Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart?

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Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart
Lessons from the (Pig’s) Heart Students in Upper School Science Teacher Stacey Morgan’s Anatomy and Physiology class have been studying the human heart. They learned about the valves, aorta, ventricles, and veins. They have studied how the heart functions as it pumps blood throughout the body, sending oxygen and nutrients and carrying away unwanted carbon dioxide and waste products.

  • There’s only so much you can learn from a book, though, and even plastic models, while realistic, aren’t as good as the original.
  • It’s not possible to bring human hearts into the lab to study, so Morgan found the next best thing: pig hearts.
  • I think it’s important for the students to see and feel tissues, as that can help them better understand why and how they function the way they do,” she said.

Pig hearts are a great way to get an idea of the anatomy of human hearts because they are very similar in size, structure, and function. Like human hearts, pig hearts consist of four chambers (two atriums and two ventricles). They also have four valves and an aorta, just like humans.
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Why do we use the pigs heart to study human heart?

Why Are Pig Hearts Used to Study the Anatomy of the Human Heart? Pig hearts are used to study the anatomy of human hearts because they are very similar in structure, size and function to human hearts. These similarities, combined with the fact that they are much more readily available than human hearts, make them an ideal choice for research and study.

Like a human heart, a pig heart consists of four chambers: two atriums and two ventricles. Likewise, consistent with the structure of a human heart, it has four valves and an aorta. These similarities allow blood to flow through a pig’s heart in the same way it flows through a human’s heart. In fact, pig hearts are so similar to human hearts that tissue from pig hearts is used to make heart valve replacements for humans.

Of course, the tissue is treated before surgery to decrease the likelihood of the recipient’s immune system rejecting it. : Why Are Pig Hearts Used to Study the Anatomy of the Human Heart?
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How does a pigs heart compare to a human heart?

Swine in Cardiovascular Research – Swine belong to the species Sus scrofa domestica, which comprises many different breeds that vary in size and appearance. The range of swine breeds can be grossly subdivided into 2 categories: farm pigs (the most common breeds being the Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc as well as their crosses) and minipigs (such as Yucatan, Hanford, Göttingen, and Sinclair).

One of the major advantages of minipigs over farm breeds is that for the same body weight, minipigs are more mature, and their tissues are more resilient to experimental procedures.49 Given that intubation in farm pigs presents numerous challenges (deep larynx, extended soft palate, fragile trachea, predisposition to laryngospasm), 16 this trait of minipigs may be important to some researchers.

Another disadvantage of farm breeds is that they are susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, and some genetic lines are predisposed to malignant hyperthermia. Furthermore the high growth rate and adult size of farm pigs may present a husbandry challenge for standard laboratory facilities.

For these reasons, many researchers favor the use of minipigs, especially in long-term survival studies.22 The ratio of heart weight to body weight in 20- to 30-kg pigs, which are used frequently in cardiovascular studies, is identical (5 g/kg) to that of adult humans.23 One should bear in mind that this ratio in such young animals is markedly higher than that of adult pigs (2.5 to 2.9 g/kg).

This ratio is approximately 7 g/kg for adult dogs and approximately 3 g/kg for adult sheep.23 Many of the differences in cardiac anatomy between pigs and humans are the result of a quadruped compared with biped stance as well as the unusual conformation of the human thorax, which is dorsoventrally compressed, compared with the thorax of other mammals, which typically is laterally compressed.

Consequently, the morphology and topography as well as the terminology of the thoracic organs differ between most mammals used in biomedical research and humans. As far as topography is concerned, the long axis of the swine heart tips forward, forming an acute angle to the vertical plane ( Figure 1 ).

Furthermore, the heart of these animals species are rotated counterclockwise compared with the human heart. As a result, the left ventricle and left atrium faces caudally, whereas the right atrium and ventricle are cranially situated ( Figure 1 ). Due to the quadruped stance, the heart appears to be overhanging the thoracic cavity by its major vessels; therefore, venal drainage has a gravitational component.

The orifices of the caval veins of pigs and other animals form an angle as they enter the right atrium, in contrast to the human caval veins, which are aligned along the same axis.8 Regarding terminology, the superior and inferior caval veins of humans are called the cranial and caudal caval veins in the majority of mammals used in biomedical research.

An important difference is the presence of the left azygous vein in pigs, which drains directly into the coronary sinus; the human heart lacks this anatomic arrangement.50 In the swine heart, the right auricle has a narrow tubular appearance, compared with the triangular shape of that in humans. Right recumbency; left hemithorax, adjacent lung, and pericardium removed. Position of the porcine heart in the thoracic cavity. The upper line is parallel to the spine; the oblique line represents the long axis of the heart. The acute angle in this figure is overestimated due to lateral recumbency.

  1. In the trabecular component of the right ventricle, the trabeculae carnae and papillary muscles of pigs are much coarser and broader than those of the human right ventricle.
  2. Similar to the arrangement in humans, the tendineae chordae of swine arise from the apices of the papillary muscles to the free border of the 3 leaflets of the tricuspid valve.

