What Was The Primary Purpose Of The Bilingual Education Act In 1968?


What Was The Primary Purpose Of The Bilingual Education Act In 1968
Bilingual Education Act (BEA), U.S. legislation (January 2, 1968) that provided federal grants to school districts for the purpose of establishing educational programs for children with limited English-speaking ability. It was the first time that the U.S.

  • Government officially acknowledged that these students need specialized instruction.
  • The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) was an amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
  • Beginning in the late 19th century, millions of immigrants entered the United States, and many could not speak English.

Some state governments pushed for assimilation, requiring non-English-speaking adults to take English-language classes. Children went to public schools, where they were totally immersed in the English language and often punished for speaking their native language.

California and Texas established segregated public schools to accommodate the increase in Spanish-speaking children from Mexico, These schools concentrated on teaching English, but they had less funding than the schools for white non-Latino children and thus had inferior resources and underqualified teachers.

Under these conditions many immigrant children dropped out or received an education that limited job opportunities. In the ensuing years there were sporadic efforts to end school segregation, and these intensified in 1946 after a federal court ruled in Mendez v.

Westminster that the segregation of Mexican American students in California schools was unlawful. More lawsuits followed, culminating in the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of Education case, in which the U.S. Supreme Court found that racial segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This decision helped guide future educational policies toward equal opportunity,

The civil rights movement and passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964—intending to end discrimination based on race, colour, religion, or national origin—also furthered equality in education. Despite these developments, language difficulties continued to hamper the education of many Spanish-speaking students.

In 1967 U.S. Sen. Ralph Yarborough of Texas introduced a bill to help school districts educate students with limited English-speaking ability. This was a particularly important issue in Texas and other southwestern states, which were experiencing an increase in Mexican immigration. The bill recommended bilingual education—including Spanish and other native languages—and funding was designated for developing programs, training staff, and obtaining educational resources.

In 1968 U.S. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson signed the BEA into law, Over the years, the BEA underwent various revisions to meet the needs of students, parents, and teachers. For example, when first conceived, the act favoured school districts with high percentages of students from low-income families.

  • Funding was later broadened to include students from a wider range of economic groups.
  • The grants were also expanded to include more options for their use, such as for technical assistance and for the establishment of special training programs.
  • In January 2002 U.S. Pres. George W.
  • Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act,

It sought to improve public primary and secondary schools and, thus, student performance via increased accountability for schools, school districts, and states. For example, states were required to administer yearly tests in reading and mathematics to public school students and to demonstrate adequate progress toward raising the scores of all students. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen,
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What is the primary purpose of bilingual education?

In today’s interconnected world, learning to connect and communicate with people of different cultural backgrounds effectively is immensely important. The ability to speak multiple languages is essential to thriving in the global economy, and a bilingual approach to education has proven tremendously beneficial to students.

From increased cognitive function to a diverse array of economic opportunities, the advantages of bilingual education are undeniable. Teachers with a strong understanding of multicultural learning environments are in high demand, which makes the Master of Science in Curriculum and Instruction with a Specialization in Bilingual Education online program at Texas A&M International University (TAMIU) an exciting opportunity for individuals who want to lead their schools’ efforts in this area.

This fully online program allows working teachers to “explore strategies for providing developmentally appropriate emergent and holistic instruction in order to promote equity and academic excellence for all learners within the bilingual classroom.” As communities worldwide become more interconnected, the ability to speak multiple languages takes on increased importance.

  • Bilingualism is increasingly essential to surviving and succeeding in an integrated global economy.
  • Bilingual job applicants are more attractive to hiring managers, and employers are less inclined to lay off workers who speak multiple languages.
  • The value of an individual who can effectively communicate and collaborate across cultures is at an all-time high.

This means the need for skilled teachers who can implement bilingual education in the school is also steadily rising. There is a wealth of advantages, both mental and professional, to implementing bilingual education in schools. Numerous studies suggest that “fostering bilingualism, starting at the youngest ages, can have long-lasting and profound benefits,” Here are four of the most common and exciting advantages to implementing bilingual education.

