Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options?

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Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options
What does a volcanologist study?

  • Collecting samples.
  • Analyzing rock samples.
  • Performing computer models.
  • Monitoring volcanoes.
  • Studying the behavior of past volcanoes.
  • Reading and writing scientific papers.

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What tasks does a volcanologist do to study volcanoes?

Volcanologists are scientists who watch, record, and learn about volcanoes. They take photographs of eruptions, record vibrations in the ground, and collect samples of red-hot lava or falling ash.
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What do you need to study volcanoes?

There are many paths to becoming a volcanologist. Most include a college or graduate school education in a scientific or technical field, but the range of specialties is very large. Training in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, statistics, engineering, atmospheric science, remote sensing, and related fields can be applied to the study of volcanoes and the interactions between volcanoes and the environment.
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Where do volcanologists study?

Many volcanologists believe they have the best jobs in the world. They have the exciting chance to study active volcanoes in beautiful and often exotic places. The volcanologist’s work advances science, but also has direct importance to the lives of people who live near volcanoes.

  1. If a volcanologist says a volcano is not going to erupt, but it does, many people may die in the eruption.
  2. But if the volcanologist warns that it will erupt, many people will temporarily move away from their homes to safety.
  3. Volcanoes are complicated phenomena that can’t be understood without knowledge of the structure and chemistry of the Earth and its rocks, and the interaction of volcanic materials with air and water.

To really understand volcanoes it is necessary to study a number of sciences, but the most important is geology – the study of the Earth’s rocks. To be prepared to study geology at a university or college, students must take math and science classes when they are in high school and even in junior high school.

It seems unfair, but it is true, that how much you learn when you are in grade school and high school usually determines what you will be able to do during the rest of your life. If you want to become a volcanologist you must concentrate on your classes, even if other kids seem to spend all their time with sports or dating or other pastimes.

Don’t be a nerd; enjoy life, but also be serious about your studies! Here is a list of the types of courses to take in high school so that you will have the option to study volcanoes later in college if you want to. Take biology, chemistry, physics, and Earth science if available. Take algebra, trigonometry, and pre-calculus. Major in geology, taking courses in geomorphology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrology, structural geology, sedimentary geology, and remote sensing. If you go to a college in the American West, or in Hawaii or Alaska, you will probably see a lot of volcanoes and volcanic rocks during geology field trips.

If you want to be a volcanologist you can’t stop with just a bachelor of science degree in geology. With a B.S. your career choices are pretty much limited to being an assistant or technician. This might get you a chance to map volcanoes or analyze rock chemistry under somebody else’s direction, but your salary will be low and you will not have the chance to decide for yourself what volcano problems to study.

You have to go back to school to get a doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in geology. This will probably take four to five years of additional study and research after you have completed a B.S. The good thing about getting a Ph.D. is that you will be working with a group of other students and professors who are as excited about volcanoes as you are. After about a year of classes you will probably become involved in volcano research, and at the end of your graduate student days you will know more about one volcano or some volcanic process than anyone else in the world! You will write scientific papers and present talks to other volcanologists at scientific meetings.

  1. And you will start to look for a job.
  2. Many volcanologists in the US work for the U.S.
  3. Geological Survey, the government agency responsible for studying the nation’s geology and finding ways to utilize geologic resources, and ways to mitigate potential geologic hazards.
  4. The USGS operates three volcano observatories.

The oldest is in Hawaii, on the rim of the Kilauea volcano. Volcanologists there predict, monitor, and closely study the eruptions of Kilauea and the nearby Mauna Loa volcanoes. Another volcano observatory is at Vancouver, Washington, where Mt. St. Helens and other Cascade volcanoes are monitored.

In addition to working with the USGS, some volcanologists work in state geologic surveys, especially in states like California, Oregon, and Washington, where volcanoes are plentiful. But probably the largest number of volcanologists teach in university geology departments. Besides teaching occasional volcanology courses, most volcanologists teach other traditional courses such as petrology, geochemistry, and geophysics. University faculty have to be on campus most of the year, and thus they tend to do volcanic fieldwork during summer vacations.