One of the most prominent features in the right ventricle of the porcine heart is the trabecula septomarginalis, formerly known as moderator band. This muscular strand connects the septal wall of the right ventricle to its free wall ( Figure 2 ) and carries Purkinje fibers from the right atrioventricular bundle across the right ventricle’s lumen. Porcine heart, right ventricle. The arrow indicates the trabecula septomarginalis. Compared with that in humans, the porcine structure is much thicker and more proximally situated to the base of the heart. In the left ventricle of pigs, the apical trabeculations are coarse and not obviously different from those of the right ventricle, contrary to the finer trabeculations of the left ventricle of the human heart.

These anatomic differences between the 2 species reflect the high variation of the Purkinje fiber network and probably result in differences in ventricular conductivity and contractility.26 The ratio of wall thickness between the left to right ventricle is much higher in the porcine heart than in the human heart.8 In mammals, the cardiac valves follow in general the same pattern.

The atria are divided from the ventricles by the atrioventricular valves, which are connected to the papillary muscles through the tendinae chordae. The tricuspid valve of swine has 3 leaflets, whereas dogs typically have 2.10 The porcine mitral valve has similar characteristics to those of the human valve regarding size, leaflets, and tendinae chordae configuration.28 Substantial similarities between the 2 species are apparent as far as their semilunar valves are concerned.

The noncoronary cusp of the porcine aortic valve has a fibrous attachment. This structure is absent in bovine and ovine aortic valves.40 Furthermore, swine and humans (although to a lesser extent in humans) display a fibrous continuity between the leaflets of the mitral and aortic valve.8 Another difference is the increased myocardial support of the porcine aortic valve when compared with that of humans.40 Differences between the 2 species exist regarding the size and geometry of the respective cusps of their aortic valve.43 In addition, differences between the 2 species have been observed at the microstructural level of their valves, in regard to metalloproteinase I expression and proteoglycan distribution.47 Despite several differences, the vast anatomic and physiologic similarities render the porcine heart a possible source for human valve bioprostheses.

Compared with mechanical valves, porcine valves do not require anticoagulant regimens, but their rapid deterioration poses a significant disadvantage. At first, this degenerative process was attributed to ‘wear-and tear’ phenomena, but substantial current evidence suggests that an immune-mediated reaction contributes significantly.29 Genetically modified pigs donors could, to some extent, overcome the human host-mediated immune reaction.29 The implementation of a new prosthetic heart valve in clinical practice prerequisites an animal model that accurately predicts the efficacy and safety of the valve being tested.

  • Even though swine closely approximate the human cardiovascular, coagulation, and inflammatory systems, intraoperative and postoperative difficulties have limited their use as an animal model of valve disease.
  • Although the ovine model is considered to be the animal species of choice in this context, 5 skepticism about its use has emerged after its failure to predict the safety of a new prosthetic valve.44 Moreover, the significant differences between the ovine and human cardiovascular systems should not be overlooked.

These limitations of the ovine model led a team of researchers to propose a reproducible porcine model for the long-term evaluation of valvular prostheses.44 In addition, swine often demonstrate congenital heart anomalies and therefore have been used as a spontaneous model for the study of ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, and tricuspid dysplasia.50 As in humans, nonesterified fatty acids are the predominant source of energy in pigs, supplying a maximum of 80% of the energy needed; in situations where the oxidation of fatty acids decreases, energy is delivered through increased glucose extraction (Randle cycle).22
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Are pig hearts used in human heart transplants?

Research Highlights:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) measures taken after the first pig-to-human heart transplant found significantly different electrical conduction characteristics compared to those seen in native pig hearts (pig heart transplanted in a pig). Common ECG measures are typically shorter in a pig than in a human, yet, in the Jan.2022 pig-to-human heart transplant, these ECG measures were unexpectedly prolonged.

Embargoed until 4 a.m. CT/5 a.m. ET, Monday, Oct.31, 2022 DALLAS, Oct.31, 2022 — Heart rhythm measures in the electrocardiograms of the first pig-to-human heart transplant found unexpected differences in the electrical conduction system of the genetically modified pig heart compared to an unmodified pig heart, according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2022.

  • The meeting, held in person in Chicago and virtually, Nov.5-7, 2022, is a premier global exchange of the latest scientific advancements, research and evidence-based clinical practice updates in cardiovascular science.
  • Xenotransplantation — the process of implanting an organ from one animal species to another — took a leap forward in January 2022, when a 57-year-old man with terminal heart disease received the first-ever transplant of a genetically modified pig heart.

The patient lived for 61 days. Researchers have been working on this new pig-to-human transplantation technique for over 30 years. If successful, harvesting hearts from genetically modified pigs, whose genes have been altered so that they can be safely transplanted to humans, may one day be a reality.

There are several potential challenges for transplanting a pig heart into a human. With any transplant including this one, there is always the risk of rejection, the potential risk of infection and a third one is abnormal heart rhythms, and that is where the electrocardiogram (ECG) comes in,” said Timm Dickfeld, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine and director of electrophysiology research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.

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“It’s truly a novel finding that the ECG parameters of the pig heart after transplantation into a human were so different compared to the commonly found ECG parameters for native pig hearts.” Monitoring the heart with ECG after transplantation is one way to assess the electrical conduction system after a heart transplant.

