Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior?


Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior
Puzzle box Box that can be opened only by solving a puzzle

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Japanese puzzle box, closed Japanese puzzle box, open A puzzle box (also called a secret box or trick box ) is a box that can be opened only by solving a, Some require only a simple move and others a series of discoveries. Modern puzzle boxes developed from furniture and jewelry boxes with secret compartments and hidden openings, known since the Renaissance.

Puzzle boxes produced for entertainment first appeared in Victorian England in the 19th century and as tourist souvenirs in the Interlaken region in Switzerland and in the region of at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Boxes with secret openings appeared as souvenirs at other tourist destinations during the early 20th century, including the Amalfi Coast, Madeira, and Sri Lanka, though these were mostly ‘one-trick’ traditions.

Chinese cricket boxes represent another example of intricate boxes with secret openings. Interest in puzzle boxes subsided during and after the two World Wars. The art was revived in the 1980s by three pioneers of this genre: Akio Kamei in Japan, Trevor Wood in England, and Frank Chambers in Ireland.
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Who devised puzzle boxes to study animal learning?

Thorndike studied learning in animals (usually cats). He devised a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box (see fig.1) to empirically test the laws of learning.
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Which researcher is famous for his work on puzzle boxes?

Connectionism – Thorndike’s original apparatus used in his puzzle-box experiments as seen in Animal Intelligence (Jun 1898) Thorndike was a pioneer not only in behaviorism and in studying learning, but also in using animals in clinical experiments. Thorndike was able to create a theory of learning based on his research with animals.

His doctoral dissertation, “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals”, was the first in psychology where the subjects were nonhumans. Thorndike was interested in whether animals could learn tasks through imitation or observation. To test this, Thorndike created puzzle boxes.

The puzzle boxes were approximately 20 inches long, 15 inches wide, and 12 inches tall. Each box had a door that was pulled open by a weight attached to a string that ran over a pulley and was attached to the door. The string attached to the door led to a lever or button inside the box.

  • When the animal pressed the bar or pulled the lever, the string attached to the door would cause the weight to lift and the door to open.
  • Thorndike’s puzzle boxes were arranged so that the animal would be required to perform a certain response (pulling a lever or pushing a button), while he measured the amount of time it took them to escape.

Once the animal had performed the desired response they were allowed to escape and were also given a reward, usually food. Thorndike primarily used cats in his puzzle boxes. When the cats were put into the cages they would wander restlessly and meow, but they did not know how to escape.

Eventually, the cats would step on the switch on the floor by chance, and the door would open. To see if the cats could learn through observation, he had them observe other animals escaping from the box. He would then compare the times of those who got to observe others escaping with those who did not, and he found that there was no difference in their rate of learning.

Thorndike saw the same results with other animals, and he observed that there was no improvement even when he placed the animals’ paws on the correct levers, buttons, or bar. These failures led him to fall back on a trial and error explanation of learning.

He found that after accidentally stepping on the switch once, they would press the switch faster in each succeeding trial inside the puzzle box. By observing and recording the animals’ escapes and escape times, Thorndike was able to graph the times it took for the animals in each trial to escape, resulting in a learning curve.

The animals had difficulty escaping at first, but eventually “caught on” and escaped faster and faster with each successive puzzle box trial, until they eventually leveled off. The quickened rate of escape results in the s-shape of the learning curve.

The learning curve also suggested that different species learned in the same way but at different speeds. From his research with puzzle boxes, Thorndike was able to create his own theory of learning. The puzzle box experiments were motivated in part by Thorndike’s dislike for statements that animals made use of extraordinary faculties such as insight in their problem solving: “In the first place, most of the books do not give us a psychology, but rather a eulogy of animals.

They have all been about animal intelligence, never about animal stupidity.” Thorndike meant to distinguish clearly whether or not cats escaping from puzzle boxes were using insight. Thorndike’s instruments in answering this question were learning curves revealed by plotting the time it took for an animal to escape the box each time it was in the box.
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What is Edward Thorndike’s theory?

Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who developed a theory of connectionism. Thorndike’s theory proposed that a stimulus gives rise to responses, and responses can be satisfying or rewarding. The stimulus and satisfying response form a connection that he called the S-R bond.
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Who did puzzle box experiments with cats which led to the development of his law of effect?