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Why do volcanologists study lava?

Hot lava samples provide important information about what’s going on in a volcano’s magma chambers. We know from laboratory experiments that the more magnesium there is in magma, the hotter it is. Chemical analysis, therefore, provides the means not only to determine the crystallization history of lava but also to establish the temperature at which it was erupted.
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What are three things that volcanologists research when they study a volcano that could help them determine if and estimate when a volcano could possibly erupt?

Notable precursors to an eruption might include: Subtle swelling of the ground surface. Small changes in heat flow. Changes in the composition or relative abundances of fumarolic gases.
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What are 5 ways scientist monitor volcanoes?

View near-real-time volcano monitoring data using the ‘Find a U.S. Volcano’ menu above. Volcanic monitoring types and methods employed by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. Monitoring a volcano requires scientists to use of a variety of techniques that can hear and see activity inside a volcano.
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What are 4 benefits of volcanic eruptions?

‘It gives us really fertile soils, which are great for farming and crops.’ Volcanoes also provide a good environment for the formation of new habitats for animals, plants and insects, she said. Hot springs and geothermal energy are additional benefits.
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What type of rock do volcanologists study?

The Life of Volcanic Rocks During and After an Eruption Volcanoes are constantly growing and changing. Every time a volcanic eruption occurs, new rock is added to the surrounding area. These eruptions play a big part in the formation and destruction of rocks as well as in shaping the Earth’s surface.

Yet, we do not know everything about the histories of the volcanoes that previously existed on Earth. Volcanologists—scientists that study volcanoes—can study the types of rocks that volcanoes produce, to gain a better understanding of volcanoes. These rocks vary based on the characteristics of the volcano from which they came.

Volcanic rocks are unique because we can study them to accurately discover when and how they were formed. In this article, we explain the processes that make volcanic rocks and formations look different from each other. We also discuss ways that volcanologists can determine how ancient volcanoes were made, by studying the rocks produced during past eruptions.

While geologists are scientists who study all kinds of rock, volcanologists are geologists who focus on past and present volcanoes,, and, Volcanologists also study the rocks that volcanoes make, looking for clues to help them figure out how and when the volcanoes were formed. By figuring out the conditions that created volcanic rocks, volcanologists can learn about the history of a volcano and possibly predict whether a volcano will erupt again—and what will happen to the landscape and the people living nearby if it does.

The rocks surrounding volcanoes give us important data to calculate the volcano’s age and to help us answer questions about how the Earth was formed, including when volcanoes erupted and how explosive the eruptions were, The types of rocks that volcanologists spend their time studying are called igneous rocks.

  1. Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and hardens into solid rock.
  2. Molten rock is called magma when it is stored in a chamber beneath a volcano, but it is referred to as lava when it reaches the surface.
  3. Volcanoes are created whenever there is a break in the Earth’s crust that opens a pathway for magma and gas to escape.

Every time a volcano erupts, it changes in shape and size because the lava it releases cools and hardens around it. With time, this can make the volcano higher and wider. The largest volcano in the solar system is called Tamu Massif, located east of Japan at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean.

While its height is average, what makes this volcano so large is how far it spans outward. Tamu Massif spans over 553,000 square kilometers, making it larger than the entire country of Spain ! Volcanoes are classified by their shapes and where magma is stored within them, which both determine how magma tends to be released during eruption.

Some volcanic eruptions are violent, spewing molten rock and gases into the air, while other volcanic eruptions are less explosive but equally damaging, because lava flows out of the volcano and spreads over large distances. For example, shield volcanoes, like Tamu Massif, are the main type of volcanoes that make up the Hawaiian Islands.

Shield volcanoes have very fluid lava but do not have violent eruptions. If lava meets water, however, the interaction can cause the eruptions to become extremely explosive, The other three major volcano types are cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, and lava domes, all of which are much more explosive than shield volcanoes,,

The large differences in how volcanoes erupt affect the type of lava flows they produce.
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How do you experiment a volcano?