  1. A 12-lead ECG measures the electrical conduction in 12 different electrical angles of the heart.
  2. Specifically, researchers reviewed two ECG measures: the PR interval/QRS complex and the QT interval.
  3. The PR interval and QRS complex measure the time it takes electricity to travel from the top to the bottom chamber and across the bottom chambers, thus, pumping blood through the heart.

The QT interval measures the time it takes the lower chambers of the heart to go through a full electrical cycle associated with a heartbeat. For this study, the ECG data of the transplant patient were collected usually once a day after the transplant.

  • Prior research demonstrated that ECG parameters of the pig heart in a pig body had a short PR interval (50 to 120 milliseconds), short QRS (70 to 90 milliseconds) and short QT (260 to 380 milliseconds).
  • In contrast, the first-ever ECG of a genetically modified heart xenotransplant found a longer PR interval of 190 milliseconds, QRS duration of 138 milliseconds and QT of 538 milliseconds, which is longer than what would be expected from a pig heart in a pig body,” Dickfeld said.

“In a human heart, when those parameters get longer, this can indicate signs of electrical or myocardial disease,” he said. “The pig heart ECG parameters were extended to what we see in a human heart and often the measures even extended beyond what we consider normal in a human heart.” Additionally, the continual ECG measures indicate that prolonged PR intervals remained stable after the transplant, averaging about 210 milliseconds.

QRS duration remained prolonged with about 145 milliseconds, however, these shortened later during the 61-day post-transplant period. “The QRS duration may prolong when, for example, the muscle and the electrical system itself is diseased, and that is why it takes a long time for electricity to travel from cell to cell and travel from one side of the heart to the other,” Dickfeld said.

“In general, we would prefer for this QRS measure not to prolong too much.” Finally, the study revealed an increased QT duration averaging about 509 milliseconds with dynamic fluctuations. The lowest QT duration was observed on day 14. “In the human heart, the QT duration is correlated with an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms,” Dickfeld said.

  1. In our patient, it was concerning that the QT measure was prolonged.
  2. While we saw some fluctuations, the QT measure remained prolonged during the whole 61 days.” The researchers believe these findings provide a foundation for future research to better understand the effects of xenotransplantation on the heart’s electrical system and to better prepare for future cases of xenotransplantation.

In 2020 (the most recent data available), the United States recorded the highest number of heart transplants at 3,658 transplantations performed, according to the American Heart Association’s 2022 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update, As of February 2021, 3,515 people were on the waiting list for a heart transplant, and 49 people were on the waiting list for a heart and lung transplant, also according to the update.

  • The ultimate goal is that if someone needs a heart, xenotransplantation may be an option,” Dickfeld said.
  • We need to make xenotransplantation safer and more doable in these challenging areas: rejection, infection, pumping problems and certainly in the area of abnormal electrical signals and heart rhythms.” The major limitation is that this study is a first-of-its kind in a single patient.

Future research will have a better foundation of knowledge on which to build. “This was a true milestone for research on xenotransplantation, the transplantation of organs from one species to another, in this case from pigs to human. There were a number of key steps that will be fundamental to the success of these operations largely centered around genetic manipulation to reduce organ rejection.

Solving the problem of rejection may ultimately lead to use of this method to help numerous patients with advanced heart failure,” said Paul J. Wang, M.D., FAHA, who was not involved in the study, director of the Stanford Cardiac Arrhythmia Service and a professor of medicine and bioengineering at Stanford University, and editor-in-chief of the American Heart Association’s journal Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology,

“It will be extremely interesting to understand the factors that affect the changes in the parameters observed comparing the pig-in-pig values vs. the pig-in-human values. We will want to look at factors such as how they reflect rejection and hemodynamic status,” Wang said.

  • Further analysis of the electrocardiogram including ST-T wave abnormalities may also provide unique insights.” Co-authors are Calvin Kagan, M.D.; Richard Sandeep Amara, M.D.; Muhammad Haq, M.D.; Muhammad Mohiuddin, M.B.B.S.; Susie N.
  • Hong-Zohlman, M.D.; Manjula Ananthram, M.B.B.S.; Charles C.
  • Hong, M.D., Ph.D.; Vincent Y.

See, M.D.; Stephen Shorofsky, M.D., Ph.D., and Bartley Griffith, M.D. Authors’ disclosures are listed in the abstract. The study authors reported no outside sources of funding. Statements and conclusions of studies that are presented at the American Heart Association’s scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the Association’s policy or position.

The Association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. Abstracts presented at the Association’s scientific meetings are not peer-reviewed, rather, they are curated by independent review panels and are considered based on the potential to add to the diversity of scientific issues and views discussed at the meeting.

The findings are considered preliminary until published as a full manuscript in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. The Association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific Association programs and events.

