilized life, is hereby declared to be a citizen of the United States, and is entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens, whether said Indian has been or not, by birth or otherwise, a member of any tribe of Indians within the territorial limits of the United States without in any manner affecting the right of any such Indian to tribal or other property.

Sec.7. That in cases where the use of water for irrigation is necessary to render the lands within any Indian reservation available for agricultural purposes, the Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby, authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary to secure a just and equal distribution thereof among the Indians residing upon any such reservation; and no other appropriation or grant of water by any riparian proprietor shall permitted to the damage of any other riparian proprietor.

Sec.8. That the provisions of this act shall not extend to the territory occupied by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, and Osage, Miamies and Peorias, and Sacs and Foxes, in the Indian Territory, nor to any of the reservations of the Seneca Nation of New York Indians in the State of New York, nor to that strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south added by executive order.

Sec.9. That for the purpose of making the surveys and resurveys mentioned in section two of this act, there be, and hereby is, appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, to be repaid proportionately out of the proceeds of the sales of such land as may be acquired from the Indians under the provisions of this act.

Sec.10. That nothing in this act contained shall be so construed to affect the right and power of Congress to grant the right of way through any lands granted to an Indian, or a tribe of Indians, for railroads or other highways, or telegraph lines, for the public use, or condemn such lands to public uses, upon making just compensation.

Sec.11. That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prevent the removal of the Southern Ute Indians from their present reservation in Southwestern Colorado to a new reservation by and with consent of a majority of the adult male members of said tribe.
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Why did agricultural experts think that 160 acres of land would not support a family in western Kansas Nebraska and eastern Colorado?

Why did agricultural experts think that 160 acres of land would not support a family in western Kansas, Nebraska, and eastern Colorado? They claimed that the region’s harsh climate had a much shorter growing season.
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How did raids on white settlers by the Dakota and the Comanche affect US Indian policy?

How did raids on white settlers by the Dakota and the Comanche affect U.S. Indian policy? They provoked repression by the U.S. Army. Why did the Lakota Sioux refuse to relinquish or sell their claim to the Black Hills?
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During which years was the most Indian land lost in the western United States quizlet?

During which years was the most Indian land lost in the Western United States? The majority of Indian lands in the Western United States were lost between 1850 and 1870, as the federal government began to concentrate Indians on reservations.
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For what purpose did the US government pass the Dawes Act of 1887 in response to the end of Plains Indians resistance to westward?

The Dawes Act and Homesteading – Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts argued that Native Americans would prosper if they owned family farms. His 1887 Dawes Act carved Indian reservations into 160-acre allotments. This allowed the federal government to break up tribal lands further.

  • Only those families who accepted an allotment of land could become US citizens.
  • The Dawes Act designated 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land to the head of each Native American family.
  • This was comparable to the Homestead Act, but there were important differences.
  • The tribes controlled the land now being allotted to them.

The lands were not owned by the federal government. Additionally, much of the land subject to the Dawes Act was unsuitable for farming. Often large tracts of the allotments were leased to non-Native Americian farmers and ranchers. After the Native American families claimed their allotments, the remaining tribal lands were declared “surplus.” The remaining land was given to non-Native Americans.

  1. Land runs allowed the land to be opened to homesteaders on a first-arrival basis.
  2. Some citizens of the United States have title to land that was given to my fathers and my people by the government.
  3. If it was given to me, what right has the United States to take it from me without first asking my consent?” – Chitto Harjo, Creek Indian Native American lands decreased significantly under the Dawes Act.

Reservation lands went from 138 million acres in 1887 to 48 million acres in 1934! That is a loss of 65 percent, before the Dawes Act was repealed.
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What was the primary goal of the Dawes Act of 1887 quizlet?

The Dawes Act outlawed tribal ownership of land and forced 160-acre homesteads into the hands of individual Indians and their families with the promise of future citizenship. The goal was to assimilate Native Americans into white culture as quickly as possible.
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Who owns the largest amount of agricultural land in the United States?

People own most farmland. Some 2.6 million owners are individuals or families, and they own more than two thirds of all farm acreage. Fewer than 32,500 non family held corpor ations own farmland, and they own less than 5 percent of all U.S. farmland.
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Why is the amount of farmland acreage decreasing in America?

The US Lost 1.3 Million Acres Of Farmland In 2021 – Here’s Why It Matters The latest report from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows the US lost 1.3 million acres of farmland in 2021. The total land in farms decreased from 896,600,000 acres in 2020 to 895,300,000 acres in 2021. Farmland acreage has decreased by over 13.62 million acres since 2014, an average loss of over 1.9 million acres per year.