Edward Thorndike was an influential psychologist who is often referred to as the founder of modern educational psychology. He was perhaps best-known for his famous puzzle box experiments with cats which led to the development of his law of effect. Thorndike’s principle suggests that responses immediately followed by satisfaction will be more likely to recur.
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Which psychologists use puzzle box?

Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who worked in the field of animal behavior and learning. As a young researcher, Thorndike developed a crude experiment called the Thorndike Puzzle Box to test whether cats could learn how to escape from a locked box to reach a bowl of food.
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Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior before Skinner used Skinner boxes?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Skinner box” redirects here. For the ska band, see Skinnerbox, An operant conditioning chamber (also known as a Skinner box ) is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior, The operant conditioning chamber was created by B.F. Skinner while he was a graduate student at Harvard University, The chamber can be used to study both operant conditioning and classical conditioning,

Skinner created the operant conditioning chamber as a variation of the puzzle box originally created by Edward Thorndike, While Skinner’s early studies were done using rats, he later moved on to study pigeons. The operant conditioning chamber may be used to observe or manipulate behaviour. An animal is placed in the box where it must learn to activate levers or respond to light or sound stimuli for reward.

Top 9 Best Puzzle Boxes on Amazon!

The reward may be food or the removal of noxious stimuli such as a loud alarm. The chamber is used to test specific hypotheses in a controlled setting.
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Who is the founder of puzzle box?

Three artisans, Takajiro Ohkawa, Tatsunosuke Okiyama and Mr. Kikukawa are credited with the creation of the modern puzzle box.
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Who is the famous puzzle maker?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Will Shortz
Shortz in March 2023
Born August 26, 1952 (age 70) Crawfordsville, Indiana, U.S.
Other names The Puzzlemaster
Education Indiana University Bloomington ( B.A.) University of Virginia ( J.D.)
Occupation(s) Crossword editor Table tennis center owner
Notable credit(s) New York Times Puzzle Editor (since 1993), NPR ‘s Weekend Edition Sunday Puzzle master (since 1987)

William F. Shortz (born August 26, 1952) is an American puzzle creator and editor who is the crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times, He graduated from Indiana University with a degree in the invented field of “enigmatology”. After starting his career at Penny Press and Games magazine, he was hired by The New York Times in 1993.
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Who created puzzle box?

History of Puzzle Boxes The creation of puzzle boxes originated in the Hakone region of Japan in the 1800’s. These boxes were originally created for workers who needed to safeguard their tools. Each box required a set of twists and turns to open. The trick was to determine the correct set of movements to open a specific box.

  • In the 1800’s Hakone was known for its hot springs.
  • Many people visited the region for vacations and the tourism industry flourished.
  • Puzzle boxes began to become popular as souvenirs.
  • This continued through the World Wars, when soldiers on leave would purchase boxes to bring home.
  • The first puzzle boxes did not have the elaborate decorative designs that are commonplace today.

The patterns that are used to decorate the box are representative of another Japanese handicraft, parquetry. Parquetry is the craft of using wood and varnish to create a thin decorative sheet. These sheets are then fixed to the outside of the puzzle box after it is created.

  1. The original boxes were created by three artisans; Mr.
  2. Takajiro Ohkawa, Mr.
  3. Tatsunosuke Okiyama, and Mr. Kikukawa.
  4. Each of these men eventually took on apprentices to carry on their work, and the craft flourished.
  5. At the height of the apprentice system there were approximately 150 artisans and apprentices in the area.

However, Japan’s involvement in World War II was a blow to the industry. Young apprentices were conscripted into the army, and did not return. Additionally, tourism made way for the newly needed munitions industry. In current day Japan there are nine puzzle box masters.

This includes Mr. Yoshio Okiyama, grandson of Tatsunosuke Okiyama, who is considered one of the most skilled puzzle box crafters in the world. At age 75, he was a witness to the end of the apprentice system and the decline in the number of crafters. He has no apprentice. It is not unusual for a single crafter to make a box from start to finish.

The wood must be obtained and dried before the box is assembled. The planes of the wood must be exactly even, as the mechanism of the box depends on the pieces sliding easily. The construction consists of a box in a box. The outer box hides the inner mechanisms and displays the parquetry embellishment.
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What is BF Skinner’s theory?

Skinner’s ABCs of Behaviorism – B.F. Skinner’s theory of learning says that a person is first exposed to a stimulus, which elicits a response, and the response is then reinforced (stimulus, response, reinforcement). This, ultimately, is what conditions our behaviors.
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What is BF Skinner known for?