Increased cognitive function

The cognitive benefits associated with bilingual education are nothing short of astounding. From higher test scores to surprising health benefits, the cognitive effects alone are enough to cement bilingualism as a permanent staple of the public school system. The following are just a few of the cognitive advantages to bilingual education :

  • Increased ability to solve problems, think creatively and recognize patterns
  • Improved academic performance
  • Enhanced linguistic awareness and understanding of an individual’s native language
  • Increased ability to apply concepts to novel situations
  • Delayed development, or increased resistance to, dementia
  • Improved focus and decision-making

Improved cultural and social skills

Exposure to two languages encourages students to develop an appreciation for the differences in cultures. Bilingualism is more than just the ability to speak more than one language — it’s a multicultural approach to interpersonal interactions that can dramatically improve an individual’s social skills.

  1. Bilingual education helps students effectively connect with people of different cultures and backgrounds, increasing their ability to empathize with others and promoting emotional intelligence.
  2. The power of effectively speaking multiple languages allows individuals from different cultures to interact on various levels — from music to literature to folk stories.

Essentially, it helps young people overcome the isolation associated with feeling like they can only exist within one geographic location or culture.

Economic advantages in the new global economy

No shortage of the economic and professional advantages accompany being able to conduct business in multiple languages efficiently. Bilingual college graduates are in high demand, and employees who can speak multiple languages frequently ascend to higher levels of the corporate structure than their monolingual colleagues.

  • Improved ability to conduct business in other countries
  • Enhanced ability to engage suppliers or contractors from specific language backgrounds
  • Increased expansion of existing business conducted in other countries.

Because the unique skill set associated with bilingualism is so advantageous to corporations, students exposed to bilingual education will have a wide array of professional opportunities available to them.

Improved memory and recall abilities

Studies suggest that bilingualism is associated with improved memory, One report notes that “the main reason suggested for bilinguals’ advantage is their need to process and manage the two languages, which are simultaneously activated whenever one of the languages is used.” Processing multiple languages simultaneously prompts the following memory-boosting physical changes to the human brain:

  • Improved overall brain function and health
  • Increased gray matter volume and density
  • Improved executive function
  • Strengthened connections between neurons

The Master of Science in Curriculum and Instruction with a Specialization in Bilingual Education online program at TAMIU is an exceptional program for teachers dedicated to preparing their students for success in the modern global community. This program is accredited by the Texas State Board for Educator Certification and can be completed in as few as 12 months.
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Why did Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough proposed the bilingual education Act of 1968?

Bilingual Education Act of 1968 Summary The Bilingual Education Act was the first federal legislation to address the unique educational needs of students with limited English-speaking ability (later called “limited English proficient”). It set the stage for further legislation regarding equality of educational opportunity for language minorities.

  1. From 1921 to 1965, immigration to the United States was significantly restricted by the national origin system, which placed a quota on the number of immigrants from any given country.
  2. Due to the specifications of the system, immigration from non-European nations was particularly restricted.
  3. In 1965, these restrictions were lifted with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act.

As a result of this new legislation, there was a significant increase in the number of immigrants from non-European countries, which had a profound impact on the face of the nation. The effects of increased numbers were felt in many societal institutions, and new issues arose with regard to integrating this diverse population into society.

The education system in particular experienced a significant shift in immigrant composition. Schools were faced with large numbers of immigrant children who did not speak English as their first language. Bilingual Education Act of 1968 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968 Bilingual Education Act of 1968 Elementary and Secondary EducationAct of 1968 LAWS;Bilingual Education Act of 1968 LANGUAGE ISSUES;Bilingual Education Act of 1968 EDUCATION;Bilingual Education Act of 1968 CHILDREN;Bilingual Education Act of 1968 In 1967, concerned about the academic performance and attainment of Spanish-speaking children, Senator Ralph Yarborough of Texas proposed a bill that would provide assistance to schools serving large populations of Spanish-speaking children.

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The bill would eventually be passed as an amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 and became officially known as the Bilingual Education Act of 1968. The act in its final form addressed the needs of any child of “limited English-speaking ability” (section 702).

  1. Through federal grants, assistance would be provided to school districts that wished to develop bilingual education programs.
  2. Funds could be used for program development and research, staff training, and educational resources.
  3. Schools serving high populations of low-income children were to be the primary beneficiaries.