  1. Why Farmland is Shrinking: Agricultural land being converted into new developments is one of the primary causes of the shrinking supply.
  2. Developers have been purchasing farmland to expand suburbs and meet the growing housing demand.
  3. The report from American Farmland Trust estimates an average of 2,000 acres of farmland are converted each day.

Farms producing low yields are often retired into the USDA’s Conservation Reserve Program. Farmers enrolled in this program agree to remove environmentally sensitive land from agricultural production for 10 to15 years in exchange for a yearly rental payment.

Why it Matters: The global food demand is increasing due to the growing population and rising incomes in developing countries. The United Nations estimates that crop production will have to increase by 60% by the year 2050 to feed the estimated 9.3 billion people living on the planet at that time. Recent jumps in commodities prices are mainly an overreaction to the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

The increasing food demand coupled with the shrinking supply of agricultural land will likely mean the costs of agricultural commodities will remain high well into the future.

  • An Overlooked Investment Option: While ETFs like Teucrium Wheat Fund ETV (ARCA: ) have been getting the attention from retail investors, few realize the potential returns from investing directly into farmland.
  • Farmland values increased by 10% to 22% throughout many areas of the country in 2021 and higher crop prices could keep pushing farmland values higher.
  • that specialize in farmland, like Gladstone Land Corporation (NASDAQ: ) and Farmland Partners Inc (NYSE: ), are attracting a lot more attention from investors already.

However, these publicly traded REITs are still vulnerable to stock market volatility and may underperform in a bear market. Another option for accredited investors is a platform like or AcreTrader, which allows individuals to invest directly in farmland assets through the private market.

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What percent of land is dedicated to agriculture around the world?

Global trends – Globally agricultural land area is approximately five billion hectares, or 38 percent of the global land surface. About one-third of this is used as cropland, while the remaining two-thirds consist of meadows and pastures) for grazing livestock.

Within cropland, about 10 percent of the area is used for permanent crops, such as fruit trees, oil palm plantations and cocoa plantations. A further 21 percent is equipped for irrigation, which is an important land management practice in agriculture. As the global population continues to grow, with the number of people in the world more than doubling between 1961 and 2016, there is greater demand for food.

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And the strain on land, which is a limited resource, has also grown. Global cropland area per capita decreased continuously over the period between 1961 and 2016: from about 0.45 hectare per capita in 1961 to 0.21 hectare per capita in 2016 (Figure 1, below). Figure 1. Global cropland per capita, 1961-2016
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Why did fighting break out between American Indians and the US Army in the Black Hills region?

The Great Sioux War of 1876, also known as the Black Hills War, was a series of battles and negotiations that occurred in 1876 and 1877 in an alliance of Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne against the United States, The cause of the war was the desire of the US government to obtain ownership of the Black Hills,

  • Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills, settlers began to encroach onto Native American lands, and the Sioux and the Cheyenne refused to cede ownership.
  • Traditionally, American military and historians place the Lakota at the center of the story, especially because of their numbers, but some Native Americans believe the Cheyenne were the primary target of the American campaign.

Among the many battles and skirmishes of the war was the Battle of the Little Bighorn ; often known as Custer’s Last Stand, it is the most storied of the many encounters between the US Army and mounted Plains Indians, Despite the Indian victory, the Americans leveraged national resources to force the Indians to surrender, primarily by attacking and destroying their encampments and property.
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Which Indian tribe actually went to war with the United States government?

The Seminole Tribe primarily came from the Creek Indians who had moved into Florida from southern Georgia and Alabama. In 1805 thru 1816 there was increasing friction between white settlers, Florida Indians and the Creek Confederation. The Seminoles began hiding runaway slaves who had escaped from southern plantations into Spanish Florida.

  • On November 21, 1817, General Gaines sent 250 men from Fort Scott in Georgia to arrest Chief Neamathla; gunfire was exchanged thus starting the beginning of the First Seminole Indian War,
  • In March of 1818 General Andrew Jackson crossed into Florida attacking the Spanish fort at St.
  • Marks with 3, 500 men and then marched east to the Suwanne River and attacked the village of Chief Boleck.

Many Indians escaped into the swamps. Jackson was unable to find or capture the Seminoles thus ending the First Seminole Indian War. In 1819 Florida was sold by the Spanish to the United States. There were about 5,000 Seminole Indians who claimed Florida’s 32 million acres of land as their own.

  • In 1823 under the treaty of Moultrie Creek, they gave up their claim which resulted in reducing their land to 4 millions acres, with no access to their cultivated lands, game, and either ocean.
  • Then President Jackson in 1830 signed the Indian Removal Act requiring the relocation of the Seminoles to Oklahoma.

