Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory?


Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory
Hermann Ebbinghaus Answer and Explanation: Hermann Ebbinghaus was the first psychologist to use nonsense syllables to study memory. Ebbinghaus was specifically interested in how quickly we forget information. He generated lists of nonsense syllables that included a consonant, a vowel, and another consonant (CVC).
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Who introduced nonsense syllables?

Hermann Ebbinghaus Ebbinghaus, Hermann – (b.1850, Wuppertal, Germany, d.1909, Halle, Germany, Ph.D. Philosophy, University of Bonn, 1873). In pursuit of his ambition to apply the scientific method to the study of ‘higher’ cognitive processes, Ebbinghaus invented a new method for the study of memory.

  1. Ebbinghaus taught at the University of Berlin (1880-1893), the University of Breslau (1894-1905), and the University of Halle (1905-1908).
  2. In pursuit of his ambition to apply the scientific method to the study of ‘higher’ cognitive processes, Ebbinghaus invented a new method for the study of memory.
  3. To avoid the pre-established associations of ordinary verbal materials, Ebbinghaus devised some twenty-three hundred consonant-vowel-consonant combinations, or nonsense syllables.

Using himself as sole subject, he learned lists of nonsense syllables to mastery and recorded the amounts retained, or the trials necessary for relearning, after a passage of time. This methodology is still standard in human learning laboratories today.

  1. In 1885 Ebbinghaus published the classic monograph Über das Gedächtnis (English translation, Memory, 1913).
  2. In 1886, he opened the psychological laboratory at the University of Berlin.
  3. To publish work emanating from places other than Wundt’s Leipzig laboratory, Ebbinghaus and König founded the Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnersorgane in 1890.

After this Ebbinghaus began to study vision, publishing a color-vision theory in 1893. At Breslau, Ebbinghaus established another laboratory (1894) and published a new method for testing the mental ability of schoolchildren, the ‘Ebbinghaus completion test,’ (1897) which is still used.
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Who was the first researcher to use nonsense syllables to study memory?

Memory experiments – Ebbinghaus started by memorizing lists of words and testing how many he could recall. To avoid the use of association, he created 2,300 “nonsense syllables,” all three letters long and using the standard word format of consonant-vowel-consonant: for example, “ZUC” and “QAX.” Grouping these into lists, he looked at each syllable for a fraction of a second, pausing for 15 seconds before going through a list again.

He did this until he could recite a series correctly at speed. He tested different lengths and different learning intervals, noting the speed of learning and forgetting. Ebbinghaus found that he could remember meaningful material, such as a poem, ten times more easily than his nonsense lists. He also noted that the more times the stimuli (the nonsense syllables) were repeated, the less time was needed to reproduce the memorized information.

Also, the first few repetitions proved the most effective in memorizing a list. When looking at his results for evidence of forgetting, Ebbinghaus found, unsurprisingly, that he tended to forget less quickly the lists that he had spent the most time memorizing and that recall is best performed immediately after learning.

  1. Ebbinghaus also uncovered an unexpected pattern in memory retention.
  2. He found that there is typically a very rapid loss of recall in the first hour, followed by a slightly slower loss so that about 60 percent is forgotten after nine hours.
  3. After 24 hours, about two-thirds of anything memorized is forgotten.

Plotted on a graph, this shows a distinct “forgetting curve” that starts with a sharp drop, followed by a shallow shape.
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Who is behind the nonsense syllables of memory?

Ebbinghaus experimented with his own ability to remember using a list of nonsense syllables, which he attempted to recall after different lengths of time. His experiences and results revealed a number of key aspects of memory: Memories weaken over time.
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Which psychologist used nonsense syllables?