The goal was to encourage school districts to incorporate native-language instruction. Participation was voluntary, and the government refrained from providing specific guidelines with regard to the types of programs to be developed. Although the Bilingual Education Act has been amended several times since its passage in 1968, some of the most substantial amendments were enacted in 1974.

These amendments were influenced by a Supreme Court ruling that year in Lau v. Nichols Lau v. Nichols, a case initiated on behalf of Chinese students in San Francisco’s schools. Because they had limited skills in English, the students were performing poorly in school. It was argued that they were therefore receiving an unequal education.

The Supreme Court agreed, stating that equal educational opportunity consisted of more than just equal educational treatment. The Bilingual Education Act was amended to address these concerns. The 1974 amendments clarified program goals, more clearly defined bilingual education programs, helped to establish regional support centers, and provided funding for efforts to develop the programs (curricula, staff, and research).

Anderson, Theodore. “Bilingual Education: The American Experience.” The Modern Language Journal 55, no.7 (1971): 427-440. Lyons, James J. “The Past and Future Directions of Federal Bilingual-Education Policy.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 508 (1990): 66-80. Wiese, Ann-Marie, and Eugene E. Garcia. “The Bilingual Education Act: Language Minority Students and U.S. Federal Educational Policy.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, no.4 (2001): 29-48.

Bilingual educationChild immigrantsEducationEnglish as a second languageEnglish-only and official English movementsImmigration and Nationality Act of 1965Language issues Lau v. Nichols Quota systems

: Bilingual Education Act of 1968 Summary
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What is meant by a bilingual education?

What is bilingual education? – Bilingual education is a term that refers to the teaching of academic content in two languages, in a native and second language. Varying amounts of each language are used depending on the outcome goal of the model.
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Were there federal educational language policies for ELS before 1968 in the US?

Prior to 1968, federal educational language policies regarding language minority students in need of English language development were non-existent. In most cases, schools ignored the needs of language minority students and simply placed them in English immersion or ‘sink-or-swim’ programs.
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What are the three goals of bilingual education?

Description Become a recognized national leader in Dual Language Programs with this first NABE Digital Badge that helps you align your district’s practices to the three core goals: (1) bilingualism and biliteracy, (2) academic proficiency in both program languages, and (3) socio-cultural competency.

Module 1: Understanding Three Core Goals of Dual Language Programs Module 2: Promoting the Core Goal of Bilingualism and Biliteracy Module 3: Promoting the Core Goal of Socio-Cultural Competence

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What are the goals of bilingual education in Texas?

What is the purpose of the bilingual education program? Bilingual education programs are designed to make grade level academic content accessible to English learners through the development of literacy and academic skills in the child’s primary language and English.
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What is the bilingual education policy?

The goal of bilingual education programs shall be to enable English language learners to become competent in listening, speaking, reading, and writing in the English language through the development of literacy and academic skills in the primary language and English.
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What was the first bilingual education program in the US?

By La Monica Everett-Haynes, University Communications Jan.15, 2008 Bess de Farber was a first-grader in Florida when her Coral Way Elementary School teachers informed the students that they would begin learning in both English and Spanish. It was 1963, and immigration from Cuba was causing a dramatic demographic shift in Miami.

  • As a result, Coral Way instituted conversational Spanish instruction before adding dual language instruction to its curriculum for both English and Spanish speakers.
  • It was a national first.
  • Although some schools had offered similar programs for those who spoke languages such as German and Italian, Coral Way became known as the nation’s first public school with a bilingual and bicultural education program for both English and Spanish speakers.

“I had no way of knowing this was such a big deal. Probably none of the kids had any idea how important it was,” said de Farber, grants and revenue manager for The University of Arizona Libraries and Center for Creative Photography. Eventually, the school’s program would influence legislation, pedagogy and other programs for decades to come, and still exists today.

Now, de Farber is working with College of Education and University library faculty and staff who plan on spending the year completing the first and most comprehensive recorded history about what happened at Coral Way, a project the group hopes will inform current discussions about bilingual education, particularly in Arizona.