Osceola, a young Seminole leader organized opposition to the relocation. The Second Seminole Indian War began on December 28, 1835 when Osceola and a band of warriors killed the Indian Agent and four other whites at Fort King. On the same day, Chief Micanopy warriors attacked Major Dade and his troops, killing Major Dade and 105 of his 108 men.

  1. Three days after the killing of Major Dade on the banks of the Withlacoochee River, 250 Seminoles Indians led by Osceola and Alligator attacked General Clinch and 750 U.S. Troops.
  2. This saved most of the Seminole villages in the area.
  3. On February 28, 1836 General Edmund Gaines with 1,100 troops from New Orleans were crossing the Withlacoochee River, he also was attacked by Osceola with more than 1,500 warriors.

Lt. James F. Izard was killed during the battle; when the fort was constructed it was named Ft. Izard in his honor during this 10 day battle. This was the only battle involving the entire force of Seminole warriors. The war Chiefs of Osceola, Alligator and Jumper were all involved, resulting in the only time when U.S.

  1. Soldiers were held siege by the Indians.
  2. After this major battle the Seminoles broke into small guerilla bands and moved south attacking by surprise and disappearing into the swamps.
  3. Between 1835 and 1842, almost 3,000 Seminoles were removed to Oklahoma.
  4. For every two Indians removed, one American soldier died.

The Second Seminole War was the bloodiest and longest in United States history. In 1842, the U.S. government withdrew and the Seminole Indians never signed a peace treaty. Chief Billy Bowlegs lead an attack in December 1855 beginning the Third Seminole War,

  1. This was done in protest of the U.S.
  2. Government sending patrols into Seminole territory.
  3. Some negotiations ended with a treaty being signed giving Seminoles land in Oklahoma.
  4. The Florida Seminoles crept quietly deep into the Everglades.
  5. Their descendants over the years have fought the good fight and have prospered by teaching the old ways, providing for their young and old, preserving their heritage through education, museums, trusts, and holdings.

From 1845 to 1913 the area was known as Orange County. On April 25, 1913 the Orange was sliced and the word Seminole was chosen as our new county name, which means run-away just like the Seminoles.
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What happened when the American government attempted to dominate the Comanche Indians?

What happened when the American government attempted to dominate the Comanche Indians? The Comanche became trading partners with Americans. Which territory did the United States obtain from Spain in the Adams-Onís Treaty?
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When did the US steal Indian land?

Why Native Americans are buying back land that was stolen from them Hari Sreenivasan: From 1877 to 1934, through a range of laws and broken treaties, the U.S. government appropriated tens of millions of acres of Native American land. In recent years, a growing movement to reclaim what was once theirs has begun to form around the slogan “land back”.

There have been some successes – last December, congress passed legislation and restored ownership of all 19,000 acres of the national bison range in montana to the Salish and Kootenai tribes. But much of Native American lands ended up in private hands, and tribes are increasingly buying back that land.

NewsHour Weekend Special Correspondent Kira Kay has part one in our two-part report. : Why Native Americans are buying back land that was stolen from them
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What was most devastating to the Indian population after Europeans came to America?

The Story Of. Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs Much of the credit for European military success in the New World can be handed to the superiority of their weapons, their literary heritage, even the fact they had unique load-bearing mammals, like horses.

These factors combined, gave the conquistadors a massive advantage over the sophisticated civilisations of the Aztec and Inca empires. But weapons alone can’t account for the breathtaking speed with which the indigenous population of the New World were completely wiped out. Within just a few generations, the continents of the Americas were virtually emptied of their native inhabitants – some academics estimate that approximately 20 million people may have died in the years following the European invasion – up to 95% of the population of the Americas.

No medieval force, no matter how bloodthirsty, could have achieved such enormous levels of genocide. Instead, Europeans were aided by a deadly secret weapon they weren’t even aware they were carrying: Smallpox, Smallpox is a viral infection which usually enters the body through the nose or throat.

  • From here the virus travels to the lungs, where it multiplies and spreads to the lymphatic system.
  • Within a few days, large pustules begin to appear all over the victim’s skin.
  • Starting with the hands and the face, and then spreading to cover the rest of the body, each blister is packed full of smallpox DNA.

If punctured, these blisters become highly infectious, projecting fresh smallpox particles into the air and onto surrounding surfaces -such as someone else’s skin. It is a disease that requires close human contact to replicate and survive. The total incubation period lasts 12 days, at which point the patient will will either have died or survived.

  • But throughout that period, if gone unchecked, they may have passed the disease to an enormous number of people.
  • But the disease requires close human contact to replicate and survive.
  • Smallpox is a remarkably effective, and remarkably stable, infection – research has shown that over the course of 10 years, as few as three individual bases may change in a strain’s DNA.