Free 10 Questions 10 Marks 10 Mins Hermann Ebbinghaus used non-sense syllables as a material of learning. Important Points Hermann Ebbinghaus (24 January 1850 – 26 February 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve. His research on Memory:

Ebbinghaus was determined to show that higher mental processes could actually be studied using experimentation, which was in opposition to the popularly held thought of the time. To control for most potentially confounding variables, Ebbinghaus wanted to use simple acoustic encoding and maintenance rehearsal for which a list of words could have been used. As learning would be affected by prior knowledge and understanding, he needed something that could be easily memorized but which had no prior cognitive associations. Easily formable associations with regular words would interfere with his results, so he used items that would later be called “nonsense syllables” (also known as the CVC trigram). A nonsense syllable is a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, where the consonant does not repeat and the syllable does not have prior meaning. BOL (sounds like “Ball”) and DOT (already a word) would then not be allowed. However, syllables such as DAX, BOK, and YAT would all be acceptable (though Ebbinghaus left no examples). After eliminating the meaning-laden syllables, Ebbinghaus ended up with 2,300 resultant syllables.

Once he had created his collection of syllables, he would pull out a number of random syllables from a box and then write them down in a notebook. Then, to the regular sound of a metronome, and with the same voice inflection, he would read out the syllables, and attempt to recall them at the end of the procedure. Additional Information In 1885, he published his groundbreaking Über das Gedächtnis (“On Memory”, later translated to English as Memory. A Contribution to Experimental Psychology) in which he described experiments he conducted on himself to describe the processes of learning and forgetting. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Last updated on Mar 5, 2023 The official UPTET Notification 2023 to be out soon. The candidates who will qualify for the written test will receive an eligibility certificate. Candidates who qualify for Paper I can apply for the Primary Teacher role & those who qualify Paper II can apply for Upper Primary Teacher Role in Government schools across Uttar Pradesh.
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Who is the father of nonsense literature?

Edward Lear was a Victorian writer who famously wrote ‘A Book of Nonsense’. He is considered the father of literary nonsense.
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Who is the founder of nonsense verse?

Other languages – Russian nonsense poets include Daniil Kharms and Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, particularly his work under the pseudonym Kozma Prutkov, and some French exponents are Charles Cros and Robert Desnos, The best-known Dutch Nonsense poet is Cees Buddingh’.

  1. On Indian language Bengali Sukumar Roy is the pioneer of nonsense poems and is very famous for writing children’s literature.
  2. Abol Tabol is the best collection of nonsense verse in Bengali language,
  3. Among German nonsense writers, Christian Morgenstern and Ringelnatz are the most widely known, and are both still popular, while Robert Gernhardt is a contemporary example.

Morgenstern’s ” Das Nasobēm ” is an imaginary being like the Jabberwock, although less frightful:

Auf seinen Nasen schreitet einher das Nasobēm, von seinem Kind begleitet. Es steht noch nicht im Brehm, Es steht noch nicht im Meyer, Und auch im Brockhaus nicht. Es trat aus meiner Leyer zum ersten Mal ans Licht. Auf seinen Nasen schreitet (wie schon gesagt) seitdem, von seinem Kind begleitet, einher das Nasobēm. Upon its noses strideth Onward the Noseybum, With it its young abideth. It’s not yet found in Brehm. It’s not yet found in Meyer. And neither in Brockhaus. It trotted from my lyre, Its first time in the light. Upon its noses strideth (As said before) thencefrom, With it its young abideth, Onward the Noseybum.

The following observation by F.W. Bernstein has practically become a German proverb.

Die schärfsten Kritiker der Elche waren früher selber welche The sharpest critics of the elks used to be ones themselves

Julio Cortázar, the Argentinian writer, was famous for playing with language in several works. Besides the above, there is a special variation of Nonsense Verses called 颠倒歌 (upside down songs) in Chinese. They tend to make stuff happen the opposite way, for example:

Simplified Characters Traditional Characters Pinyin Bopomofo Literal Translation
吃牛奶 吃牛奶 chī niú nǎi ㄔ ㄋㄧㄡˊ ㄋㄞˇ I ate the milk,
喝面包 喝麵包 hē miàn bāo ㄏㄜ ㄇㄧㄢˋ ㄅㄠ Drank the bread,
夹起火车上皮包 夾起火車上皮包 jiā qǐ huǒ chē shàng pí bāo ㄐㄧㄚ ㄑㄧˇ ㄏㄨㄛˇ ㄔㄜ ㄕㄤˋ ㄆㄧˊ ㄅㄠ Clinged on my train just to catch up the purse;
东西街 東西街 dōng xī jiē ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄝ On the East-West street,
南北走 南北走 nán běi zǒu ㄋㄢˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄗㄡˇ I walked North-South;
看见一个人咬狗 看見一個人咬狗 kàn jiàn yī gè rén yǎo gǒu ㄎㄢˋ ㄐㄧㄢˋ ㄧ ㄍㄜˋ ㄖㄣˊ ㄧㄠˇ ㄍㄡˇ I saw a person biting a dog,
捡起狗来打砖头 撿起狗來打磚頭 jiǎn qǐ gǒu lái dǎ zhuān tóu ㄐㄧㄢˇ ㄑㄧˇ ㄍㄡˇ ㄌㄞˊ ㄉㄚˇ ㄓㄨㄢ ㄊㄡˊ He picked up the dog to beat a brick,
反被砖头咬一口 反被磚頭咬一口 fǎn bèi zhuān tóu yǎo yī kǒu ㄈㄢˇ ㄅㄟˋ ㄓㄨㄢ ㄊㄡˊ ㄧㄠˇ ㄧ ㄎㄡˇ Only to get bitten by the brick.
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Who first started the study of memory?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hermann Ebbinghaus
Born 24 January 1850 Barmen, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia
Died 26 February 1909 (aged 59) Halle, German Empire
Known for Serial position effect, Über das Gedächtnis
Scientific career
Fields Psychology
Institutions University of Berlin, University of Breslau, University of Halle
Influences Gustav Fechner
Influenced Lev Vygotsky, Lewis Terman, Charlotte Bühler, William Stern

Hermann Ebbinghaus (24 January 1850 – 26 February 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect, He was also the first person to describe the learning curve, He was the father of the neo-Kantian philosopher Julius Ebbinghaus,
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Who was the first to study learning and memory experimentally?

Hermann Ebbinghaus, (born January 24, 1850, Barmen, Rhenish Prussia —died February 26, 1909, Halle, Germany), German psychologist who pioneered in the development of experimental methods for the measurement of rote learning and memory. Ebbinghaus received a Ph.D.

Degree from the University of Bonn in 1873. Shortly thereafter he became assistant professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelm University, Berlin, a post he held until 1894, when he was appointed professor at the University of Breslau. Using himself as a subject for observation, Ebbinghaus devised 2,300 three-letter nonsense syllables for measuring the formation of mental associations.

This learning invention, together with the stringent control factors that he developed and his meticulous treatment of data, brought him to the conclusion that memory is orderly. His findings, which included the well-known “forgetting curve” that relates forgetting to the passage of time, were reported in Über das Gedächtnis (1885; Memory ).

After completing his work on memory, Ebbinghaus turned to research on colour vision and in 1890, with the physicist Arthur König, founded the periodical Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane (“Journal of the Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organs”). In conjunction with a study of the mental capacities of Breslau schoolchildren (1897), he created a word-completion test.

That same year the first part of another work on which his reputation rests, Grundzüge der Psychologie (1902; “Principles of Psychology”), was published. In 1905 he left Breslau for the University of Halle, where he wrote a still more popular work, Abriss der Psychologie (1908; “Summary of Psychology”).
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Who pioneered the study of learning?

Thorndike did pioneer work in research on learning, and he was one of the first to use nonhuman subjects for his experimental research.
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What is the history of nonsense syllable?

Nonsense syllables – A logatome or nonsense syllable is a short pseudoword consisting most of the time of just one syllable which has no meaning of its own. Examples of English logatomes are the nonsense words snarp or bluck, Like other pseudowords, logatomes obey all the phonotactic rules of a specific language.

  1. Logatomes are used in particular in acoustic experiments.
  2. They are also used in experiments in the psychology of learning as a way to examine speech recognition.
  3. And in experimental psychology, especially the psychology of learning and memory,
  4. Nonsense syllables were first introduced by Hermann Ebbinghaus in his experiments on the learning of lists.