The group intends to produce video and audio recordings with help from the UA’s library, which will digitize the information and make it available via the Web and add to the University’s repertoire of research and outreach efforts aimed at supporting Spanish-speaking populations as well as preserving and improving research on their histories and lives.

  • The Arizona Hispanic Center of Excellence and Media, Democracy & Policy Initiative are among them.
  • While historians are quite familiar with the importance of what happened at Coral Way, very little is known about how the school’s curriculum was written, what teaching materials were used and how the teachers handled the dual-language schedule, how the students were organized, what their families wanted out of the program and other points necessary to understand the program’s scope and impact.

The team’s to-do list includes figuring those things out. “One of the biggest questions in education these days is ‘How do you educate English language learners’? We need to look at models that worked,” said Richard Ruiz, a UA language, reaching and culture professor in the College of Education.

Shortly after Coral Way introduced its first class, the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 was passed, becoming the first federal legislation aimed at supporting bilingual students and English language learners. “We know that it worked at Coral Way, but we do not know how it worked,” said Ruiz, also a known expert on the history of bilingual education in the United States.

Miami had seen a tremendous influx of Spanish-speaking immigrant and refugees as a result of the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and Operation Pedro Pan, an early 1960s program that allowed Cuban parents to send their children to the United States to avoid communist indoctrination, resulting in more than 14,000 children being sent to Miami.

  • The program offered a way for the Spanish-speakers to maintain their culture during their stay in the United States, which was not meant to be a permanent one.
  • €œIt wasn’t just about speaking or writing the language, it was about studying in both languages,” said de Farber, who was already speaking Spanish at home as a first language.

“It was about making Spanish as equally important as English.” Her mother, who was from Argentina, helped to keep de Farber from losing her heritage, just as the Coral Way teachers did, she said. “After my mother passed, I loss connection with family in Argentina,” she said.

  1. It was through language – reading, writing and speaking – that I was able to rediscover those relatives.
  2. There is no price you can put on that.” Even today, she is able to interview former Coral Way teachers in English and Spanish.
  3. I could have lost my heritage, easily,” she said.
  4. I would be a completely different person.” That gets to another motive in the research project, which is toreverse the thinking that promoting bilingualism is a problematic approach, Ruiz said.

In much of the country, the word ‘bilingual’ has been expunged from policy. The perception is that bilingual education is ineffective, that it doesn’t work or that it creates a handicap maybe,” he said. “But it does work and has very good results.” Though the documented history of what happened at Coral Way is virtually nowhere to be found, a number of the school’s graduates and former educators are still living.

  1. Part of the research effort will be to track them down and interview the program’s first students and their teachers, collect their photographs and any other documents they may have – an effort de Farber and Ruiz have already begun.
  2. €œWe want to find out what the impact of going to the school had on adults 40 years later,” de Farber, who has already returned to Coral Way to sift through filed documents, letters and other paperwork dating back to 1960.

“We’ve discovered that information that has been written about the school is either incorrect in incomplete,” she said. “There is no documentation about what happened to us.” Bess de Farber was in the first Coral Way Elementary School class to begin learning subjects in Spanish. Now, she is part of a research project to document the bilingual education effort at the Florida school.1 of 3 Florida’s Coral Way Elementary School is still open.2 of 3 Bess de Farber’s father took this picture of her in 1962 in front of Coral Way Elementary School, the year before the historic program was introduced.3 of 3 Previous Next
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What is the difference between bilingual education and language education?

Earn Your MA in Bilingual/ESL Education Online – The University of Texas Permian Basin offers an online Masters of Arts in Bilingual/English as a Second Language Education program for teachers and administrators interested in a career educating ESL learners.

Spanish-speaking students pursuing an MA in bilingual education learn how to teach science, social studies, math, language arts, and reading in Spanish, whereas students pursuing an MA in ESL education are empowered with the skills needed to pass on their own English language skills to their pupils.

Upon completion of the program, students enrolled in UT Permian Basin’s MA in bilingual education program have the option of sitting for the Texas Bilingual Supplemental Exam, as long as they meet the other eligibility requirements. Whether you immerse your students in a new language or act as a bridge between two languages, our online program will empower you with the skills needed to teach any ESL learner who enters your classroom.
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What is the difference between bilingual education and dual language education?