The disease found an effective formula thousands of years ago, and there’s no reason to change it. So where does this deadly disease come from, and why was it linked to Europeans? For thousands of years, the people of Eurasia lived in close proximity to the largest variety of domesticated mammals in the world – eating, drinking, and breathing in the germs these animals bore.

  • Over time, animal infections crossed species, evolving into new strains which became deadly to man.
  • Diseases like smallpox, influenza and measles were in fact the deadly inheritance of the Eurasian farming tradition – the product of thousands of years spent farming livestock.
  • These epidemic Eurasian diseases flourished in dense communities and tended to explode in sudden, overwhelming spates of infection and death.

Transmitted via coughing, sneezing and tactile infection, they wreaked devastation throughout Eurasian history – and in the era before antibiotics, thousands died. But not everyone. With each epidemic eruption, some people survived, acquiring antibodies and immunities which they passed on to the next generation.

  • Over time, the population of Europe gained increased immunity, and the devastating impact of traditional infections decreased.
  • Yet the people of the New World had no history of prior exposure to these germs.
  • They farmed only one large mammal – the llama – and even this was geographically isolated.
  • The llama was never kept indoors, it wasn’t milked and only occasionally eaten – so the people of the New World were not troubled by cross-species viral infection.

When the Europeans arrived, carrying germs which thrived in dense, semi-urban populations, the indigenous people of the Americas were effectively doomed. They had never experienced smallpox, measles or flu before, and the viruses tore through the continent, killing an estimated 90% of Native Americans.

Smallpox is believed to have arrived in the Americas in 1520 on a Spanish ship sailing from Cuba, carried by an infected African slave. As soon as the party landed in Mexico, the infection began its deadly voyage through the continent. Even before the arrival of Pizarro, smallpox had already devastated the Inca Empire, killing the Emperor Huayna Capac and unleashing a bitter civil war that distracted and weakened his successor, Atahuallpa.

In the era of global conquest which followed, European colonizers were assisted around the world by the germs which they carried. A 1713 smallpox epidemic in the Cape of Good Hope decimated the South African Khoi San people, rendering them incapable of resisting the process of colonization.

  1. European germs also wreaked devastation on the aboriginal communities of Australia and New Zealand.
  2. More victims of colonization were killed by Eurasian germs, than by either the gun or the sword, making germs the deadliest agent of conquest.
  3. Where to next? Find out more about germs go to the Story of.

Malaria,
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Why did the natives lose their land in USA?

Native tribes have lost 99% of their land in the United States Indigenous people in the United States have lost nearly 99% of the land they historically occupied, according to an unprecedented new data set. The data set—the first to quantify land dispossession and forced migration in the United States—also reveals that tribes with land today were systematically forced into less-valuable areas, which excluded them from key sectors of the U.S.

economy, including the energy market. The negative effects continue to this day: Modern Indigenous lands are at increased risk from climate change hazards, especially extreme heat and decreased precipitation. “It’s an airtight article,” says Deondre Smiles, a geographer at the University of Victoria and a citizen of the Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, who was not involved in the study.

By wrangling many disparate sources into one quantitative data set, the work “is going to represent a paradigm shift” for studies of U.S. colonialism and its effects. Starting in the 17th century, European settlers pushed Indigenous people off their land, with the backing of the colonial government and, later, the fledging United States.

Indian removal policies intensified in the 19th century, including the forced migration of tens of thousands of people in the U.S. southeast to Oklahoma, known as the Trail of Tears. Indigenous people have always understood the devastating effects of these policies, Smiles says. But most of their stories existed only in qualitative historical records, including hundreds of treaties, or oral histories.

“The pushback you get in academia is that qualitative narratives are not robust. ‘Where’s the data? Where’s the hard science?'” Smiles says. “It’s right here, in this article.” The new data set spans 300 years and includes nearly 400 tribes. For information about where tribes used to live, researchers spent 5 years scouring multiple archives for treaties the United States made with Indigenous nations, which often included coercive agreements to cede some or all of their land.

The researchers also searched U.S. legal documents chronicling decades of land disputes, tribes’ own public archives, and other historical records. They then compared those records with U.S. census data about present-day tribal lands. (To focus on people who had experienced similar colonial policies, the researchers excluded Alaska and Hawaii, and tribal lands that extended into modern Canada and Mexico.) Researchers quantified how much land Indigenous people have lost in the United States, including regions that were lost by more than one tribe or lost repeatedly.