Multimedia is available on the right column of the release link https://newsroom.heart.org/news/modified-pig-to-human-heart-transplant-had-unexpected-changes-in-heart-s-conduction-system?preview=4024b391ff1ca15ea72035bc91d87e88 Link to abstract and AHA Scientific Session 2022 Online Program Planner AHA news release: Groundbreaking pig heart transplant in a human may help patients awaiting donor hearts (January 2022) AHA News: Transplanting pig hearts into humans offers promise – and peril | American Heart Association (January 2022) AHA Resource: Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) For more news at AHA Scientific Sessions 2022, follow us on Twitter @HeartNews #AHA22

The American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2022 is a premier global exchange of the latest scientific advancements, research and evidence-based clinical practice updates in cardiovascular science. The 3-day meeting will feature more than 500 sessions focused on breakthrough cardiovascular basic, clinical and population science updates occurring Saturday through Monday, November 5-7, 2022.

Thousands of leading physicians, scientists, cardiologists, advanced practice nurses and allied health care professionals from around the world will convene virtually to participate in basic, clinical and population science presentations, discussions and curricula that can shape the future of cardiovascular science and medicine, including prevention and quality improvement.

During the three-day meeting, attendees receive exclusive access to more than 4,000 original research presentations and can earn Continuing Medical Education (CME), Continuing Education (CE) or Maintenance of Certification (MOC) credits for educational sessions.

Engage in Scientific Sessions 2022 on social media via #AHA22. About the American Heart Association The American Heart Association is a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives. We are dedicated to ensuring equitable health in all communities. Through collaboration with numerous organizations, and powered by millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for the public’s health and share lifesaving resources.

The Dallas-based organization has been a leading source of health information for nearly a century. Connect with us on heart.org, Facebook, Twitter or by calling 1-800-AHA-USA1. ### For Media Inquiries and AHA Expert Perspective: AHA Communications & Media Relations in Dallas: 214-706-1173; [email protected] John Arnst: 214-706-1060, [email protected] For Public Inquiries: 1-800-AHA-USA1 (242-8721) heart.org and stroke.org
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Why are pig hearts used to study the anatomy of the human heart quizlet?

Pig hearts are used to study the anatomy of the human heart because they have the same structural and functional anatomy of a human. They are very similar in size, structure, and function. They are also more readily available for research purposes.
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Will human body reject the pig heart?

Pig heart transplants in humans show signs of success New research in which doctors transplanted genetically modified pig hearts into people who were clinically dead could pave the way for human trials and a future with more organ transplants that can prolong lives.

  1. In the past month, researchers at NYU Langone Health transplanted pig hearts into two people who had recently suffered catastrophic heart failure and were left brain dead but remained on life support.
  2. In both cases, the new hearts beat strongly and were not immediately rejected by the host bodies.
  3. The hearts continued to function well until the conclusion of the three-day experiment, doctors said.

“The heart was literally banging away. It was contracting completely normally,” Dr. Nader Moazami, a surgeon who was part of the transplant team, said of the moments after the heart restarted. “We learned a tremendous amount.” Doctors at the University of Maryland last year implanted a pig heart into a living patient, but,

  • The NYU research in subjects considered deceased is different because it allows researchers to rigorously test, refine treatments and collect detailed data without fear that experimentation will take a patient’s life.
  • The doctors hope that their research model — of testing pig organs in clinics with deceased patients — can help prepare the medical community for clinical trials and reduce the chances that living patients’ immune systems will turn on new organs.

Nationwide, fewer organs are available for transplant than are needed by patients; pig organs could expand access to transplants and allow doctors to broaden who is eligible for such procedures. “It’s all about going into the first living human trials with as much data as we can possibly have and make it as safe as possible — and effective,” said Dr. Surgeons prepare a genetically modified pig heart for xenotransplantation Wednesday at NYU Langone Health in New York. Joe Carrotta for NYU Langone Health In 2021, more than 116,000 people in the United States were accepted to waiting lists for an organ transplant, according to the national Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

The same year, 6,166 people died while waiting for their number to be called. “There just aren’t enough organs out there to meet the needs of people with organ failure,” said Dr. Megan Sykes, the director of the Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, who was not part of the NYU heart project. Organ scarcity ebbs and flows, but the sources of organs today reflects some of society’s woes — with victims of car crashes, opioid overdoses and gunshot wounds making up a large portion of donors, according to Dr.

Maryjane Farr, a professor of medicine and the heart failure section chief at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas who was not involved in the NYU research. The current system doesn’t offer much for some patients, including young children with heart issues, because their peers are largely staying out of harms’ way.

It’s almost impossible for a 1-year-old or 2-year-old with end stage congenital heart disease to get a donor,” Farr said. “There are populations for which xenotransplants are going to be the only way,” she said, using the term for the transplantation of organs from one species to another. Over decades, doctors have inched closer to figuring out how to make animal organs suitable for people.

Researchers have focused recent efforts on pigs because their organs are similar in size to humans, and they have large litters and are easy to modify genetically, Montgomery said. Pigs are slaughtered by the millions for food in the U.S., which makes using their organs to sustain human life more palatable to the public than using primates, he added.