There She Blows! –

  1. Put a pile of baking soda on the baking sheet.
  2. Put a small amount of vinegar in the cup and add a drop or two of food coloring.
  3. Have your child use the spoon or eye dropper to drop (or just pour) a little vinegar solution onto a pile of baking soda and watch your volcano erupt!

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Do volcanologists use tools?

Collecting rock samples – The volcanologist’s standard tool is a rock hammer, which is used to chip off and collect samples from rocky outcrops. Volcanologists are looking for igneous rocks so that they can learn more about where these rocks have come from and whether they were formed during a volcanic eruption.
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What are the two types of volcanoes that volcanologists will study?

When magma erupts at the surface as lava, it can form different types of volcano depending on:

the viscosity, or stickiness, of the magmathe amount of gas in the magmathe composition of the magma the way in which the magma reached the surface

Strictly speaking there are two broad types of volcano, a stratovolcano and a shield volcano, although there are lots of different volcanic features that can form from erupted magma (such as cinder cones or lava domes) as well processes that shape volcanoes. In this section you can find out the difference between stratovolcanoes and shield volcanoes, as well as lava domes and calderas,
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What is important in volcanology studies?

Lava flows and Viscosity – Lava flows, viscosity lab, and rock samples are all activities that can be used to study volcanoes and volcanic processes in the laboratory or the field. Lava flows are a common feature of many volcanoes, and studying them can help volcanologists understand the physical and chemical properties of lava, as well as the processes that shape the landforms created by lava flows.

To study lava flows, volcanologists may collect samples of lava and analyze them in the laboratory using techniques such as microscopy, spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. They may also study the structure and composition of lava flows in the field, using techniques such as mapping and geochemical analysis.

A viscosity lab is a laboratory activity that involves measuring the viscosity of a fluid, such as lava. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow, and it is an important property of lava that affects the way it flows and the landforms it creates.

  1. To conduct a viscosity lab, volcanologists may use a viscometer, a device that measures the time it takes for a known volume of fluid to flow through a narrow opening.
  2. They may also use other techniques, such as rheometry or oscillation, to measure the viscosity of lava.
  3. Rock samples are another important tool for studying volcanoes and volcanic processes.

Volcanologists may collect rock samples from the field and analyze them in the laboratory to study the mineralogy, geochemistry, and structure of the rocks. This can help them understand the processes that formed the rocks and the history of the volcano,
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How do scientists study lava?

Scientists study lava for clues to how volcano will behave by Sophia Yan And Caleb Jones Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options This photo from the U.S. Geological Survey shows activity at Halema’uma’u Crater that has increased to include the nearly continuous emission of ash with intermittent stronger pulses at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii at around 9 a.m.

Tuesday, May 15, 2018. Plumes range from 1 to 2 kilometers (3,000 to 6,000 feet) above the ground. Officials on the Big Island of Hawaii say some vents formed by Kilauea volcano are releasing such high levels of sulfur dioxide that the gas poses an immediate danger to anyone nearby. (U.S. Geological Survey via AP) Whether spewing from the ground in red plumes or crawling in a fiery blob across neighborhoods, lava from the Kilauea volcano has produced the most arresting images of the recent eruption.

But not all lava is created equal, and the differences could offer hints about the volcano’s behavior.

  • For instance, the age of and the rate at which it bursts out can provide clues about the length and intensity of volcanic activity.
  • As the eruption sputters into a third week, scientists are examining lava samples and trying to understand what might be happening deep under the mountain. A closer look at the molten rock:
  • WHAT IS LAVA?
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Lava is molten rock, or magma, that reaches the earth’s surface in a slush of crystals and bubbles of volcanic gases. Its chemical composition includes silicon, aluminum, oxygen, and iron. Hawaii volcanoes are known for two main types of, The first, called a’a, is generally characterized by lava that flows fast and cools quickly, creating a jagged, rough surface.