(Gray areas on the “historical” map are due to a lack of records.) Farrell et al., 2021, Adapted by N. Desai/ Science The researchers found that Indigenous people across the contiguous United States, or 93.9% of the total geographic area they once occupied, they report today in Science, (The first figure is higher because the same land was sometimes occupied by multiple tribes before colonial boundaries were imposed.) Some tribes suffered even more complete dispossession: Forty-two percent represented in historical records have no recognized land today.

  • For the tribes that still have land, its average present-day size is a mere 2.6% of their historical lands.
  • In addition, present-day tribal lands can be far from their original sites: On average, tribes were forced to move 241 kilometers.
  • One of the longest forced migrations in the data set was experienced by the Modoc people, who were moved from the Klamath Basin of California and Oregon to Oklahoma, 2565 kilometers away.

The consequences of land dispossession and forced migration continue to affect tribes today, says co-author Kyle Whyte, an environmental justice scholar at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and an enrolled member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation. The data set shows present-day tribal lands are more at risk from climate change than tribes’ historical areas, as they experience more extreme heat and less precipitation.

It’s not just that Indigenous people happen to live in areas that are disproportionately impacted in negative ways by climate change,” Whyte says. They were often forcibly relocated to land that settlers considered less valuable, and those lands are more at risk from climate change hazards today. Present-day Indigenous lands also have 24% fewer oil and gas resources than did historical lands, the data set shows.

That means tribes have had less opportunity to participate in the energy economy, which was built on fossil fuels, says Justin Farrell, a sociologist at Yale University who was also an author on the paper. It’s possible some tribes wouldn’t have exploited those resources in the same way settlers did, he says.

  1. But they never had a choice.
  2. It’s not correct to talk about ‘historical’ colonialism,” as if it were something that happened in the past and is now over, Whyte says.
  3. Colonialism and land dispossession are present factors that increase vulnerability and create economic challenges for tribes.” For example, his tribe, the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, was forcibly relocated twice from its home in the Great Lakes region: first to Kansas, and then to Oklahoma.

“, we’re facing a number of climate change issues tied to drought and heat,” Whyte says. “This paper is trying to account for stories like my tribe. We basically had to start from scratch in the 19th century and completely rebuild our society.” As striking as their findings are, the team says they are likely to be an understatement.

  • That’s because, when it comes to Indigenous history, U.S.
  • Government records are inherently incomplete.
  • The data set can and should be expanded, the researchers say, and they invite tribal members and others to submit additions.
  • We view this as the beginning,” Farrell says.
  • Correction, 28 October, 4:15 p.m.: This article has been updated to more accurately reflect the relative length of the Modoc people’s forced migration.

: Native tribes have lost 99% of their land in the United States
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Why did the US come up with the Dawes Plan?

Main points of the Dawes Plan – In an agreement of August 1924, the main points of the Dawes Plan were:

  1. The Ruhr area was to be evacuated by foreign troops
  2. Reparation payments would begin at one billion marks the first year, increasing annually to two and a half billion marks after five years
  3. The Reichsbank would be re-organized under Allied supervision
  4. The sources for the reparation money would include transportation, excise, and customs taxes
  5. Germany would be loaned about $200 million, primarily through Wall Street bond issues in the United States
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The bond issues were overseen by a consortium of American investment banks, led by J.P. Morgan & Co. under the supervision of the US State Department. Germany benefitted enormously from the influx of foreign capital. The Dawes Plan went into effect in September 1924.

Dawes and Sir Austen Chamberlain shared the Nobel Peace Prize, The economy of Germany began to rebound during the mid-1920s and the country continued with the payment of reparations—now funded by the large scale influx of American capital. However, the Dawes Plan was considered by the Germans as a temporary measure and they expected a revised solution in the future.

In 1928, German Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann called for a final plan to be established, and the Young Plan was enacted in 1929.
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What was the US government’s Office of Indian Affairs responsible for doing apex?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Indian Office” redirects here. For the former British government department, see India Office,

Bureau of Indian Affairs

Seal of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Flag of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agency overview
Formed March 11, 1824 ; 199 years ago
Preceding agency

Office of Indian Affairs, United States Department of War

Jurisdiction Federal Government of the United States
Headquarters Main Interior Building 1849 C Street, NW Washington, DC 20240
Employees 4,569 (FY2020)
Annual budget $2.159 billion (FY2021)
Agency executives
  • Bryan Newland, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs
  • Darryl LaCounte, Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Tony Dearman, Director, Bureau of Indian Education
  • Jerry Gidner, Director, Bureau of Trust Funds Administration
Parent agency United States Department of the Interior
Child agencies

Bureau of Trust Funds Administration, Bureau of Indian Education

Website bia.gov

The Bureau of Indian Affairs ( BIA ), also known as Indian Affairs ( IA ), is a United States federal agency within the Department of the Interior, It is responsible for implementing federal laws and policies related to Native Americans and Alaska Natives, and administering and managing over 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km 2 ) of reservations held in trust by the U.S.