  • Before they are transplanted, pig hearts require genetic modification to reduce the risk of rejection and to ensure proper function.
  • Researchers “knock out” — or silence — particular genes to prevent human antibodies from attacking the new organ when it is connected, Montgomery said.
  • The researchers also prevent the expression of genes that would allow the heart to grow larger once inside the person receiving the transplant and exposed to human growth hormone.
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Researchers also “knock in” certain genes to perform some important human biological processes. Without genetic modification, a patients’ heart rate would skyrocket and the organ would “turn black within a minute or two,” Montgomery said. Transplant experiments from pigs to laboratory primates have been a key source of progress, Montgomery said.

  • But primates are hard to care for, are prone to infection, and their bodies don’t always react the same as humans.
  • In the last few years, we’ve seen survivals of pig hearts in nonhuman primates going six to nine months.
  • That’s huge and that’s really a big advance,” Sykes said.
  • It’s come to a point where a lot of people feel it’s time to start studies in people.” Montgomery and other doctors last year began to transplant pig kidneys into human subjects who were brain dead and remained on life support.

And while the first pig heart transplant in a living patient ended in the patient’s death in Maryland nearly two months later, his outcome was complicated by a pig virus later found in the transplanted heart. Why the 57-year-old man’s heart ultimately failed remains in question.

For the NYU experiments, researchers worked for several years to develop protocols and to establish an independent board that would evaluate the ethical considerations of transplanting a pig heart into a person who had recently died. In mid-June, researchers secured consent to operate on the body of a 72-year-old man who had a heart attack while driving and was brain dead but remained on life support. A team of doctors flew to Virginia, removed the heart from a pig, put it on ice and flushed it with preservation fluid and then flew it back to Moazami. The heart was smaller than expected and Moazami had to improvise to connect some of the vessels that needed to be connected.

Other than that, “we performed the operation just as if we were going to do a clinical human to human transplant,” Moazami said. The entire process — including transportation — took about four hours and 20 minutes. The hospital converted the operating room into an intensive care unit, where the subject was observed for three days before life support was removed.

Doctors were able to take regular biopsies and blood tests throughout the process, which will give them data to study later. Last week, doctors performed the same process again, operating on a deceased woman in her 60s. They reduced the combined time of transportation and operating with the pig heart by about 50 minutes.

Doctors learned from the Maryland case and implemented more sensitive testing for the pig virus that might have complicated the patient’s recovery there. The virus was not detected in either NYU subject. Montgomery hopes that by combining short-term studies of transplants in the deceased, monthslong studies of pig heart transplants in primates and one-off studies like the one in Maryland, researchers can make a strong case to the federal Food and Drug Administration to greenlight clinical trials. Lawrence “Larry” Kelly suffered a heart attack in June as he was driving that left him brain dead. Kelly’s family agreed to donate his body so researchers at NYU Langone Health could transplant a genetically modified pig heart. Courtesy Kelly Family In mid-June, Alice Michael was talking on the phone with her partner of 33 years, Lawrence “Larry” Kelly, when he had a heart attack.

By the time she arrived at the hospital, doctors told her that her partner of 33 years, the kindhearted man who loved hunting, finding treasures with his metal detector and helping disabled veterans access their benefits, had been left without brain function. A Vietnam veteran of the U.S. Navy, Kelly had his first heart attack in 1993 and weathered two open-heart surgeries.

Troubles with his heart had weighed on Kelly for much of his adult life. Michael said she didn’t hesitate when she received a call from NYU about using Kelly’s body in research. “I didn’t even have to think twice,” Michael said. “He was a hero his whole life and he went out a hero.
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What are the advantages of using a pig’s heart?

Pig-to-man organ transplantation – The two prime candidate organs for pig-to-man transplantation are the kidney and the heart and most of the primate studies have focused on these organs. A highly sensitized uremic patient who, for immunological reasons, cannot receive a human kidney and who does not tolerate dialysis could be a potential pig-kidney recipient.

  • If the kidney failed, it could be removed promptly.
  • A patient dying from heart failure could be provided with a pig heart as a bridge until a human heart becomes available.
  • Would it be that the pig heart keeps functioning, it could be retained.
  • In this regard, there exist some historical experiences.
  • Thus, an attempt to use a pig heart for bridging was performed in the early 1990s and an attempt to use a pig liver for bridging has also been performed.

However, both organs failed. The existence of gene-modified pigs and of new powerful immunosuppressive agents will, however, eventually justify attempts at transplanting pig organs into humans.
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Which animal heart is closest to human?

Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart If animal organs could be used to save our lives, will it mean we become a bit less human? Frank Swain speculates I Imagine that your heart is failing. You desperately need a replacement. Every day, your family waits nervously for a call from the hospital to say they’ve found a donor.

Then one day, the call comes through. In your excitement you barely hear what the doctor on the other end of the line is telling you. There’s something you should know, she says. The donor is not human. It’s a pig. That possibility crept a little closer last week, with the announcement that a pig’s heart had survived over a year after it was transplanted to a baboon.

The work, led by Dr Muhammad Mohuiddin at the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, supports the case of those who say that animal organs could be used to help humans on long transplant waiting lists. Such procedures would raise all sorts of thorny issues about what it will mean to be fully human in the future. Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart Pig hearts are anatomically similar to ours – just one reason why they make suitable donors (SPL) Xenotransplantation – using animal tissues in humans – dates back to at least 1682, when Dutch surgeon Job Janszoon van Meekeren reported that a Russian soldier’s skull had been repaired with a fragment of bone from a dog.