The other type of lava is called pahoehoe, which cools more slowly and leaves a smooth, billowy surface as it creeps across land. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? Much of the lava that has emerged was thought to have been underground for decades, since a 1955 eruption, said U.S. Geological Survey scientist Steve Brantley.

That lava has bubbled up through about 20 fissure vents and forced thousands of people to evacuate. More than two dozen homes have been destroyed. Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options With members of the National Guard in the foreground, volcanic gases rise from active fissures near Pahoa, Hawaii on Tuesday, May 15, 2018. Most of the nearby Hawaii Volcanoes National Park remains closed to visitors due to ongoing seismic activity and the possibility of an explosion at the summit.

(AP Photo/Caleb Jones) But new samples collected this week are newer, younger lava, and scientists are working to understand the significance of that finding. “When this eruption first started (on May 3), one of the biggest outstanding questions was—is there new lava that’s being pumped into the volcano from deep within the earth, or is this old lava that has been sitting?” said Tracy Gregg, an associate professor of geology at the University of Buffalo.

“You can think of it as sitting in a bucket. Someone has pulled the plug on the bucket, and the bucket is draining down,” Gregg said. At the same time, there could be a “constant, slow production of new lava beneath Kilauea filling the bucket.” WHY IS THERE OLD LAVA? Magma is always lurking under the surface of Kilauea, but it won’t come out unless subterranean pressure pushes it out.

  • A crater on the volcano recently started “inflating,” which indicates the growing presence of lava in an underground reservoir.
  • Inflation can cause the land to bulge or deform.
  • Similarly, as magma leaves a chamber, potentially to erupt, the ground can also “deflate.” The inflation suggested pressure was building below ground.

The crater floor eventually collapsed, forcing magma that had probably been sitting there since 1955 up through the surface, said USGS scientist Wendy Stovall. Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options Lava shoots into the night sky from active fissures on the lower east rift of the Kilauea volcano, Tuesday, May 15, 2018, near Pahoa, Hawaii. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones) “If magma sits around for a little while, it becomes kind of old and sticky, and it forms crystals,” she said.

It’s really sluggish, and it’s not very voluminous in the way it comes out.” Indeed, the lava oozing out of the ground has been moving at a relatively slow pace as it destroys homes and covers roads. HOW IS NEW LAVA DIFFERENT? Younger lava is generally hotter and more liquid, as it has higher amounts of gas and fewer crystals.

“That creates a more fluid and dynamic lava at the surface,” Stovall said.

  1. This type of lava will flow faster, meaning it could more quickly cut off evacuation routes and take over neighborhoods with less warning.
  2. The volume of lava and the pace at which it erupts can provide some indication on the duration and intensity of an explosive eruption, Gregg said.
  3. A dramatic increase of lava splattering like fireworks from the ground might mean the volcano is just getting started and the eruption won’t end anytime soon.

Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options Lava shoots into the night sky from active fissures on the lower east rift of the Kilauea volcano, Tuesday, May 15, 2018, near Pahoa, Hawaii. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones) HOW DO SCIENTISTS ESTIMATE THE AGE OF LAVA? Scientists have been collecting lava rock samples to examine the crystals embedded within to look for a chemical “signature.” That allows them to compare previous samples collected at different times, Stovall said.

The comparisons could help shed light on the volcano’s inner workings, but researchers have not drawn any conclusions yet. Lava rock can even have a specific appearance and a unique collection of minerals that allow experts to infer a certain age or type of lava, Gregg said. Another test is to measure the rate of radioactive decay of certain elements in the rocks, also known as carbon dating.

© 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation : Scientists study lava for clues to how volcano will behave (2018, May 16) retrieved 25 April 2023 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-scientists-lava-clues-volcano.html This document is subject to copyright.
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How hot is lava?