Dual Language Programs Explained Submitted by Deborah C. Trejo, Bilingual Parent/Lawyer/Former Bilingual Educator What are Dual Language Programs? Dual language is a form of education in which students are taught literacy and content in two languages.

  • They are considered “additive” bilingual programs because they “add” a second academic language for students, instead of trying to extinguish a minority language and move a student to exclusively use English.
  • The majority of dual language programs in the United States teach in English and Spanish, although increasing numbers of programs use a “partner” or “minority” language other than Spanish, such as Arabic, Chinese, French, Hawaiian, Japanese, or Korean.

Dual language programs generally use the partner language for at least half of the instructional day in the elementary years. Dual language programs generally start in kindergarten or first grade and extend for at least five years, although many continue into middle school and high school.

These programs aim for bilingualism (the ability to speak fluently in two languages), biliteracy (the ability to read and write in two languages), academic achievement equal to or greater than that of students in non-dual language programs, and cross-cultural competence. Most dual language programs are located in neighborhood public schools, although many are charter, magnet, or private schools.

One-Way and Two-Way Dual Language Program Models One-Way Dual Language refers to the group of students participating in the program as being all from only one of the two languages used in the program model. One-way programs support one language group of students to become bilingual, bi-cultural, and bi-literate.

  • For example, students whose primary language is Spanish would learn in English and Spanish in a one-way dual language program model.
  • Another example would be for students whose primary language is English to learn together in Mandarin and English.
  • Two-Way Dual Language refers to the group of students participating in the program as being from both of the languages used in the program model.

Two-way programs support two language groups of students to become bilingual, bi-cultural, and bi-literate. For example, a mix of first language Spanish-speaking and English-speaking students would learn in both languages. Benefits of Dual language program Dual language is the only model that closes the academic achievement gap for English language learners (ELLs), those students whose first language is not English, through 12th grade (Thomas & Collier).

Research shows that in successful, strong one-way DL programs, ELLs begin to outperform those in traditional bilingual ed models beginning in 4th grade and they achieve an average of 50th percentile in tests of reading and writing in English beginning in the 7th grade (in traditional bilingual ed, ELLs never reach 50%) (Thomas & Collier).

Research shows that in successful, strong two-way DL programs, ELLs begin to outperform those in traditional bilingual ed models beginning in 4th grade and they achieve an average of 60th percentile in tests of reading and writing in English beginning in the 6th grade (Thomas & Collier).

  • Dual Language Programs:
  • – provides a means for students to stay connected to their own parents and extended families and thus, leads to less behavioral problems and long-term greater social and academic success.
  • – lets students be prideful that they are able to be connected to two cultures and languages.
  • – provides greater opportunities for careers in many fields such as medical, academic, business, communications, technology, law.

Furthermore, research also demonstrates that students who have low-social economic status (low-SES) and even students with learning disabilities in special education will significantly outperform their peers not in DL program. For low-SES African-American students, research shows that it is the most successful academic model at closing the academic achievement gap (Thomas & Collier).

  1. To learn more about the public dual language programs in your area, see the following sites:
  2. Austin AISD:
  3. Round Rock ISD: https://roundrockisd.org/departments/state-and-federal-programs/bilingual-education/

Leander ISD: http://www.leanderisd.org/default.aspx?name=ELL.DL : Dual Language Programs Explained
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Why was teaching foreign languages banned in the United States?

Many states prohibited teaching foreign languages during World War I – During World War I, a wave of nativism spread across the United States, aimed particularly at German-Americans. This nativism was further exacerbated by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917.
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What is the history of ELL learners?

History of English-Language Learners – The term “English Language Learner” was first used by Mark LaCelle-Peterson and Charlene Rivera in their 1994 study. He defined ELL students as students whose first language is not English, including both limited and higher levels of language proficiency.

  • The term ELL emphasizes that students are mastering another language, something many monolingual students in American schools may never attempt outside of the limited proficiency gained from foreign language class requirements.
  • In adopting the term, LaCelle-Peterson and Rivera gave analogies of other conventional educational terms.

The authors believed that just as we refer to advanced teaching candidates as “student teachers” rather than “limited teaching proficient individuals,” the term ELL underscores what students are learning instead of their limitations. Since 1872, an English-only instruction law had been in place in the United States.