His intention was that they would form a standard stimulus so that experiments would be reproducible. However, with increasing use it became apparent that different nonsense syllables were learned at very different rates, even when they had the same superficial structure.

Glaze introduced the concept of association value to describe these differences, which turned out to be reliable between people and situations. Since Glaze’s time, experiments using nonsense syllables typically control association value in order to reduce variability in results between stimuli. Nonsense syllables can vary in structure.

The most used are the so-called CVC syllables, composed of a consonant, a vowel, and a consonant. These have the advantage that nearly all are pronounceable, that is, they fit the phonotactics of any language that uses closed syllables, such as English and German,

They are often described as “CVC trigrams “, reflecting their three-letter structure. Obviously many other structures are possible, and can be described on the same principles, e.g. VC, VCV, CVCV. But the CVC trigrams have been studied most intensively; for example, Glaze determined association values for 2019 of them.

The term nonsense syllable is widely used to describe non-lexical vocables used in music, most notably in scat singing but also in many other forms of vocal music. Although such usages do not invoke the technical issues about structure and associability that are of concern in psychology, the essential meaning of the term is the same.
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What is nonsense syllables in psychology?

Any three-letter nonword used in learning and memory research to study learning of items that do not already have meaning or associations with other information in memory. See also consonant trigram. [
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When was the first study of memory?

500 BC – Ancient Greek poet Simonides of Ceos develops what is now known as the method of loci: a memory technique that world memory champions can use to remember pi to 70,000 digits.300 BC – Philosophers Plato and Aristotle put forward the first theories of memory, describing it as something akin to etchings on a wax tablet. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Detail of Plato (left) and Aristotle from The School of Athens by Raphael © Getty Images Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) created a series of nonsense words that provided a way of testing different aspects of memory and forgetting, leading to early definitions of sensory, short-term and long-term memory. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory German experimental psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus © Getty Images Donald Hebb (1904-1985) proposed that brain cells that are active at the same time form new and stronger connections – a theory that is now known to underlie our ability to create long-term memories. Read more about memory:

Where do memories form and how do we know? Memory and the brain – the key discovery What happens in your brain when you make a memory?

1906 – Physicians Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi share a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on staining techniques that provided the first clear images of individual neurons. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Coloured neurons in the hippocampus of a mouse © AFP via Getty Images Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) used electrical currents to stimulate the brain during surgery while his patients were awake. He discovered that you could evoke a memory merely by stimulating parts of the cortex. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Dr Wilder Penfield © Getty Images Henry Molaison (1926-2008) – After having both sides of his hippocampus removed in an attempt to cure his epilepsy, Molaison experienced profound amnesia. He became one of neuroscience’s most studied individuals, providing key insights into where memories are stored in the brain. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Henry Molaison underwent a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy an attempt to cure his epilepsy © Jenni Ogden from the book Trouble In Mind: Stories from a Neuropsychologist’s Casebook / Getty Images 1990s – Throughout the 1990s, Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues demonstrate the malleability of memory, specifically how false memories can be implanted in our minds. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Prof. Elizabeth Loftus © Getty Images 2002 – Neuroscientist Eleanor Maguire scanned the world’s best memorisers and found their brains did not differ from anyone else’s. They were better at remembering because they used a mnemonic device called the method of loci.2017 – Researchers use optogenetics to discover that long-term memories are created in the brain at the same time as short-term memories, overturning a decades-old theory of how long-term memories form.

This article first appeared in issue 314 of BBC Focus magazine

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Why did Ebbinghaus use meaningless nonsense syllables to study memory?

Ebbinghaus chose nonsense syllables over words because he did not want meaning to shade his results. He assumed that meaning- ful stimuli would be more memorable than nonmeaningful stimuli, and he wanted a set of material that did not differ with respect to meaning.
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What method did Hermann Ebbinghaus use?

Prior Knowledge, Understanding, and Learning – Contrary to most scientists studying higher mental processes, Ebbinghaus believed that research could be conducted through experiments. He developed a system recognizing the fact that learning is always affected by prior knowledge and understanding.