Skinner developed behavior analysis, especially the philosophy of radical behaviorism, and founded the experimental analysis of behavior, a school of experimental research psychology.

B.F. Skinner
Known for Behavior analysis Operant conditioning Radical behaviorism Verbal Behavior
Spouse Yvonne (Eve) Blue ​ ( m.1936)​

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What is Thorndike’s puzzle box?

use in conditioning experiments –

Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior In animal learning: Classical and instrumental conditioning placing a cat inside a “puzzle box,” an apparatus from which the animal could escape and obtain food only by pressing a panel, opening a catch, or pulling on a loop of string. Thorndike measured the speed with which the cat gained its release from the box on successive trials.

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What are the three 3 laws of Thorndike’s theory?

Instructional Design Models and Theories: Connectionism Connectionism theory is based on the principle of active learning and is the result of the work of the American psychologist Edward Thorndike. This work led to Thorndike’s Laws. According to these Laws, learning is achieved when an individual is able to form associations between a particular stimulus and a response.

  • The three main laws are the Law of Readiness, the Law of Exercise, and the Law of Effect.
  • This latest session in UTO Training’s ongoing series on Instructional Design will discuss these three laws in detail, the five additional laws of Thorndike’s learning theory, the four key principles of the theory, and the three “new” laws used in instructional design today.

For questions about this training contact Chris Lee at and check out the ASU UTO website for upcoming workshops and studio hours at: : Instructional Design Models and Theories: Connectionism
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How did Thorndike’s cats escape the puzzle box?

Edward Thorndike: The Law of Effect The law of effect principle developed by Edward Thorndike suggested that: “Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation (Gray, 2011, p.108–109).” Edward Thorndike (1898) is famous in psychology for his work on learning theory that leads to the development of within b.

Whereas classical conditioning depends on developing associations between events, operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of our behavior. Skinner wasn’t the first psychologist to study learning by consequences. Indeed, Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning is built on the ideas of Edward Thorndike.

Thorndike studied learning in animals (usually cats). He devised a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box (see fig.1) to empirically test the laws of learning. Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior Fig 1 : Simplified graph of the result of the puzzle box experiment. He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encourage to escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside. Thorndike would put a cat into the box and time how long it took to escape. The cats experimented with different ways to escape the puzzle box and reach the fish.

Eventually they would stumble upon the lever which opened the cage. When it had escaped it was put in again, and once more the time it took to escape was noted. In successive trials the cats would learn that pressing the lever would have favorable consequences and they would adopt this behavior, becoming increasingly quick at pressing the lever.

Edward Thorndike put forward a ” Law of effect ” which stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.
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How did Skinner’s box work?

The purpose of the Skinner box is to analyze animal behavior by detecting when an animal has performed a desired behavior and then administering a reward, thus determining how long it takes the animal to learn to perform the behavior.
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Who was he psychologist who used puzzle boxes in his experiments to establish the power of consequences in determining voluntary behavior _____?

How Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behaviour: The Research of Thorndike and Skinner – Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) was the first scientist to systematically study operant conditioning. In his research Thorndike (1898) observed cats who had been placed in a “puzzle box” from which they tried to escape (“Video Clip: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box”).

  1. At first the cats scratched, bit, and swatted haphazardly, without any idea of how to get out.
  2. But eventually, and accidentally, they pressed the lever that opened the door and exited to their prize, a scrap of fish.
  3. The next time the cat was constrained within the box, it attempted fewer of the ineffective responses before carrying out the successful escape, and after several trials the cat learned to almost immediately make the correct response.

Observing these changes in the cats’ behaviour led Thorndike to develop his law of effect, the principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation (Thorndike, 1911).

The essence of the law of effect is that successful responses, because they are pleasurable, are “stamped in” by experience and thus occur more frequently. Unsuccessful responses, which produce unpleasant experiences, are “stamped out” and subsequently occur less frequently. When Thorndike placed his cats in a puzzle box, he found that they learned to engage in the important escape behaviour faster after each trial.

Thorndike described the learning that follows reinforcement in terms of the law of effect. Watch: “Thorndike’s Puzzle Box” : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8 The influential behavioural psychologist B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) expanded on Thorndike’s ideas to develop a more complete set of principles to explain operant conditioning. Skinner created specially designed environments known as operant chambers (usually called Skinner boxes ) to systematically study learning.