  1. It was not until 1967, that the legislation was overturned by SB53, a policy signed for California public schools to allow other languages in instruction.
  2. A year later, after SB53 garnered support by the immigrant community, the Bilingual Education Act (Title VII) was passed.
  3. Nationally, public schools were then provided funding for programs that met the educational needs of ELL.

Not long after the installment of Title VII, the “taxpayers revolt” came to fruition and California’s Proposition 13 was drafted. It proposed funding cuts for large portions of California’s public schools, backed by those who disapproved of immigrant progress.

  1. In opposition to this, cases like Castaneda v Pickard fought for educational equality and standards focused on developing ELL students, as well as an overall sound plan for school districts.
  2. An additional setback occurred in California in 1998 when Proposition 227 passed, banning bilingual education yet again.

To combat this, education advocates in the Bay Area began to open all-inclusive schools to promote the acceptance of ELL students.
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When was bilingual education banned in California?

History – California has a history of diversity in linguistics due to its history and roots from Mexico and Spain, In 1960 the state of California passed a state legislation that changed bilingual education in the state. This legislation kept teachers from teaching both in Spanish and English equally.
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What are two approaches to bilingual education?

Maintenance bilingual education – In a maintenance bilingual education program, the goal is for students to continue to learn about and in both languages for the majority of their education. Students in a maintenance bilingual education program should graduate being able to have a discussion about any content area in either language.
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What is the two way model of bilingual education?

These key principles are: –

focus on core academic curriculum, include high quality language arts instruction in both languages with use of thematic units, complete separation of the two languages without use of translation or repeated lessons, use a 90/10 or 50/50 model, and use interactive and collaborative teaching strategies.

The school administrator is a key person to ensuring the fidelity of the model implementation and program principles and for creating a partnership between the school, parents and community to strengthen success. Finding quality dual language teachers has posed a challenge in many school districts.

  1. Teachers must demonstrate proficiency in the academic language of instruction in which they teach.
  2. Teachers also must be qualified to teach the grade level and content to the students with whom they are entrusted.
  3. All of these competencies must be in line with corresponding federal, state and local teacher standards.

Parents of dual language students should be educated in the process of dual language instruction. They must understand that language learning is a process and that the data show that results may take three to five years to reveal the full effect of the bilingual benefits.

Parents can be involved at many levels from supporting their own children to being advocates in the community about the program and its accomplishments. Parent, school and community partnerships strengthen all schools, especially dual language programs. Dual language programs must be evaluated through an ongoing and systematic review process.

Leadership is critical for ensuring that the program is well defined from the beginning and that there is schoolwide support and understanding of the program. This includes the secretarial, library, custodial, lunch-room and other school staff. Leadership needs to ensure that programmatic details are defined, well implemented and evaluated accordingly, both informally and formally at the appropriate times.

Dual language programs have been shown to be the most effective way to close the achievement gap between ELs and native English speakers. In a well implemented two-way dual language program this gap closure usually occurs by the fifth grade (Collier & Thomas 2009). Program administrators need to be aware that these benefits do take place but will not happen overnight.

Data collection should be conducted to document student progress in proficiency in both languages within the domains of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Academic achievement also must be assessed. Having a strong database illustrates stories of student success, provides feedback for improving the dual language program implementation, and builds support and credibility to continue this unique and incredible opportunity for students to become fully bilingual and biliterate.
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What are the characteristics of bilingual education?

Abstract – Bilingual Education is teaching an academic subject in two languages, i.e. a mother language (first language L1) and a second language (L2), with various amounts in an instructed program models. The early viewpoint about the brain tends to assert that learning an L2 negatively affects the L1 by dismissing it outside the brain, and it emphasizes that the idea of bilingualism creates a problem in the teaching process.

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The late researches on bilingualism disapprove the conclusions of the early researches come with and make it clear that persons who speak two languages (bilinguals) have cognitive merits much more than those who speak just one language (monolinguals). As for bilingual education in recent times, there are still contradictory opinions.