  • Federal government for indigenous tribes,
  • It renders services to roughly 2 million indigenous Americans across 574 federally recognized tribes.
  • The BIA is governed by a director and overseen by the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs, who answers to the Secretary of the Interior,
  • The BIA works with tribal governments to help administer law enforcement and justice; promote development in agriculture, infrastructure, and the economy; enhance tribal governance; manage natural resources; and generally advance the quality of life in tribal communities.

Educational services are provided by Bureau of Indian Education —the only other agency under the Assistant Secretary for Indian affairs—while health care is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services through its Indian Health Service,

The BIA is one of the oldest federal agencies in the U.S., with roots tracing back to the Committee on Indian Affairs established by Congress in 1775. First headed by Benjamin Franklin, the committee oversaw trade and treaty relations with various indigenous peoples, until the establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs by Secretary of War John C.

Calhoun in 1824. The BIA gained statutory authority in 1832, and in 1849 was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. Until the formal adoption of its current name in 1947, the BIA was variably known as the Indian office, the Indian bureau, the Indian department, and the Indian Service.

  1. The BIA’s mission and mandate historically reflected the U.S.
  2. Government’s prevailing policy of forced assimilation of native peoples and the annexation of their land; beginning with the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, the BIA has increasingly emphasized tribal self-determination and peer-to-peer relationships between tribal governments and federal government.

Between 1824 and 1977, the BIA was led by a total of 42 commissioners, of whom six were of indigenous descent. Since the creation of the position of Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs in 1977, all thirteen occupants up to the present day have been Indigenous, including Bay Mills Indian Community’s Bryan Newland, appointed and confirmed to the position in 2021.
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What was the earliest occupation of Plains Indians?

PALEO-INDIANS – Why Did The U.S. Congress Appropriate Funds For Indian Education In 1877 “Selected Paleo-Indian sites in the Great Plains” View larger Paleo-Indians were the earliest people to inhabit the Americas. Between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago, small, highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers extended their hunting areas throughout Beringia (the landmass that joined Siberia and Alaska) and into the Western Hemisphere.

This “bridging landmass” emerged slowly from beneath the Bering Sea as more than nine million cubic miles of glacial ice accumulated over southern Alaska, Canada, Labrador, and Greenland. About 20,000 to 18,000 years ago an immense “ice dome” (the Laurentide glacier) towered more than one mile over present-day Hudson Bay.

Two lobes of ice spread southward over the eastern edge of the Dakotas and deeper into the Midwest. The Central and Southern Great Plains remained unglaciated at this time, yet the mountains of glacial ice to the north exerted pronounced influences upon the everyday lives of the Paleo-Indians throughout the region.

Archeologists believe that Paleo-Indians expanded into certain ice-free areas of North America’s interior, or along its coastal margins. The timing of the arrival of Paleo-Indians in the Great Plains and in North America, in general, is under renewed investigation. Recent genetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA suggest that a founding population composed of four distinct genetic lineages appeared in the Western Hemisphere between 37,000 and 23,000 years before present (B.P.).

It appears that all contemporary Native Americans are descendants of these Paleo-Indian lineages, including the hunter-gatherers who made their appearance in the Great Plains 18,000 years ago or earlier. During the last Ice Age, the Great Plains was inhabited by a diverse array of animals, including the Columbian mammoth, musk oxen, caribou, horse, camel, bison, elk, lion, wolf, arctic ground squirrels, arctic shrews, and lemmings.

  1. Around 14,500 B.P.
  2. The Northern Hemisphere began to warm and the glaciers began to shrink.
  3. The ice over North America essentially disappeared by 6,500 B.P.
  4. Mosaic communities of plants and animals were reshuÄed and sorted into their characteristic zonal patterns of today.
  5. Many large herbivorous and carnivorous mammals were unable to make the necessary shifts in diet, reproduction, and morphology and became extinct between 12,000 and 10,000 B.P.

Some scientists have attributed the disappearance of many larger mammals to the superior predatory abilities of the Paleo-Indians themselves. There is little reason to believe that Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers had any significant role in these global animal extinctions; such extinctions had occurred many times before, particularly during abrupt shifts from colder glacial to warmer interglacial periods.

The most abundant physical evidence for Paleo-Indians in the Plains consists of a diverse array of carefully made chipped stone projectile points that were given geographical placenames like Clovis, Goshen, Folsom, Midland, Plainview, Cody, Alberta, Hell Gap, Scottsbluff, and Eden. Hunting weapons were probably constructed from interchangeable parts that were frequently repaired and recycled.