  • Ebbinghaus figured that he would need something that would be memorized easily but without prior cognitive associations.
  • The scientist created the so called ” nonsense syllables “.
  • This can be understood as a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, where the consonant does not repeat and the syllable does not have prior meaning, like DAX, BOK, and YAT.

After creating the collection of syllables, Ebbinghaus pulled out a number of random syllables from a box and then write them down in a notebook. Then, to the regular sound of a metronome, and with the same voice inflection, he would read out the syllables, and attempt to recall them at the end of the procedure.
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What was Wundt’s technique?

Introspection Method Wundt described introspection as an objective analytic process that involves training people to self-reflect so that, when presented with external stimuli, they can explain their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and sensations.
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Who was known for his literary nonsense?

Composer and musician – Lear in 1887, a year before his death. His arm was bent as he was holding his cat, Foss, who leapt away. Lear primarily played the piano, but he also played the accordion, flute, and small guitar. He composed music for many Romantic and Victorian poems, but was known mostly for his many musical settings of Tennyson’s poetry.

He published four settings in 1853, five in 1859, and three in 1860. Lear’s were the only musical settings that Tennyson approved of. Lear also composed music for many of his nonsense songs, including “The Owl and the Pussy-cat”, but only two of the scores have survived, the music for “The Courtship of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bò” and “The Pelican Chorus”.

While he never played professionally, he did perform his own nonsense songs and his settings of others’ poetry at countless social gatherings, sometimes adding his own lyrics (as with the song “The Nervous Family”), and sometimes replacing serious lyrics with nursery rhymes.
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Who is the real father of literature?

Geoffrey Chaucer
Portrait of Chaucer (19th century, held by the National Library of Wales )
Born c.  1340s London, England
Died 25 October 1400 (aged 56–57) London, England
Resting place Westminster Abbey, London, England
  • Author
  • poet
  • philosopher
  • bureaucrat
  • diplomat
Era Plantagenet
Spouse Philippa Roet ​ ( m.1366) ​
Children 4, including Thomas
Writing career
Language Middle English
Period from 1368
  • Epic poem
  • lyric poem
  • short story
  • treatise
Literary movement Precursor to the English Renaissance literature
Notable works The Canterbury Tales

Geoffrey Chaucer (; c. 1340s – 25 October 1400) was an English poet, author, and civil servant best known for The Canterbury Tales, He has been called the “father of English literature”, or, alternatively, the “father of English poetry”. He was the first writer to be buried in what has since come to be called Poets’ Corner, in Westminster Abbey,

  • Chaucer also gained fame as a philosopher and astronomer, composing the scientific A Treatise on the Astrolabe for his 10-year-old son Lewis.
  • He maintained a career in the civil service as a bureaucrat, courtier, diplomat, and member of parliament.
  • Among Chaucer’s many other works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, and Troilus and Criseyde,

He is seen as crucial in legitimising the literary use of Middle English when the dominant literary languages in England were still Anglo-Norman French and Latin, Chaucer’s contemporary Thomas Hoccleve hailed him as ” the firste fyndere of our fair langage ” (i.e., the first one capable of finding poetic matter in English).
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What is Edward Lear’s most famous poem?

The greatest poems by Edward Lear selected by Dr Oliver Tearle Although he’s well-known as a pioneer of the poetic form known as the limerick, Edward Lear (1812-88) wrote a number of other classic poems which are among the finest examples of ‘nonsense verse’.

  • Here are five of Edward Lear ‘s best poems, along with some information about each of them.
  • The Owl and the Pussycat ‘.
  • The Owl and the Pussy-cat went to sea In a beautiful pea-green boat, They took some honey, and plenty of money, Wrapped up in a five-pound note This is probably Edward Lear’s most famous poem, and a fine example of Victorian nonsense verse.