Very hot!! Here are some temperatures recorded at different times and locations:

The eruption temperature of Kīlauea lava is about 1,170 degrees Celsius (2,140 degrees Fahrenheit). The temperature of the lava in the tubes is about 1,250 degrees Celsius (2,200 degrees Fahrenheit). The tube system of episode 53 (Pu’u O’o eruption) carried lava for 10 kilometers (6 miles) from the vent to the sea. The tubes contained the heat so efficiently that the lava was still a sizzling 1,140 degrees Celsius (2,085 degrees Fahrenheit) when it reached the ocean. The color of incandescent rock gives a crude estimate of temperature. Yellow indicates a temperature of about 1,000–1,200 degrees Celsius (1,832–2,192 degrees Fahrenheit). Orange indicates a slightly cooler temperature of about 800–1,000 degrees Celsius (1,472–1,832 degrees Fahrenheit). Red is even cooler, about 600–800 degrees Celsius (1,112–1,472 degrees Fahrenheit). The outer surface of erupting lava cools incredibly quickly (by hundreds of degrees per second) when it is first exposed to air.

Learn more:

Remotely measuring the temperature of Kīlauea lava How do lava flows cool and how long does it take? Magma: What’s hot and what’s not

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What are the 3 types of volcanoes according to volcanic activity explain and illustrate?

Volcanic eruption – Volcanic eruptions can create colorful and dramatic displays, such as this eruption of this volcano in the Virunga Moutains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Photograph by Chris Johns Which Tasks Does A Volcanologist Do To Study Volcanoes? Select Four Options A volcano is an opening in a planet or moon’s crust through which molten rock, hot gases, and other materials erupt, Volcanoes often form a hill or mountain as layers of rock and ash build up from repeated eruptions. Volcanoes are classified as active, dormant, or extinct.

  • Active volcanoes have a recent history of eruptions; they are likely to erupt again.
  • Dormant volcanoes have not erupted for a very long time but may erupt at a future time.
  • Extinct volcanoes are not expected to erupt in the future.
  • Inside an active volcano is a chamber in which molten rock, called magma, collects.

Pressure builds up inside the magma chamber, causing the magma to move through channels in the rock and escape onto the planet’s surface. Once it flows onto the surface the magma is known as lava, Some volcanic eruptions are explosive, while others occur as a slow lava flow.

  • Eruptions can occur through a main opening at the top of the volcano or through vents that form on the sides.
  • The rate and intensity of eruptions, as well as the composition of the magma, determine the shape of the volcano.
  • Volcanoes are found on both land and the ocean floor.
  • When volcanoes erupt on the ocean floor, they often create underwater mountains and mountain ranges as the released lava cools and hardens.
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Volcanoes on the ocean floor become islands when the mountains become so large they rise above the surface of the ocean. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
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What do volcanologists do on a daily basis?

What does a volcanologist do? A volcanologists’ work, to say the least, can be very exciting. When talking about his volcanology career, Robert Tilling states that “the present is the key to the past – In a sense, we’re detectives, trying to decipher clues that rocks tell us.” Another volcanologist, Ken Hon, says that being a geologist is kind of like “putting together the pieces of a puzzle.” Indeed, both geology and volcanology are very investigative types of work.

  1. There are new things waiting to be discovered constantly and a scientists’ application of these discoveries to everyday life is never-ending.
  2. Richard Fiske probably states it best when he says, “Once you get started in volcanoes, you become a junkie.
  3. The Earth is changing and you try to outfox it, understand its past activity and predict what it’s likely to do in the future.” While many may think, that a volcanologist’s work consists solely on the exciting, adventurous work performed at the lip of an erupting volcano, they would be wrong.

In fact, most of a volcanologists’ work is done studying the remains of either dead or dormant volcanoes, or by monitoring volcanoes that are dormany, but may become active or “reawaken.”. A significant portion of a volcanologists’ work is also done in the laboratory and office, analyzing rock samples, reading and writing scientific papers, performing computer modeling of various aspects of eruptions, and interpreting the data that they have collected from the field.

  • Basically, the goals of volcanology are to understand how and why volcanoes erupt, how to predict eruptions, their impacts on the history of the Earth and how they may affect humans and their environment.
  • It is also important for volcanologists to be able to interpret and publish/present their findings in such a way that it is easy for the general public to understand.