Some believe that learning the first language (L1) will not hurt the second one (English) and that new knowledge learned in L1 will gradually transfer to the second language, English. On the other side, some maintain that developing the L1 will essentially affect the learners’ progress in English learning if they don’t get full English immersion.

Moreover, bilingualism cannot obtain easily and that is all. To keep high-level bilingualism, learner of two languages (the bilingual person) needs to use both languages constantly and with great effort. Learning a foreign language leads to learning a different culture that widens understanding and develops humanity.

And the ability to use the second language and the second culture is considered a means to achieve creative capabilities.
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What is the strongest form of bilingual education?

Reading – Aims of bilingual education Bilingual education is a very ambiguous term which covers many different types of programmes and schools. Generally speaking, the term is mainly used to refer to those schools which teach all, most or at least some of the subjects through two languages and thus enable learners to achieve very good language proficiency in two languages.

  • These models are also called ‘strong’ forms of bilingual education.
  • On the other hand, there are also ‘weak forms’ of bilingual education which allow learners to use their home language for a limited period of time, but the ultimate objective is to replace their minority language with the dominant language.

Traditional foreign language learning in a regular school setting, however, is not seen as part of bilingual education. General aims of bilingual education ‘Strong’ forms of bilingual education, i.e. immersion bilingual education, heritage language education, two-way schools or Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) have several aims in common: 1) Bilingualism and biliteracy : ‘Strong’ forms of bilingual education aim to develop the learners’ language competence in both languages by increasing the contact time with the two languages and are therefore seen as an “additive” type of bilingualism.

  1. The objective is to reach levels of language achievement in both languages which are comparable to those of monolingual children.
  2. This would include the development of oral competence as well as of reading and writing skills.2) Content learning : All forms have in common that the target languages are not taught for their own sake, but that they are gradually acquired by teaching various subjects through both languages, for example, subjects like science or mathematics.

In addition to this, the idea is that in the long run the language development in both languages comes at no cost to the learners’ academic achievement.3) Bi- and multiculturalism : ‘Strong’ forms aim to strengthen cultural understanding and to foster cultural diversity.

  • Pluralism and cultural enrichment are important objectives, for example, in language heritage programmes.
  • On the other hand, ‘weak’ forms of bilingual education (e.g.
  • Submersion) usually attempt to integrate children as quickly as possible into mainstream society.
  • For example, in the context of immigration, the idea is to gradually move children from speaking their home language towards speaking the majority language.

This limited and transitional bilingualism often goes hand in hand with a process of assimilation and enculturation into the society of the dominant language. Specific aims Apart from these general objectives shared by ‘strong’ forms of bilingual education, they often differ with respect to other, more specific aims.

  • This is often due to the fact that bilingual education is not just about education or language proficiency in both languages.
  • As Baker (2011: 208) states: “There are sociocultural, political, and economic issues ever present in the debate over the provision of bilingual education, particularly politics”.

Quite often, it is the result of political decisions whether children speaking a minority language are allowed to be taught in their home language or not. If it is the government’s main priority to preserve the unity of a country, it usually attempts to assimilate ethnic minorities or immigrants into mainstream society, which means that no special consideration is shown for linguistic minorities in education.

On the other hand, if the government wishes to preserve the linguistic and cultural identity of a minority group or to give equal status to all languages and cultures in the country, it is very likely to promote bilingual education. In this case, the idea is to foster linguistic diversity, for example, by offering maintenance or heritage programmes.

In other cases, there may be a general trend in a society to opt for the teaching of an international language (quite often, English) in order to increase students’ opportunities on the job market. The following list shows the varying – sometimes even conflicting – purposes bilingual education may have (Ferguson et al.1977, Baker 2011: 208) which may eventually lead to very different models of bilingual education as a result of different political intentions:

Varying Aims of Bilingual Education
  1. To assimilate individuals or groups into the mainstream of society; to socialize people for full participation in the community.
  2. To unify a multilingual society; to bring unity to a multi-ethnic, multi-tribal, or multi-national linguistically diverse state.
  3. To enable people to communicate with the outside world.
  4. To provide language skills which are marketable, aiding employment and status.
  5. To preserve ethnic and religious identity.
  6. To reconcile and mediate between different linguistic and political communities.
  7. To spread the use of a colonial language, socializing an entire population to a colonial existence.
  8. To strengthen elite groups and preserve their privileged position in society.
  9. To give equal status in law to languages of unequal status in daily life.
  10. To deepen an understanding of language and culture. (adapted from Baker, 2001, p.193)