It was published in Lear’s 1871 collection Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets, and tells of the love between the owl and the pussycat and their subsequent marriage, with the turkey presiding over the wedding. Edward Lear wrote ‘The Owl and the Pussycat’ for a friend’s daughter, Janet Symonds (daughter of the poet John Addington Symonds), who was born in 1865 and was three years old when Lear wrote the poem.

  1. The Courtship of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo ‘.
  2. On the Coast of Coromandel Where the early pumpkins blow, In the middle of the woods Lived the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bò.
  3. Two old chairs, and half a candle, – One old jug without a handle, – These were all his worldly goods: In the middle of the woods, These were all the worldly goods, Of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bò, Of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bò Many of Edward Lear’s greatest poems fuse comical absurdity with a strain of pathos, and this poem is a good example.

The Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo meets the woman of his dreams, but she is already betrothed to another, so they can only be friends. This pair of star-cross’d lovers then part at the lady’s insistence, and the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo rides a turtle across the ocean (as you do).

  • Well, what else is there to do when you’ve just had your marriage proposal rejected? Like the Dong below, here we have a solitary male voyager who is unlucky in love.
  • The Dong with the Luminous Nose ‘.
  • When awful darkness and silence reign Over the great Gromboolian plain, Through the long, long wintry nights; — When the angry breakers roar As they beat on the rocky shore; — When Storm-clouds brood on the towering heights Of the Hills of the Chankly Bore Another story of lost love, this time involving the titular Dong, a creature with a long glow-in-the-dark nose (fashioned from tree-bark and a lamp), who falls in love with the Jumbly girl (see below for more on the Jumblies), only to be abandoned by her.

Another classic Edward Lear poem that fuses absurd imagery with more than a tinge of melancholy. ‘ The Jumblies ‘. They went to sea in a Sieve, they did, In a Sieve they went to sea: In spite of all their friends could say, On a winter’s morn, on a stormy day, In a Sieve they went to sea! The Jumblies are also seafarers – they famously take to the sea in the sieve – but unlike the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo, they are a collective rather than a solitary traveller.

Their heads, we learn, are green, and their hands are blue. ‘ How Pleasant to Know Mr. Lear! ‘ He weeps by the side of the ocean, He weeps on the top of the hill; He purchases pancakes and lotion, And chocolate shrimps from the mill. He reads, but he does not speak, Spanish, He cannot abide ginger beer; Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish, How pleasant to know Mr.

Lear! Not many other Victorian poets were prepared to write about themselves in such a bold and gently mocking way, and this humorous poem by Edward Lear about Edward Lear is a joy. (T.S. Eliot would later turn the idea on its head in one of his ‘Five-Finger Exercises’.) We learn that Lear cannot abide ginger beer, and that Old Foss is the name of his cat, among other things., The author of this article, Dr Oliver Tearle, is a literary critic and lecturer in English at Loughborough University. He is the author of, among others, The Secret Library: A Book-Lovers’ Journey Through Curiosities of History and The Great War, The Waste Land and the Modernist Long Poem,
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Who was the greatest poet of nonsense?

Who is Edward Lear? – Born in 1812, Edward Lear is one of the most famous nonsense poets in the English language. He grew up in North London in a big family: his parents had twenty-one children, and Lear was the twentieth, though not all of his siblings survived infancy.

  1. Because of the family’s difficulties with money, after the age of four, Lear was raised by his eldest sister when they had to move out of their family home.
  2. Throughout his life, Lear was a misfit.
  3. Although he had many close, lifelong friends, biographers say that Lear’s intense love for his friends and family was never returned in quite the same way.

Unlike his famous Owl and Pussy-cat, Lear never married. Some of his biographers think he may have been in love with his friend Franklin Lushington; but Lushington didn’t feel the same way, and this tormented Lear for years. Lear also lived with lots of chronic illnesses, including epilepsy, bronchitis, asthma and depression (which he called ‘the Morbids’).

Because of the stigma of these illnesses, he felt ashamed all his life – especially because of his epilepsy, which wasn’t really understood by doctors at the time. But none of this stopped Lear from living a full life, travelling round the world and becoming a much-loved classic of the poetry canon, as well as a brilliant artist and musician.