  1. Horrified church authorities ordered the removal of the graft, but it had healed too well to be removed.
  2. Later, Alexis Carrel’s pioneering techniques for suturing blood vessels paved the way for the first xenotransplanted organs in 1902, but it took until the 1960s for any meaningful progress, when surgeons had limited success transplanting primate organs to humans,

However most failed within couple of months, and the patients died. Today, however, primates are no longer considered viable donors, due to issues such as disease transmission risk and the ethical considerations of primate research. What’s more, the body would probably reject the organs.

The major obstruction to xenotransplantation was the immunological rejection,” says Mohuiddin. Pigs, however, have proven to be better donors, at least in tests on baboons. A pig’s heart is anatomically similar to a human, they pose less of a disease risk and the animals grow quickly, making them an excellent substitute.

Crucially, by modifying a pig’s genetics, Mohuiddin was able to render the transplanted hearts invisible to the baboon’s immune system. Two genetic tweaks reduced the ability of the baboon’s immune cells to identify the heart as a foreign body. A third added a gene that produces a human anti-clotting agent to help counter immune system reactions that can be triggered by blood clots forming around foreign tissue. Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart The value of pigs may rise if demand increases for their organs (Thinkstock) So, what would a world with animal organ transplants in humans look like? Might we one day see farmers in overalls mucking out pens where pigs roll in the hay and oink happily as they grow a stock of organs inside them? Perhaps that doesn’t seem too different from the situation we have now.

  1. We have after all been rearing pigs for their meat for thousands of years, and transplantable pig hearts will probably sell for a good deal more than they currently fetches as offal.
  2. Indeed, a ready supply of compatible organs might open up unexpected demand for animal products.
  3. Medical interventions – even very extreme ones – have a habit of normalising once the costs and risks fall.

Who would have thought that life-saving blood transfusions might one day be used by athletes to gain an edge on their competitors, or that surgery to repair the faces of disfigured soldiers would find its home in the opulent clinics of Beverly Hills, shoring up the faces of wealthy clients against wrinkles and sunspots? While we can only speculate, breaking down the biological barriers that separate us from the beasts could lead to all kinds of elective procedures. Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart If pig is routinely on the operating table, would it make it harder to eat bacon on the dinner table? (Thinkstock) What is perhaps more interesting to ask is whether elevating the humble porker to life-saving superhero will change people’s relationship with the animal they are more used to seeing on their plates.

  1. Would you hesitate to sit down to a Sunday roast, knowing the pork on the table had the same heart beating in its chest as your great uncle? I put that question to Mohuiddin, but he declined to speculate on the issue.
  2. Nonetheless, genetically augmenting pigs to make them more suitable as organ donors marks a small but important nudge toward them occupying some middle ground between food and friend.

By expressing some of our genes, these pigs are, after all, very slightly human, and will become incrementally more so as the genes which present incompatibility issues are identified and swapped for human-tolerant ones. Perhaps one day we’ll even go so far as to breed personalised pets that complement you perfectly, should you find yourself in sudden need of a heart, a kidney, or a liver.

This ought to trouble our ethics far less than attempts to conceive a ‘saviour sibling’ – a child born in order to provide life-saving tissue donations to a desperately ill brother or sister. Breeding the flesh of an animal to replace life-giving organs will undeniably change what these creatures are to us, and what it means to be ‘fully’ human.

You only have to listen to your own heart beating in your chest right now to understand why. If you would like to comment on this, or anything else you have seen on Future, head over to our Facebook or Google+ page, or message us on Twitter ;
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What is the difference between human heart and animal heart?

Humans have a heart with two atria and two ventricles that pushes blood in one direction. Some animals have hearts similar to humans but, other animals have only one atrium and one ventricle or a cardiovascular system that can push blood in two directions.
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Are humans and pigs related genetically?

How much DNA do we share with pigs? – We’ve all heard the expression “pigging out.” Interestingly enough, human beings also share a huge amount of genetic material with pigs, Almost as much as we do with chimpanzees! The genetic DNA similarity between pigs and human beings is 98%. Interspecies organ transplant activities between humans and pigs have even taken place, called xenotransplants,
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Why are pig hearts used for dissection and not human hearts?

Lessons from the (Pig’s) Heart Students in Upper School Science Teacher Stacey Morgan’s Anatomy and Physiology class have been studying the human heart. They learned about the valves, aorta, ventricles, and veins. They have studied how the heart functions as it pumps blood throughout the body, sending oxygen and nutrients and carrying away unwanted carbon dioxide and waste products.

There’s only so much you can learn from a book, though, and even plastic models, while realistic, aren’t as good as the original. It’s not possible to bring human hearts into the lab to study, so Morgan found the next best thing: pig hearts. “I think it’s important for the students to see and feel tissues, as that can help them better understand why and how they function the way they do,” she said.