Certain chipped stone points (e.g., Clovis, Folsom, and Goshen) were attached to short, fletched “dart” shafts and thrown with the use of a leverlike spear thrower, or atlatl. Paleo- Indian flint knappers developed an extremely efficient eleven-step method for transforming a large flake of high-quality stone into a multipurpose cutting implement and, later, into a Folsom point, two “razor blades,” and a “lathe” tool.

Larger stone points (e.g., Scottsbluff, Hell Gap, and Alberta) functioned as thrusting spears for dispatching bison that had been driven into natural traps created by parabolic sand dunes, deep gullies, or snowdrifts. Paleo- Indian tool kits also included chipped stone tools required to skin and butcher game, scrape skins and hides, and fashion specialized tools and component parts (e.g., foreshafts, shaft straighteners, and delicate eyed needles) of bone, antler, ivory, and wood.

One of the first documented discoveries of Paleo-Indian stone tools found together with the bones of extinct Ice Age animals in North America was made by H.T. Martin and T.R. Overton in 1895 near Russell Springs, Kansas. A similar find was made by George McJunkin–a cowboy, naturalist, and former black slave–in 1908 near Folsom, New Mexico.

But it was not until August 29, 1927, that a fluted spear or “dart” point (Folsom) was found by archeologists among the bones of extinct bison ( Bison antiquus ) at McJunkin’s Folsom site. Paleontologists, archeologists, and anthropologists were called to inspect this find in its undisturbed context, and only then did the scientific community agree that humans had lived contemporaneously with these now-extinct animals at the end of the last Ice Age.

These accidental finds sparked the initial systematic studies of the Paleo-Indian presence in the North American Great Plains. In the 1930s Clovis projectile points (dated 11,200–10,900 B.P.) were found with the remains of extinct Ice Age elephants (mammoths) and also bison near Clovis, New Mexico.

  1. Later Paleo-Indian occupations (10,000– 8,800 B.P.), including the Cody complex on the Northern Plains and the Firstview complex on the Southern Plains, featured a number of chipped stone projectile points.
  2. With the development of radiocarbon dating in the 1950s, as well as the excavation of “layer-cakelike” sites at Blackwater Draw, New Mexico, and Hell Gap, Wyoming, archeologists outlined the time frame for Paleo-Indian life in the Great Plains that is used today.

Paleo-Indians left a scant “trail” throughout the Great Plains. Geographer Vance Holliday has estimated that archeologists have found roughly two Paleo-Indian campsites for each century of their currently documented 2,400- year-long stay in the Great Plains.

In the Southern High Plains, this means that there is one Paleo-Indian campsite per 667 square miles (1,733 square kilometers). Yet Paleo-Indian sites are still being discovered, including campsites (e.g., Mill Iron, Montana; Lake Ilo, North Dakota; and Cattle Guard, Colorado), animal kill sites (e.g., Waugh and Cooper sites in Kansas), tool caches (e.g., Anzick, Montana; Fenn, Wyoming; and Ryan, Texas), and tool stone quarries and/or workshops (e.g., Alkali Creek, North Dakota, and Hanson, Wyoming).

Researchers have also intensified their efforts to revise and to reformulate their reconstructions of past environments and Paleo-Indian life. Archeologists had generally assumed that the Great Plains during the late glacial period supported a widespread boreal forest composed predominantly of spruce trees.

This spruce forest reconstruction is not supported by a fossil record that is dominated by grazing and browsing mammals. Also, paleoecologists now suggest that much, if not all, of the spruce and pine pollen was not endemic and had actually been deposited over the Plains by westerly winds. Recent studies suggest that Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers, specifically Folsom people, lived in small, multifamily groups.

These groups or hunting bands may have established from twelve to thirty-six camps per year throughout an area of more than 52,000 square miles (slightly less than the area of North Dakota). Folsom-age projectile points have been found more than 300 miles (500 km) from their geological source.

It appears that Paleo-Indians quickly located sources for the highest-quality tool stone in the Plains, including Knife River flint (western North Dakota), Niobrara jasper (Nebraska), and Edwards chert (Texas). The Great Plains has played, and continues to play, a central role in the study of Paleo- Indian lifeways in the Western Hemisphere.

Recent work by Steve Holen (Nebraska State Museum) at mammoth death sites may push the initial human occupation of the Great Plains back to more than 18,000 years ago. Such recent research also suggests that the earliest Paleo-Indians may have scavenged food from large mammal carcasses.