A Skinner box (operant chamber) is a structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the organism can press or peck to release food or water. It also contains a device to record the animal’s responses (Figure 8.5). The most basic of Skinner’s experiments was quite similar to Thorndike’s research with cats.

A rat placed in the chamber reacted as one might expect, scurrying about the box and sniffing and clawing at the floor and walls. Eventually the rat chanced upon a lever, which it pressed to release pellets of food. The next time around, the rat took a little less time to press the lever, and on successive trials, the time it took to press the lever became shorter and shorter.

Soon the rat was pressing the lever as fast as it could eat the food that appeared. As predicted by the law of effect, the rat had learned to repeat the action that brought about the food and cease the actions that did not. Skinner studied, in detail, how animals changed their behaviour through reinforcement and punishment, and he developed terms that explained the processes of operant learning (Table 8.1, “How Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behaviour”).

Skinner used the term reinforcer to refer to any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behaviour, and the term punisher to refer to any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behaviour, And he used the terms positive and negative to refer to whether a reinforcement was presented or removed, respectively.

Thus, positive reinforcement strengthens a response by presenting something pleasant after the response, and negative reinforcement strengthens a response by reducing or removing something unpleasant, For example, giving a child praise for completing his homework represents positive reinforcement, whereas taking Aspirin to reduce the pain of a headache represents negative reinforcement.

In both cases, the reinforcement makes it more likely that behaviour will occur again in the future. Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior Figure 8.5 Skinner Box.B.F. Skinner used a Skinner box to study operant learning. The box contains a bar or key that the organism can press to receive food and water, and a device that records the organism’s responses.

Table 8.1 How Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behaviour.

Operant conditioning term Description Outcome Example
Positive reinforcement Add or increase a pleasant stimulus Behaviour is strengthened Giving a student a prize after he or she gets an A on a test
Negative reinforcement Reduce or remove an unpleasant stimulus Behaviour is strengthened Taking painkillers that eliminate pain increases the likelihood that you will take painkillers again
Positive punishment Present or add an unpleasant stimulus Behaviour is weakened Giving a student extra homework after he or she misbehaves in class
Negative punishment Reduce or remove a pleasant stimulus Behaviour is weakened Taking away a teen’s computer after he or she misses curfew

Reinforcement, either positive or negative, works by increasing the likelihood of a behaviour. Punishment, on the other hand, refers to any event that weakens or reduces the likelihood of a behaviour, Positive punishment weakens a response by presenting something unpleasant after the response, whereas negative punishment weakens a response by reducing or removing something pleasant,

A child who is grounded after fighting with a sibling (positive punishment) or who loses out on the opportunity to go to recess after getting a poor grade (negative punishment) is less likely to repeat these behaviours. Although the distinction between reinforcement (which increases behaviour) and punishment (which decreases it) is usually clear, in some cases it is difficult to determine whether a reinforcer is positive or negative.

On a hot day a cool breeze could be seen as a positive reinforcer (because it brings in cool air) or a negative reinforcer (because it removes hot air). In other cases, reinforcement can be both positive and negative. One may smoke a cigarette both because it brings pleasure (positive reinforcement) and because it eliminates the craving for nicotine (negative reinforcement).

  1. It is also important to note that reinforcement and punishment are not simply opposites.
  2. The use of positive reinforcement in changing behaviour is almost always more effective than using punishment.
  3. This is because positive reinforcement makes the person or animal feel better, helping create a positive relationship with the person providing the reinforcement.

Types of positive reinforcement that are effective in everyday life include verbal praise or approval, the awarding of status or prestige, and direct financial payment. Punishment, on the other hand, is more likely to create only temporary changes in behaviour because it is based on coercion and typically creates a negative and adversarial relationship with the person providing the reinforcement.
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When was Thorndike’s puzzle box?

A ‘puzzle box’ devised by Thorndike ( 1899, 2017 ) to study learning
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What was the design of Thorndike’s experiment?

Discovery – While we often associate the idea that consequences lead to changes in behavior with the process of operant conditioning and B.F. Skinner, this notion has its roots in the early work of psychologist Edward Thorndike.   In his experiments, Thorndike utilized what is known as puzzle boxes to study how animals learn.