Essentially, volcanology can be broken down into four major groups of study. First, physical volcanologists study the actual processes and deposits of volcanic eruptions. Data gathered through this type of study gives volcanologists information about where and how volcanoes are likely to erupt, especially if nobody has seen them presently active.

Collecting this data is very time-consuming. Mapping of the distribution of the rocks that make up the volcano, as well as chemical and dating analyses of the samples, leads scientists to information concerning the volcano’s past. Second, geophysicists mainly deals with volcanic seismicity, gravity and magnetics.

Third, volcano geodesists look the ground deformation that occurs at prior to, during, and after volcanic eruptions. Lastly, geochemists deal with the makeup of the Earth as well as volcanic products, such as emitted gases. : What does a volcanologist do?
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How many volcanologists have died from volcanoes?

Research after St. Helens and death – In the years following the eruption, despite earning rapid fame and opportunities to research internationally in Japan, New Zealand, and Guadeloupe, Glicken still failed to obtain a job at USGS. Senior employees at the Survey found his behavioral oddities unsettling.

  • Activity at Mount St.
  • Helens diminished, prompting USGS to reduce CVO’s budget and contemplate closing the station.
  • He continued helping the Survey until 1989, also serving as an assistant researcher at the University of California at Santa Barbara.
  • From 1989 to 1991, Glicken continued his volcanological studies in Japan as a postdoctoral fellow at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, supported by grants from the U.S.

National Science Foundation, Later, while a research professor and translator at Tokyo Metropolitan University, Glicken became involved with research at Mount Unzen, The volcano had recently resumed eruptive activity in November 1990, after being dormant for 198 years.

  1. In the months after its first activity, it erupted sporadically, and the government evacuated its vicinity near the end of May 1991.
  2. On June 2, 1991, Glicken visited the mountain with Katia and Maurice Krafft,
  3. The three entered a danger zone near the base of the volcano the following day, assuming that any potentially hazardous pyroclastic flows would follow a turn in the landscape and safely bypass them.

Later that day, a lava dome collapsed, sending a large flow down the valley at 60 miles per hour (97 km/h). The current reached the turn before separating into two parts, and the upper, hotter part swiftly overcame the volcanologists’ post, killing them upon impact.

  1. In total, 41 or 42 people died in the incident, including press members who had been watching the volcanologists.
  2. The volcano burned down 390 houses, and the remains of the flow extended 2.5 miles (4 km) in length.
  3. Glicken’s remains were found four days later, and were cremated according to his parents’ wishes.

To date, Glicken and Johnston are the only American volcanologists known to have been killed by a volcanic eruption.
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What is important in volcanology studies?

Lava flows and Viscosity – Lava flows, viscosity lab, and rock samples are all activities that can be used to study volcanoes and volcanic processes in the laboratory or the field. Lava flows are a common feature of many volcanoes, and studying them can help volcanologists understand the physical and chemical properties of lava, as well as the processes that shape the landforms created by lava flows.

To study lava flows, volcanologists may collect samples of lava and analyze them in the laboratory using techniques such as microscopy, spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. They may also study the structure and composition of lava flows in the field, using techniques such as mapping and geochemical analysis.

A viscosity lab is a laboratory activity that involves measuring the viscosity of a fluid, such as lava. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow, and it is an important property of lava that affects the way it flows and the landforms it creates.

  • To conduct a viscosity lab, volcanologists may use a viscometer, a device that measures the time it takes for a known volume of fluid to flow through a narrow opening.
  • They may also use other techniques, such as rheometry or oscillation, to measure the viscosity of lava.
  • Rock samples are another important tool for studying volcanoes and volcanic processes.

Volcanologists may collect rock samples from the field and analyze them in the laboratory to study the mineralogy, geochemistry, and structure of the rocks. This can help them understand the processes that formed the rocks and the history of the volcano,
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