  1. Archeologists are making use of refined radiocarbon dating methods and more dynamic views of prehistoric technology to reassess the static Paleo- Indian “culture histories” that once dominated their thinking.
  2. Archeologists working in the Great Plains have now begun to bring the faint outlines of Paleo-Indian existence into better focus.

See also PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: Glaciation ; Paleoenvironments, Alan J. Osborn University of Nebraska-Lincoln Frison, George C. Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains, New York: Academic Press, 1991. Holliday, Vance T. Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Southern High Plains,
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What was the main goal of the Dawes Plan when it was introduced in 1924 quizlet?

The Dawes Plan was a war reparations agreement that reduced Germany’s yearly payments, made payment dependent on economic prosperity, and granted large US loans to promote recovery.
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Was the Dawes Act an extension of the treaty system?

The Dawes Act was an extension of the treaty system practiced by the American government since the Revolutionary War. FalseThe Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 to:ensure that railroads charged farmers and merchants reasonable and fair rates.
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What were the quotes on the Dawes Act?

Quotes on the Dawes Act ‘ The Indian may now become a free man; free from the thralldom of the tribe; free from the domination of the reservation system; free to enter into the body of our citizens. This bill may therefore be considered as the Magna Carta of the Indians of our country.’
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Was the Dawes Act was an extension of the treaty system practiced by the American government since the Revolutionary War?

The Dawes Act was an extension of the treaty system practiced by the American government since the Revolutionary War. FalseThe Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 to:ensure that railroads charged farmers and merchants reasonable and fair rates.
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What was the US government’s Office of Indian Affairs responsible for doing apex?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Indian Office” redirects here. For the former British government department, see India Office,

Bureau of Indian Affairs

Seal of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Flag of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agency overview
Formed March 11, 1824 ; 199 years ago
Preceding agency

Office of Indian Affairs, United States Department of War

Jurisdiction Federal Government of the United States
Headquarters Main Interior Building 1849 C Street, NW Washington, DC 20240
Employees 4,569 (FY2020)
Annual budget $2.159 billion (FY2021)
Agency executives
  • Bryan Newland, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs
  • Darryl LaCounte, Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Tony Dearman, Director, Bureau of Indian Education
  • Jerry Gidner, Director, Bureau of Trust Funds Administration
Parent agency United States Department of the Interior
Child agencies

Bureau of Trust Funds Administration, Bureau of Indian Education

Website bia.gov

The Bureau of Indian Affairs ( BIA ), also known as Indian Affairs ( IA ), is a United States federal agency within the Department of the Interior, It is responsible for implementing federal laws and policies related to Native Americans and Alaska Natives, and administering and managing over 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km 2 ) of reservations held in trust by the U.S.

Federal government for indigenous tribes, It renders services to roughly 2 million indigenous Americans across 574 federally recognized tribes. The BIA is governed by a director and overseen by the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs, who answers to the Secretary of the Interior, The BIA works with tribal governments to help administer law enforcement and justice; promote development in agriculture, infrastructure, and the economy; enhance tribal governance; manage natural resources; and generally advance the quality of life in tribal communities.

Educational services are provided by Bureau of Indian Education —the only other agency under the Assistant Secretary for Indian affairs—while health care is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services through its Indian Health Service,

The BIA is one of the oldest federal agencies in the U.S., with roots tracing back to the Committee on Indian Affairs established by Congress in 1775. First headed by Benjamin Franklin, the committee oversaw trade and treaty relations with various indigenous peoples, until the establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs by Secretary of War John C.

Calhoun in 1824. The BIA gained statutory authority in 1832, and in 1849 was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. Until the formal adoption of its current name in 1947, the BIA was variably known as the Indian office, the Indian bureau, the Indian department, and the Indian Service.

  • The BIA’s mission and mandate historically reflected the U.S.
  • Government’s prevailing policy of forced assimilation of native peoples and the annexation of their land; beginning with the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, the BIA has increasingly emphasized tribal self-determination and peer-to-peer relationships between tribal governments and federal government.

Between 1824 and 1977, the BIA was led by a total of 42 commissioners, of whom six were of indigenous descent. Since the creation of the position of Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs in 1977, all thirteen occupants up to the present day have been Indigenous, including Bay Mills Indian Community’s Bryan Newland, appointed and confirmed to the position in 2021.
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What were the Native Americans trying to do when they took over Alcatraz?

The occupiers cited treatment under the Indian Termination policy as the reason. They also accused the U.S. of breaking numerous Indian treaties. The IAT said they intended took the island over to build a Native American Studies center, spiritual center, an ecology center, and an American Indian Museum.
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What was the purpose of the Ghost Dance quizlet?

The ghost dance was a religious revitalization uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs, the disappearance of whites, and the return of buffalo.
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