  • The boxes were enclosed but contained a small lever that, when pressed, would allow the animal to escape.
  • Thorndike would place a cat inside the puzzle box and then place a piece of meat outside the box.
  • He would then observe the animal’s efforts to escape and obtain the food.
  • He recorded how long each animal took to figure out how to free itself from the box.

Eventually, the cats would press the lever, and the door would open so that the animal could receive the reward. Even though first pressing the lever occurred simply by accident, the cats became likely to repeat it because they had received an award immediately after performing the action.

  • Thorndike noted that with each trial, the cats became much faster at opening the door.
  • Because pressing the lever had led to a favorable outcome, the cats were much more likely to perform the behavior again in the future.
  •   Thorndike termed this the “Law of Effect,” which suggested that when satisfaction follows an association, it is more likely to be repeated.

If an unfavorable outcome follows an action, then it becomes less likely to be repeated. There are two key aspects of the law of effect:  

  • Behaviors immediately followed by favorable consequences are more likely to occur again, In our earlier example, being praised by a supervisor for showing up early for work made it more likely that the behavior would be repeated.
  • Behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences are less likely to occur again. If you show up late for work and miss an important meeting, you will probably be less likely to show up late again in the future. Because you view the missed meeting as a negative outcome, the behavior is less likely to be repeated.

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Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior quizlet?

The puzzle box is the laboratory device that E.L. Thorndike invented in order to study instrumental or operant conditioning in cats.
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What did Skinner box study?

BF Skinner : Operant Conditioning – Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect, According to this principle, behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. Who Used Puzzle Boxes To Study Animal Behavior A Skinner box, also known as an operant conditioning chamber, is a device used to objectively record an animal’s behavior in a compressed time frame. An animal can be rewarded or punished for engaging in certain behaviors, such as lever pressing (for rats) or key pecking (for pigeons). Skinner identified three types of responses, or operant, that can follow behavior.

Neutral operants : responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers : Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. Punishers : Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.

We can all think of examples of how our own behavior has been affected by reinforcers and punishers. As a child, you probably tried out a number of behaviors and learned from their consequences. For example, when you were younger, if you tried smoking at school, and the chief consequence was that you got in with the crowd you always wanted to hang out with, you would have been positively reinforced (i.e., rewarded) and would be likely to repeat the behavior.
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Is the Skinner box still used?

The Skinner box is still in use today to test pharmaceuticals and it is used in various other types of experimentation with small animals. Behaviorist theories learned from the Skinner box are still applied in many aspects of life today, such as in the classroom and on social media platforms.
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Who discovered puzzle box?

American psychologist Edward Thorndike created Thorndike’s puzzle box, where animals were given a reward if they could get out of a special cage that required three steps to escape.
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Who created the puzzle box?

” The boxes, known in some circles as LeMarchand Boxes, were each one of a kind creations which were also puzzles, with the answer to one’s ultimate heart’s desire as their solution. ” — Excerpted from ” Tucker’s Encyclopedia of Mass Murderers ” A Puzzle Box or LeMarchand Box, is a fictional lock puzzle or puzzle box created by the fictional antagonist Philip LeMarchand, an 18 th Century French architect, artisan and designer of some infamy.

  • He first created his designs as bizarre, intricately designed music boxes, as he was well known as a maker of mechanical singing birds.
  • But as a devotee of the occult, he became obsessed with the supernatural which directly influenced the creation of the first puzzle box, known as the ‘ Lament Configuration ‘ or “The Box of Sorrows”.

When solved, a dolorous bell can be heard tolling, as if from a distance, announcing the arrival of the Cenobites, extra dimensional beings that serve the lord and master of Hell – Leviathan, The Puzzle Box appears throughout the Hellraiser mythos, both in the books written by Clive Barker as well as other media formats.
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What is B.F. Skinner’s theory?

Skinner’s ABCs of Behaviorism – B.F. Skinner’s theory of learning says that a person is first exposed to a stimulus, which elicits a response, and the response is then reinforced (stimulus, response, reinforcement). This, ultimately, is what conditions our behaviors.
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What was the Skinner box created to study ______ _____ in animals?

Skinner Box – GoodTherapy.org Therapy Blog An operant conditioning chamber, colloquially known as a Skinner box, is a laboratory tool that was developed in the 1930s by, It is used to study free-operant behavior in animals and can be used to model both operant and,
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