Above all, Lear saw himself as an artist. He saw and drew so many different, magnificent landscapes across his life (see his Masada on the Dead Sea ) which probably influenced the nonsense landscapes in his poems. Travel and migration are themes in many of Lear’s most famous poems, like ‘The Jumblies’, ‘The Owl and the Pussy-cat’ and ‘The Dong with a Luminous Nose’,
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What is Edward Lear known for?

Edward Lear 1812–1888 | Tate Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, who is known mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised.

His principal areas of work as an artist were threefold: as a draughtsman employed to make illustrations of birds and animals; making coloured drawings during his journeys, which he reworked later, sometimes as plates for his travel books; and as a (minor) illustrator of Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poems.

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As an author, he is known principally for his popular nonsense collections of poems, songs, short stories, botanical drawings, recipes and alphabets. He also composed and published twelve musical settings of Tennyson’s poetry. : Edward Lear 1812–1888 | Tate
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When was nonsense poetry created?

Nonsense verse, or nonsense poetry, is lighthearted whimsical verse that is nonsensical by nature with prosodic elements of rhyme and repetition of phrases and made-up words. History of Nonsense Verse Nonsense verse rose to prominence with the nursery rhymes of Mother Goose dating back to the 17th century, and some historians of poetics may claim nonsense verse has been around as early as the 8th century CE.

Written to entertain and amuse mainly children, nonsense poetry defies semantic sense while still following grammar and structural rules to create work identifiable with poetry. The most well-known form of nonsense poetry is the limerick, which contains a strict rhyme scheme. Nonsense verse tends to be funny, interweaving literary devices such as personification, rhyme schemes, and metrical patterns to tell a story that appeals to readers of all ages.

The form’s signature is characterized by made-up words and simple rhymes with a general lack of meaning; however, nonsense verse is not merely a randomly strung-together collection of words, but a tightly crafted composition that embraces sound, rhythm, and play.

  1. An example of this, as well as the limerick form, is Edward Lear ‘s Book of Nonsense, originally published in 1846.
  2. A 19th-century nonsense poet, Lewis Carroll also used nonsense verse to resist interpretation and embrace the joy of prosody.
  3. In ” Jabberwocky,” the poem is famously known for its appealing rhyme scheme and reliance on made-up language–– “Beware the Jabberwock, my son The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!” In the 20th century, nonsense poetry reached new generations through the works by Shel Silverstein,

In his poem, ” Mr. Grumpledump’s Song,” Silverstein cleverly rhymes with a list of reasons that give inform the character’s name. In his poem, ” Sick,” the nonsense prevails: “I cannot go to school today,” Said little Peggy Ann McKay. “I have the measles and the mumps, A gash, a rash and purple bumps.
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Who invented the syllable?

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel ) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants ). Syllables are often considered the phonological “building blocks” of words,

  • They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic metre and its stress patterns.
  • Speech can usually be divided up into a whole number of syllables: for example, the word ignite is made of two syllables: ig and nite,
  • Syllabic writing began several hundred years before the first letters,

The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur, This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called “the most important advance in the history of writing “. A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog ) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic ).
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Why did Ebbinghaus study nonsense syllables?

Ebbinghaus chose nonsense syllables over words because he did not want meaning to shade his results. He assumed that meaning- ful stimuli would be more memorable than nonmeaningful stimuli, and he wanted a set of material that did not differ with respect to meaning.
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Why did Ebbinghaus use nonsense syllables?

Hermann Ebbinghaus was a pioneer of systematic psychological research and was one of the first to study higher mental processes in an experimental laboratory setting. Some of his methods would not pass muster today, mainly because his best-known experiment was limited to a single participant (himself).

Ebbinghaus studied memory by tracking his ability to learn and recall nonsense syllables (e.g. LUK, ZIM, BOQ) under varying conditions. He used nonsense syllables because he found that meaningful words were easier to remember and feared that familiarity could bias his results. Ebbinghaus showed that he required less time to re-learn a topic on subsequent memorization attempts, but that the time saving gradually leveled off.