Pig hearts are a great way to get an idea of the anatomy of human hearts because they are very similar in size, structure, and function. Like human hearts, pig hearts consist of four chambers (two atriums and two ventricles). They also have four valves and an aorta, just like humans.
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Can a human receive a pig heart?

Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart Surgeon Bartley Griffith examines the pig heart before the transplant. University of Maryland School of Medicine Bartley Griffith is a cardiac surgeon at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, who says he’s probably done over a thousand heart transplants over a career that has spanned four decades.

  • But on January 7 of this year, Griffith performed an operation unlike any other.
  • He transplanted a pig heart into a human for the first time.
  • When Griffith released the clamp off of his 57-year-old patient’s new heart, blood rushed through David Bennett’s coronary arteries and transformed the pale lifeless pig organ into a vivacious scarlet pump.

“The heart fired right up,” Griffith says. But 60 days later, Bennett passed away, and doctors could not identify a specific cause of death. Answers have only now begun to emerge after Griffith’s team published their report of the historic operation in The New England Journal of Medicine,

  • Considering the reasons why Bennett may have died will help doctors as they prepare for future pig heart transplants.
  • Cardiac xenotransplantation,” or the transfer of a heart between species, was first performed in 1964 with a human recipient: University of Mississippi surgeon James Hardy implanted a chimpanzee heart into the 68-year-old Boyd Rush,

At least eight other similar cardiac xenotransplants took place over the next half-century, none of them quite successful. With the gene-editing possibilities of CRISPR though, this time was different. Biotech company Revivicor designed pigs with ten genetic changes, deleting four pig genes and adding in six human ones, so that their organs would be more compatible with humans.

Bennett, who had end-stage heart failure, was not eligible for a human heart because of his history of not following his doctors’ orders. So, on his deathbed and without any other options, Bennett got a heart from one of Revivicor’s pigs under the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) “compassionate use” authorization, allowing experimental treatments for emergency cases.

Currently, 17 individuals die every day on the transplant waiting list, and xenotransplantation, if fully realized, could end the national shortage of 100,000 organs with an almost unlimited supply of pigs. If these pig organ transplants are to one day replace human-to-human transplants, scientists will have to learn how to make xenotransplantation safe, accessible and truly life-extending.

As such, attention has naturally shifted away from the novelty of Griffith’s operation toward trying to understand Bennett’s cause of death. Griffith’s report clearly lays out the facts of the case. Capillaries around Bennett’s heart exploded, which caused fluid to leak out and his heart to double in size.

Because those busted capillaries fed the heart with oxygen, cardiac muscle cells began to die in their absence. On day 60, Griffith’s team withdrew life support because Bennett’s heart had been irreversibly damaged. But why’d this happen? “We still don’t really know,” Griffith admits. Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart Surgeons transplant a pig heart into David Bennett. University of Maryland School of Medicine
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Is the man with the pig heart still alive?

Man who received modified pig heart in transplant dies 2 months later. Doctors involved in the University of Maryland Medicine study said in a paper last month that a ‘complex array of factors’ caused heart failure, according to a news release. A co-leader of the study, Dr.
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Why have we not already used pig organs in humans?

Overcoming obstacles – Attempts in the early 1900s to transplant animal organs and tissue to humans came to a halt because the human immune system invariably identified the material as an invader and attacked it, according to a history of cross-species transplantation,

Then from the 1960s through the 1990s, doctors used immunosuppressive drugs when transplanting livers, kidneys, and hearts from chimpanzees and baboons to people, sometimes with moderate success: The survival times ranged from two hours to several weeks to nine months, reports David Cooper, MBBS, PhD, a transplant research surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

Meanwhile, transplants among animals produced slow progress, with survival of organs advancing by days or weeks with each experiment, Vagefi says. “In the early 2000s, we had a nonhuman primate live for three months with a pig kidney,” he recalls. “Back then, that was an amazing feat.” Several developments moved the field forward.

During the 1990s, pigs replaced nonhuman primates as the preferred source of organs for xenotransplantation experiments, according to Robert Montgomery, MD, PhD, director of the NYU Langone Transplant Institute and the lead surgeon on the recent xenotransplants there. Among the reasons: They have short gestation periods and produce large litters, their organs are close in size to those of humans, they are less likely than nonhuman primates to transfer zoonotic diseases to humans (because of genetic differences), and their tissues (such as heart valves and skin grafts) have been successfully transplanted into people for years.

One problem, however, is that pigs, like most mammals, have a sugar molecule called alpha-gal that humans (and some nonhuman primates) do not. The human immune system produces a severe immune reaction to alpha-gal, leading the body to reject the transplanted organ.

Researchers tried several ways to overcome that and other challenges, including editing genomes to knock out alpha-gal. While scientists have been editing genomes since the early 1990s, the development of new technologies — particularly the CRISPR-Cas9 tool in 2012 — revolutionized the process. As explained previously by AAMCNews, the tool uses programmable RNA and an enzyme, Cas9, to locate specific genetic sequences in an organism and cut the DNA’s double helix so that sequences can be deleted, added, or replaced.