Based on the varying objectives three general objectives of bilingual programmes can be distinguished:

General Objective Type of programm Language goals/outcome Status of languages Students

Learning a majority language through Bilingual Education

a) Submersion (Limited/ transitional) bilingualism, monolingualism Minority/majority Minority
b) Two way-immersion Bilingualism Minority/majority Minority/ majority

Learning an indigenous or a minority language through Bilingual Education

Heritage bilingual education Bilingualism, language maintenance, language revitalization Minority/majority Minority

Learning an International Language through Bilingual Education

Foreign language immersion (e.g. at International schools) Bilingualism Majority/international Majority

Sources: Baker, Colin ( 5 2011): Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Elsner, Daniela & Keßler, Jörg-Uwe (2013) (eds.): Bilingual Education in Primary School: Aspects of Immersion, CLIL, and Bilingual Modules,
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What is an example of a bilingual education?

What is bilingual education? – For us, bilingual education means that learners study typical school subjects – for example, maths or geography – through an additional language (such as English) and some subjects through their first language, or they may study the same subject through two languages.
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What is the main purpose of ESL and bilingual methods of teaching?

It seems that many people use English as a Second Language (ESL) and Bilingual Education are one in the same, but they most assuredly are not. To help understand the differences, use the Venn Diagram below. ESL programs help students who have limited English proficiency. The objective is to help students who do not identify English as their primary language learn English. These programs are extremely important, as the teacher strives to help students acquire English proficiency in order to succeed academically in English-based curriculum schools.

It’s important to note that the students in the class may not all share the same native language. For this reason, the teacher addresses the class only in English. The coursework in the program focuses on teaching the four language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Many ESL students come from countries outside North America or celebrate different cultures.

ESL teachers also strive to help students integrate into society and understand local customs, norms and values, while not replacing students’ own customs, norms, and values. The importance of ESL is reflected in the fact that many districts even require all elementary teachers to have an ESL certification. Bilingual Education teachers instruct in two different languages. The educator focuses on teaching content in both languages, such as geography, history, math, etc. While English is used as one language of instruction, students are not specifically taught English language lessons.

By incorporating both the use of English and the students’ native language equally, their English language skills will continue to develop and strengthen. The goal of bilingual classroom instruction is to help students become fluent in both languages. Like ESL classrooms, students may also come from different cultural backgrounds.

Teachers should be mindful of this and help all students feel comfortable, respected and valued in the classroom. Both ESL and Bilingual Education teachers are in high demand. In a rapidly diversifying world, the use of English is on the rise. Since 1965, the number of immigrants in the U.S. has quadrupled ; this means many students are entering our school systems without the simple tools needed to succeed, such as understanding the language of instruction – English. Here at Texas Teachers, we understand the importance and value of ESL and Bilingual Teachers. Mexican immigrants represent the largest group of U.S. immigrants, which is why our efforts are primarily focused on certifying more English-Spanish bilingual teachers. If you need more inspiration to become an ESL or Bilingual teacher, both of which promote bilingualism, check out this list of qualities attributed to bi- or multilingual speakers:

Increased chance of getting hired Higher salary Advanced cognitive skills Bridges cultural and heritage gaps Easier to learn additional languages Improved pragmatic skills Multicultural sensitivity

bilingual, ESL Up Next
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What is the purpose of bilingual assessment?

About the bilingual assessment service (BAS) – Before accessing the BAS, consider ESOL funding and follow that process. A bilingual assessment evaluates a student’s functioning and achievement in their first language and collects information which might be affecting the child’s performances at school (for example: social and emotional health).

Over 75 Resource Teachers: Learning and Behaviour (RTLBs) around the country are trained to do these assessments. They work with a bilingual support person and will recommend ways to help support the students. A bilingual assessment can distinguish between language learning needs, additional special learning needs and social/emotional needs, through dual assessment in the student’s first language and English. The BAS is funded by the Ministry of Education. There is no cost to your school.

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