Ebbinghaus’ experiments led to the concept of a forgetting curve, Ebbinghaus did not use the term. His curve showed retention rather than forgetting. Who Pioneered The Use Of Nonsense Syllables To Study Memory Ebbinghaus’ Retention Experiments – The Forgetting Curve trickle.app Ebbinghaus’ experiments are often interpreted as proof that there is an inexorable process of forgetting that occurs over time. But Ebbinghaus’ results cannot be generalized to other types of learning.

Characteristics of the learner

Prior knowledge Motivation of the learner Metacognitive awareness

Characteristics of the material being learned including

Type Complexity Coherence Meaning (vs. nonsense)

Context of the learning event

Learning strategies used Recall cues Frequency of retrieval Time between learning, repetition and testing The difficulty of the retention test

Learners can apply learning strategies that take advantage of these factors to improve their performance. Research has shown that retrieval practice enhances the retention of memories. Retrieval should feel challenging to achieve the best results, so retrieval attempts should be appropriately spaced and allow for some interference and forgetting to occur.
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What is Ebbinghaus’s theory?

What happens after your teaching session? Preventing forgetting through spaced practice – An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching. Mahatma Gandhi While the ideas given earlier can help to shape a positive teaching session, and grappling with scenarios can encourage strong cognitive connections with important knowledge, these connections are liable to be weakened if the material is not revisited and its application is not repeatedly practised.

A common weakness of so much training and education is to run the class or the ‘sheep-dip’ training event or the online session as a single, one-off event without any planned, later activity to promote reinforcement through spaced practice. This flies in the face of research into memory and forgetting which suggests that most of what we supposedly teach and learn is lost within minutes and hours.

In 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus, a German psychologist who pioneered studies of memory and learning, developed his thesis of the exponential nature of forgetting and the speed with which information is lost when there is no attempt to retain it. Ebbinghaus is known for his ‘ forgetting curve ‘ which suggests that people tend to continually halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they actively review the learned material, Figure 8.4, A typical representation of the forgetting curve. (Image by Icez, from the Wikimedia Commons.) If so many of our ‘traditional’ means of teaching and training are as unproductive as the forgetting curve suggests, how might we design some spaced practice into our genetics education and training to promote retention? Here are a few suggestions: • If you have more than one teaching or training session, beginning the session by requiring learners to apply what was covered in the previous session to a new scenario or context is a very worthwhile activity.

  • Use e-mail.
  • A group e-mail to all of your learners, pre-planned to be sent at a specific point in time after your teaching session, can push your learner to a reinforcement activity, which could be as simple as text in the e-mail, a link to an article, graphic, or video or a new scenario or piece of e-learning.

Any activity which prompts your learners to further thinking about, and application of, important knowledge will help to fix the learning in the long-term memory. • Use online discussion or social media. Set up a discussion board or an online group which you invite, or better still require, your learners to visit to grapple with a new question or scenario that you post for them.

  1. If you do not have access to any such tools and your learners are familiar with Twitter, you could create a hashtag for your course or session and then ask learners to respond to a question or activity, quoting the hashtag in each of their posts.
  2. When they click on the tag in any post, your learners can then see all of the posts containing the tag grouped together in one place.

The social media hashtag is a simple tool for keeping a group of learners together for some spaced practice, revisiting and rethinking a topic over time. The tone of voice and the approach adopted by BMJ Learning in its promotional e-mails about its online courses for medics offer an excellent, generalizable model for how both scenarios and spaced practice can be used to promote learning.

Several days after your teaching session, why not contact your learners with a piece of communication—with less clinical detail but with the same problem-focused approach—like the following opening paragraph of a BMJ Learning e-mail (24/11/2014). ” Dear Colleague, A 69 year old man attends your clinic for a CVD risk check.

He has a history of ischaemic heart disease and stenting four years ago. You are surprised to note that he has never been on a statin. His blood tests demonstrate chronic kidney disease stage 3a with an estimated GFR of 52 ml/min/1.73m 2, Which statin should you start him on and at what dose?” Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124201958000082
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