That capability makes editing faster, easier, and more precise, Montgomery notes. These editing technologies enabled scientists to create pigs with organs that were less likely to be attacked by primates’ immune systems. The key edit was knocking out the alpha-gal antigen.
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Why do we use pig organs in humans?

Pigs are similar to humans in organ size and physiology, so the transplantation of pig organs to humans offers a potential solution to this problem and raises the prospect of scheduled, elective transplantation of quality-controlled organs, even for patients who would not currently meet the criteria for allocation of a
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Is it OK to eat pig heart?

Pork heart is highly nutritious and rich in flavour. It contains B vitamins and Omega 3, as well as minerals such as thiamine, folate, selenium, phosphorus and zinc. Adventurous cooks should consider this cut as, with a bit of skill and care, it can create absolutely sensational dishes.
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How do pigs compare to humans?

Muscles – In almost every case, fetal pigs have the same muscles as humans, with some small variations in the size and location of some muscles related to the fact that pigs are quadrupedal and humans are bipedal. For example, the major chest and abdominal muscles found in humans are present in the pig.

  1. There are some differences in the location of chest muscles that attach to the shoulder girdle.
  2. In the hind limb, the pig has the same muscles as humans in the major thigh muscle groups: quadriceps femoris and the hamstrings; see p.35 of the FPDG ( Fetal Pig Dissection Guide).
  3. In the hip, however, there are some differences in the gluteal muscles.

Quiz: How are the gluteal muscles of the pig different than the gluteal muscles of the human? See p.34 of the FPDG,
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Do pigs have 4 chambered hearts?

Why Are Pig Hearts Used To Study Human Heart The heart is located in the thoracic cavity nestled between the lungs on the body’s midline. Pigs like other mammals have a four-chambered heart. The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation), and the left side pumps blood out to the rest of the body (systemic circulation).

Each side of the heart has two chambers, the upper chambers are called atria and the lower chambers are called the ventricles, Deoxygenated blood enters the heart at the right atrium via the superior vena cava (vein), then travels into the right ventricle which pumps the blood out to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk (artery).

After oxygenation, the blood travels back to heart via the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium. Lastly, the blood enters the left ventricle which pumps the blood out to the body via the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body.
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What are the similarities between pigs and humans?

The similarities between humans and pigs ‘You’re a pig!’ It might be a common insult but, interestingly, there are a number of similarities between humans and pigs. These include various anatomic and physiologic traits, such as organ placement (and often size and function), skin similarities and some disease progression.

  • A pig weighing around 60 kilograms will, for example, resemble a human body in many ways, including fat distribution, cover of hair and ability to attract insects.
  • For this reason, pigs have been used in medical research for over 30 years, and are what’s known as a translational research model.
  • This means that if something works in a pig, it has a higher possibility of working in a human.

So do these similarities mean that humans are closely related to pigs? Not necessarily. Many of these shared physical traits are not the result of a close ancestry, but rather of convergent evolution—that is, selection of the same characteristics by a common environment.

  • Phew, you might say—your bedroom might resemble a pigsty but at least you’re not related.
  • A pig weighing around 60 kilograms will,
  • Resemble a human body in many ways, including fat distribution, cover of hair and ability to attract insects.
  • But what about on the genetic level? Well, that might be a different story.

Comparison of the full DNA sequences of different mammals shows that we are more closely related to mice than we are to pigs. We last shared a common ancestor with pigs about 80 million years ago, compared to about 70 million years ago when we diverged from rodents.

  • A new study has revealed a potential hidden evolutionary link between pigs and primates.
  • Genetic elements called SINES (short interspersed elements) are usually considered to be ‘junk DNA’, left behind by marauding viruses.
  • However, these elements may hold additional clues about our mammalian evolutionary history.

In humans, the most common SINE is the Alu transposable element, which is derived from the small cytoplasmic 7SL RNA. The latest research has revealed that 7SL RNA is also the original source for a common swine SINE. Just a fluke? Unlikely, according to researchers, who think that this SINE must have had a common origin.

  1. This suggests that there are close parallels between the evolution of this element in pig and primate lines, whereas it died out in the rodents.
  2. Some scientists believe that the results are ‘convincing enough to, though the evidence from the entire genome disputes this.
  3. The genome is a complex puzzle.

Bits of it came from different sources and evolved at different rates. While some pieces may match, you need to look at the entire genome to really understand the full picture. Geneticists are busy analysing all aspects of the human genome, including its previously overlooked SINES.
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How similar is pigs DNA to humans?

Abstract – The pig was first used in biomedical research in ancient Greece and over the past few decades has quickly grown into an important biomedical research tool. Pigs have genetic and physiological traits similar to humans, which make them one of the most useful and versatile animal models.

  1. Owing to these similarities, data generated from porcine models are more likely to lead to viable human treatments than those from murine work.
  2. In addition, the similarity in size and physiology to humans allows pigs to be used for many experimental approaches not feasible in mice.
  3. Research areas that employ pigs range from neonatal development to translational models for cancer therapy.

Increasing numbers of porcine models are being developed since the release of the swine genome sequence, and the development of additional porcine genomic and epigenetic resources will further their use in biomedical research. Keywords: biomedical; disease; epigenome; models; porcine.
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